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HIST364: Environmental History

Unit 5: Industrialization   World industrialization began in England in the eighteenth century and spread to other countries and regions in Europe and the America.  Marked especially by the burning of fossil fuels for energy, intensive agriculture, the industrial revolutions fundamentally reorganized society, hugely increased pollution, contributed to massive deforestation (especially in the United States), and launched a wave of internal migration to urban areas, international immigration to the Americas, and forced transportation to Australia.  Industrialization also contributed to secularization and the rise of experimental science, social science, scientism, professionalization, colonization, modern urbanization, formation of both a middle class and a working class, and political reaction to degraded and immiserating conditions.  Industrialization fundamentally reorders societies and dramatically impacts environments and economies.  Industrialization as a process continues at various speeds around the world.  This unit will explore how industrialization was burgeoning with the rapid growth in scientific knowledge and technological inventions.  You will analyze the social, economic, political, and environmental significance of industrialization.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 23.25 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 3.75 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.3: 9 hours

☐    Introduction: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 5.3.1: 0.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 5.3.2: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 5.3.3: 2.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 5.3.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 5.3.5: 2.25 hours

☐    Subunit 5.4: 4.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 5.4.1: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 5.4.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 5.4.3: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 5.4.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.5: 3.5 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Identify the historical contexts of the British and American industrial revolutions. - Assess the human and social impact of new technologies, overcrowding, and artificial power generation. - Define modern urbanization and its environmental and human consequences. - Investigate how industrializing societies used science to study and manipulate their environment. - Explain the beginnings of environmental reform.

5.1 The Industrial Revolution in the U.K.   - Reading: Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: Joseph A. Montagna’s “The Industrial Revolution” Link: Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: Joseph A. Montagna’s “The Industrial Revolution” (HTML)

 Instruction: Please click on the link above, and read the article
in its entirety.  Joseph A. Montagna provides an excellent overview
of the Industrial Revolution as well as suggested sources for a
further understanding of this era that led to drastic changes of the
world.  This resource covers the topics outlined in subunits 5.1
through 5.5.  

 A careful reading of this overview and taking notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Clemson University: Pamela E. Mack’s “The British Industrial Revolution” Link: Clemson University: Pamela E. Mack’s “The British Industrial Revolution” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read the outline on this webpage.  This resource covers the topics outlined for subunits 5.1 through 5.5.

    This reading should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.1.1 Greater Dependence on Commercial Agriculture   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’ The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 17: Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England” Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’ The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 17: Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the lecture
in its entirety.  In his lecture, Dr. Kreis talks about the
historical conditions of the Industrial Revolution in England in
agriculture, transportation, communications, and technology.  

 Studying this lecture should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Oxford University’s Department of Economics: Liam Brunt’s “‘Where There’s Muck There’s Brass’: The Market for Manure in the Industrial Revolution” Link: Oxford University’s Department of Economics: Liam Brunt’s “‘Where There’s Muck There’s Brass’: The Market for Manure in the Industrial Revolution” (PDF)

    Instructions: Note that this reading is optional.  Please scroll down the webpage to item number 35, and click on the article’s title to download the PDF.  Please read the essay in its entirety (31 pages total).

    Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.1.2 New and Artificial Means of Energy Production   - Reading: Vox: Professor Tony Wrigley’s “Opening Pandora’s Box: A New Look at the Industrial Revolution” Link: Vox: Professor Tony Wrigley’s “Opening Pandora’s Box: A New Look at the Industrial Revolution” (HTML)

 Instruction: Please click on the link above, and read the article
by Professor Tony Wrigley.  This article discusses the energy
breakthrough, basically the substitute of coal (and iron) for wood,
which made the transition from an agrarian to an industrial society
possible.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.1.3 Health Impact   - Reading: Scottish Mining’s version of George Steele, Esq.’s “On the Expectoration of Black Matter from the Lungs” Link: Scottish Mining’s version of George Steele, Esq.’s “On the Expectoration of Black Matter from the Lungs” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the entire primary source document.  A
Scottish doctor records the two causes for expectorating black
matter from the lungs.  In one case, miners simply spit out the
aspirated coal dust; the other is a pulmonary disease that would
come to be known as “black lung” or pneumoconiosis.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.1.4 Environmental Impact   - Reading: University of California, Irvine: Dr. Barbara J. Becker’s version of Michael Faraday’s “Observations on the Filth of the Thames: A Letter to the Editor of the Times of London” Link: University of California, Irvine: Dr. Barbara J. Becker’s version of Michael Faraday’s “Observations on the Filth of the Thames: A Letter to the Editor of the Times of London” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read this entire primary source.  In this
letter, British scientist Michael Faraday complains about the
polluted condition of the River Thames in London.  He observes that
the river is filthy and has a putrid smell.  He questions why city
authorities allow the river to serve as a receptacle for raw sewage
and industrial waste and warns that the Thames’ polluted condition
will eventually lead to health risks for city residents.  

 This reading should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.2 Population and the Industrial Revolution   5.2.1 Malthusian Population Pressures   - Reading: iTunes U Booklet: Lüdwig-Maximilians-Universität München: John Komlos’ “The Industrial Revolution as the Escape from the Malthusian Trap” Link: iTunes U Booklet: Lüdwig-Maximilians-Universität München: John Komlos’ “The Industrial Revolution as the Escape from the Malthusian Trap” (iTunes)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to the
title “The Industrial Revolution as the Escape from the Malthusian
Trap,” and click on the “View in iTunes” tab on the right.  The
booklet will download in iTunes.  Double-click on the title to open
the booklet as a PDF.  Read this entire document (20 pages, not
including References page).  

 Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.2.2 European Migration   - Reading: Casa Historia: J. Williams’ World Mass Migration: “Chapter 4: What Drove European Emigration?” Link: Casa Historia: J. Williams’ World Mass Migration: “Chapter 4: What Drove European Emigration?” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the hyperlink of the title “What
Drove European Emigration?” under “Section 2. Reasons for
Emigration” to open the PDF.  Please read the entire document (31
pages total).  Enclosure of formerly communally-shared land forced
many farm families to look for work in Europe’s cities.  This
population shift was both a cause and effect of industrialization. 
Population growth and density demanded increasingly intense
agriculture, which in turn pushed subsistence farmers off the land. 
Industrialization created jobs for the refugees but only the lowest
wage jobs, which left families in immiserating conditions.  Even
though they were often ultimately illusory, successes reported in
overseas colonies pulled families to leave their home countries to
seek better conditions overseas.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.3 Industrial Revolution in the United States   - Reading: University of Houston’s Digital History: “Guided Readings: The Making of Modern America” Link: University of Houston’s Digital History: “Guided Readings: The Making of Modern America”(HTML)

 Instructions: Please read all seven webpages: “The Wizard of Menlo
Park,” “An Age of Innovation,” “The Birth of Modern Culture,” “The
Revolt against Victorianism,” “The Rise of Mass Communication,”
“Commercialized Leisure,” and “The University.”  You may click on
each individual hyperlink from the main contents page, or you may
click on the “next” hyperlink to navigate to each subsequent
webpage.  This resource applies to subunits 5.2.1 through 5.2.4.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.3.1 Machine Versus the Garden   - Reading: University of Virginia Crossroad Project: Kathryn Peltier’s “Pastoralism” Link: University of Virginia Crossroad Project: Kathryn Peltier’s “Pastoralism” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the definition in its entirety.  Literary
critic, Leo Marx, put forth a theory of American development in his
pivotal text *The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral
Ideal.*  Although his method and conclusions are not universally
accepted, his idea that the United States was romanticized at the
end of the nineteenth century as an unspoiled pastoral paradise has
much merit.  Although the United States emerged from its industrial
period as a world economic power, in the early days, people debated
industrialization as being counter to America’s essential nature as
a nation of yeomen farmers and great natural beauty.  This
description also applies to all readings in sub-subunit 5.3.1.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: University of Virginia Crossroads Project: “Re-viewing Nature; Machines and Industry; Greek Revival Architecture” Link: University of Virginia Crossroads Project: “Re-viewing Nature; Machines and Industry; Greek Revival Architecture” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read the entire webpage, and view the images carefully.  In this article, the author examines the ideas of nature and the transformation of humans-nature relationship in eighteenth and nineteenth century America.  Pay special attention to the theory of “sublime” and how technology played a role in such a transformation.

    Studying this material should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.3.2 Human Impact of New Technologies   - Reading: Radford University: Mark Neuzil and Bill Kovarik’s Mass Media & Environmental Conflict: “Chapter 8: The Radium Girls” Link: Radford University: Mark Neuzil and Bill Kovarik’s Mass Media & Environmental Conflict: “Chapter 8: The Radium Girls” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
webpage.  The rate of technological innovation and invention
skyrocketed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in
the U.S.  Labor practices, however, remained exploitative and
unsafe.  New discoveries were not thoroughly investigated before
being sent for manufacturing.  Lacking any governmental regulation
of industry under concept of laissez faire capitalism, safety
concerns for workers were left up to individual conscience.  The
press, however, was situated to raise the alarm of harmful
practices.  This chapter explores the role of the press in exposing
the danger to workers in manufacturing that used the newly
discovered element radium.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.3.3 Ideology and the 1930s U.S.   - Reading: Kansas State University: Donald Worster’s “Agrarianism and Nature” Link: Kansas State University: Donald Worster’s “Agrarianism and Nature” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read entire
webpage.  Noted environmental historian Donald Worster discusses the
idea of “agrarianism,” which he defines as agriculture turned into a
moral ideology.  British settlers in the U.S. long believed that
“improving” the land gives it value.  Because Native Americans did
not fence (enclose) and plow the land but rather shared the land
communally for hunting or horticulture, colonists believed that they
gave the land value by farming it and thus earned the right to claim
ownership.  This idea that agriculture itself somehow bestows moral
right in a given situation was fed by the yeoman ideal of Thomas
Jefferson.  The 1930s disaster in the Midwest showed the limits of
believing that farming itself is a moral right.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Reading Quiz for Donald Worster’s ‘Agrarianism and Nature’” and “Guide to Responding to Reading Quiz” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Reading Quiz for Donald Worster’s ‘Agrarianism and Nature’” (PDF) and “Guide to Responding to Reading Quiz” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please download the reading quiz for Worster’s “Agrarianism and Nature,” the first reading in sub-subunit 5.3.4.  Please follow the directions on the attached quiz.  Then, download and review the “Guide to Responding to the Reading Quiz.”  Note: This quiz was developed for the Saylor Foundation by Kate Sampsell-Willmann.

    Completing this assessment and reviewing the “Guide to Responding” should take approximately 1 hour.

  • Reading: Kate Sampsell’s “Broken Land: The Dust Bowl as Moral Failing” Link: Kate Sampsell’s “Broken Land: The Dust Bowl as Moral Failing” (HTML or PDF)

    Instructions: Note that this reading is optional.  Please read the linked article.  This review essay, originally published in American Quarterly 55 (Winter 2003), 761–69, discusses the Dust Bowl of the 1930s in the tradition of Donald Worster’s “Agrarianism and Nature.”

    Studying this material should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Wessel’s Living History Farm, York, Nebraska: “Farming in the 1930s” Link: Wessel’s Living History Farm, York, Nebraska: “Farming in the 1930s” (HTML and QuickTime)

    Instructions: Explore the entire section on farming in the 1930s and listen to the oral history interviews.

    You should dedicate approximately 30 minutes to exploring this resource.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.3.4 Balancing Technological and Environmental Change   - Reading: San Diego State University’s World History for Us All: “The Half Century of Crisis: 1900–1950 CE” Link: San Diego State University’s World History for Us All: “The Half Century of Crisis: 1900–1950 CE” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please scroll down to the chart at the bottom of the
webpage, and click on the hyperlink titled “Complete Teaching Unit
PDF Format” for item 8.7 titled “Environmental Change: The Great
Acceleration” to open the PDF.  Please read the entire document (39
pages total).  Focus on “Lesson 1” and “Lesson 2” of this
document.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.3.5 Progressive-Era Environmental Reform   - Reading: H-Net: Gregory J. Dehler’s “The Progressive Era Environmental Values” Link: H-Net: Gregory J. Dehler’s “The Progressive Era Environmental Values” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read Dehler’s whole review of David Stradling,
ed.’s *Conservation in the Progressive Era.*  Historian Gregory J.
Dehler outlines the areas of environmental action that concerned
progressives in the period 1890–1916.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.3.5.1 Forests and Public Land   - Reading: The Sierra Club’s version of Theodore Roosevelt’s “John Muir: An Appreciation” Link: The Sierra Club’s version of Theodore Roosevelt’s “John Muir: An Appreciation” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read this excerpt of the primary source
document, originally published in *Outlook* 109 (January 16, 1915),
pp. 27-28.  Theodore Roosevelt, John Muir, and Gifford Pinchot are
the three biggest names in the Progressive-Era movement to set aside
public lands for conservation.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: YouTube: National Forest Service’s “The Greatest Good, Part I” and “The Greatest Good, Part II” Link: YouTube: National Forest Service’s “The Greatest Good, Part I” and “The Greatest Good, Part II” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please click on the links above, and view both videos in their entirety.

    Viewing these videos and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

5.3.5.2 Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency   - Reading: Fordham University: Rucha Desai’s “Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency” Link: Fordham University: Rucha Desai’s “Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
article for a concise version of Samuel Hays’ book *Conservation and
the Gospel of Efficiency,* which examines the Conservation movement
in the U.S. in the second half of the nineteenth century.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.4 Modern Urbanization   5.4.1 Rapid Growth of Industrial Cities   - Reading: Project Gutenberg’s version of Frederick Engels’ The Condition of the Working Class in England: “The Great Towns” Link: Project Gutenberg’s version of Frederick Engels’ The Condition of the Working Class in England: “The Great Towns” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read this entire
section titled “The Great Towns.” (pp. 23-74)   Pay special
attention to Engels’ description of industrial cities: London,
Glasgow, Dublin, and Manchester.  Scan through the rest of the
text.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Bartleby’s version of Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York: “The Genesis of the Tenement” Link: Bartleby’s version of Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York: “The Genesis of the Tenement” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read this entire webpage. 

    Studying this material should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.4.2 Environment and Social Impact   - Reading: PBS: Africans in America: “Growth and Entrenchment of Slavery: The Cotton Gin” Link: PBS: Africans in America: “Growth and Entrenchment of Slavery: The Cotton Gin” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
short entry.  The article reexamines the myth of the cotton gin as a
uniformly beneficial invention and points out that it was the tool
by which cotton growing could be made enormously profitable.  The
cotton gin led to “King Cotton” dominating the agricultural South’s
economy, for which a large labor force was needed.  Unfortunately,
that labor force was enslaved.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Library of Economics and Liberty: Clark Nardinelli’s “Industrial Revolutions and the Standard of Living” Link: Library of Economics and Liberty: Clark Nardinelli’s “Industrial Revolutions and the Standard of Living” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article.  This text explores the question of whether industrialization contributed to the betterment of the human condition or in fact worsened it.

    Studying this material should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.4.3 Response to Ecological and Environmental Problems   - Reading: The Atlantic: Sage Stossel’s “Landscape Artist: A Conversation with Witold Rybczynski” Link: The Atlantic: Sage Stossel’s “Landscape Artist: A Conversation with Witold Rybczynski” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the entire webpage, which includes an
introduction to the biography of Frederick Law Olmsted, *A Clearing
in the Distance,* and Sage Stossel’s interview with the biographer,
Rybczynski.  Landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted is widely
accepted as the leading figure in urban landscape architecture and
father of the city parks idea.  He added green spaces to cities
during America’s Gilded Age (1880-1900) to meliorate some of the
environmental degradation, congestion, and ill health effects of
densely packed industrial centers.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: National Park Service: Dwight T. Pitcaithley’s “Philosophical Underpinnings of the National Park Idea” Link: National Park Service: Dwight T. Pitcaithley’s “Philosophical Underpinnings of the National Park Idea” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article.

    Studying this material should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.4.4 Regulation and Planning Versus Laissez Faire Development   - Reading: Bartleby’s version of Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York: “How the Case Stands Now” Link: Bartleby’s version of Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York: “How the Case Stands Now” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
linked webpage.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Slate: Witold Rybczynski’s “Suburban Despair: Is Urban Sprawl Really an American Menace?” Link: Slate: Witold Rybczynski’s “Suburban Despair: Is Urban Sprawl Really an American Menace?”  (HTML)

    Instructions: Note that this reading is optional.  Please click on the link above, and read this entire article, in which urban historian Witold Ryncznski examines urban sprawl in its historical context and concludes that it is not unique to modern societies.

    Studying this material should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.5 Science and the Environment   5.5.1 Harnessing the Power of Nature   - Web Media: The History Channel: “Tennessee Valley Authority: Nature’s Power Harnessed” Link: The History Channel: “Tennessee Valley Authority: Nature’s Power Harnessed” (Flash)

 Instructions: Please watch this brief 3-minute video on the History
Channel’s website.  Please note that the video will automatically
begin after a brief 10-second advertisement.  

 Viewing this video and pausing to take notes should take less than
15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Telosnet: Darrell M. Dodge’s “Illustrated History of Wind Power Developments: Part 2, 20th-Century Developments” Link: Telosnet: Darrell M. Dodge’s “Illustrated History of Wind Power Developments: Part 2, 20th-Century Developments” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article (2 pages).  Make sure to click on “next” at the end of the webpage to continue on to the second page of the article.

    Studying this material should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Bicycle City: “Alternative Energy Pioneers” Link: Bicycle City: “Alternative Energy Pioneers” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article.

    Studying this material should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.5.2 Modifying the Environment   - Web Media: The Open University: “Environmental Ethics” Link: The Open University: “Environmental Ethics” (HTML and iTunes)

 Instructions: Read the introduction, and under the “Tracks in this
Podcast” section, click on the links to tracks 2-6: “The Dairy
Farmer,” “The Crop Scientist,” “The Activist,” “The Organic Farmer,”
and “GM: Points of View.”  After clicking on each hyperlink to go to
the videocast, please also click on the “Read a Transcript of this
Track” hyperlink on each webpage for accompanying text.  Each track
is about 2-4 minutes in length.  

 Studying this resource should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.5.3 Studying the Environment   - Reading: National Park Service: Adam Rome’s “Conservation, Preservation, and Environmental Activism: A Survey of the Historical Literature” Link: National Park Service: Adam Rome’s “Conservation, Preservation, and Environmental Activism: A Survey of the Historical Literature” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please review this entire annotated bibliography.  

 Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Army Corps of Engineers: Institute for Water Resources’ “The 1978 Water Conservation Study” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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