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HIST364: Environmental History

Unit 4: The Columbian Exchange   European exploration of the Americas began in the 10th century CE with the voyages of Viking Leif Eriksson.  Although the settlement of what is now Newfoundland failed after about sixty years, the Norse, as well as the Portuguese, fished the area around the Grand Banks for the next 800 years.  Permanent settlement of South America and the Caribbean came in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, following the voyages of Christopher Columbus under the flag of Spain.  Portuguese, French, and English colonization followed, and a triangle Atlantic trade quickly grew.  Europeans shipped manufactured goods to Africa and the Americas, slaves from Africa, and natural resources from the Americas.  Historian Alfred Crosby named the international footprint of this resource trade, “The Columbian Exchange.”  The Columbian Exchange dramatically affected populations and environments on all three sides of the Triangle Trade.  Europeans imported new species, resources, wealth, and slaves, while Africa and the Americas were hugely depopulated by slavery and disease, respectively, while Europeans imposed cultural assumptions about the environment on the new landscapes, dramatically altering them in the process.  This unit will explore the environmental, cultural, demographic, and technological changes wrought by the Columbian Exchange.

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 25.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 8.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.1: 2 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.2: 3.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.3: 0.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.4: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 4.1.5: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 4.2: 8.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.1: 2.25 hours

☐    Readings: 1.75 hours

☐    Web Media: 0.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.3: 1.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.4: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.5: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 4.2.6: 1.75 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 5.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.3.1: 0.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.3.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.3.3: 4.5 hours

☐    Readings: 1 hour

☐    Web Media: 1 hour

☐    Assessment: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.4: 3.5 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 4.4.1: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 4.4.2: 1 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 4.4.3: 1.5 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Define the meaning of the terms the Triangle Trade, the Atlantic World, and the Columbian Exchange, as well as describe their historical contexts. - Identify the human and social impact of biological, cultural, and social exchanges on 4 continents. - Explain the human impact of the Atlantic Triangle Trade on the environment of the Atlantic World. - Differentiate the changes wrought by new and introduced technologies. - Investigate how European cultural ideas shaped new colonial environments and affected the indigenous people already living there.

4.1 Environments Collide   4.1.1 The Atlantic World   - Reading: Smithsonian National Museum of American History: The Kenneth E. Behring Center’s “On the Water: Living in the Atlantic World, 1450–1800” Link: Smithsonian National Museum of American History: The Kenneth E. Behring Center’s “On the Water: Living in the Atlantic World, 1450–1800” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the text on each page of the exhibition,
as well as view each image carefully.  A link to each successive
page can be found at the bottom of each page.  There are 5 webpages
in total for “Living in the Atlantic World, 1450-1800.”  

 Studying this material should take approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.2 Resource Exchange   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Reading Quiz for Resource Exchange in the Columbian Exchange” and “Guide to Responding to the Reading Quiz” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Reading Quiz for Resource Exchange in the Columbian Exchange” (PDF) and “Guide to Responding to the Reading Quiz” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the first link above to download the
quiz for sub-subunit 4.1.2, and answer the questions under
timed-test conditions as explained in the quiz instructions.  Then,
check your answers by clicking on the “Guide to Responding to the
Reading Quiz” link above.  Note: This quiz was developed for the
Saylor Foundation by Kate Sampsell-Willmann.  

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  Reviewing the answers in the “Guide to Responding” should
take approximately 30 minutes.
  • Reading: National Humanities Center: Alfred Crosby’s “The Columbian Exchange: Plants, Animals, and Disease between the Old and New Worlds” Link: National Humanities Center: Alfred Crosby’s “The Columbian Exchange: Plants, Animals, and Disease between the Old and New Worlds” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read this entire article.  Make sure to click on “continued” at the bottom of each page to read all 3 pages of the article.  This reading is a general overview written by Alfred Crosby, a leading environmental historian who named the phenomenon in his book The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492.  The “Columbian Exchange” generally refers to the grand exchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old and the New Worlds after Christopher Columbus’ arrival in the America in 1492.  This reading applies to the topic outlined for subunit 4.2.

    Studying this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: CATO Institute: Thomas Grennes’ “The Columbian Exchange and the Reversal of Fortune” Link: CATO Institute: Thomas Grennes’ “The Columbian Exchange and the Reversal of Fortune” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please scroll down the webpage until you come across this title under the “Articles” section, and click on the title to open a PDF.  Please read the entire article (17 pages total).  Thomas Grennes examines how the initial impact of the Columbian Exchange was to elevate Spain and Spanish America to an economic powerhouse but after the initial boom caused by exportation of raw materials from New Spain a bust followed.  British North America was initially considered to be a bust because, unlike in South America, the colonizers discovered no gold.  Nonetheless, the English-speaking Atlantic eventually triumphed economically in what Grennes calls “a reversal of fortune.”

    Studying this article should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Slideshare: Dan McDowell’s “The Columbian Exchange” Link: Slideshare: Dan McDowell’s “The Columbian Exchange” (Flash)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and review the PowerPoint presentation (15 slides total).

    Studying this presentation should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Texas A&M;: Victor R. Boswell’s “Our Vegetable Travelers” Link: Texas A&M: Victor R. Boswell’s “Our Vegetable Travelers” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please note that this reading is optional.  Please click on the link above, and read the entire article.  This interesting article shows you how the “Columbian Exchange” relates to your current everyday life.

    Studying this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.3 European Species in the Americas   - Reading: Live Science: Jay F. Kirkpatrick and Patricia M. Fazio’s “The Surprising History of Horses in North America” Link: Live Science: Jay F. Kirkpatrick and Patricia M. Fazio’s “The Surprising History of Horses in North America” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
article.  

 Studying this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.4 American Species in Europe   - Reading: Smithsonian Magazine: Richard Wolkomir’s “Review of Mark Kurlansky’s Cod: A Biography of the Fish that Changed the World” Link: Smithsonian Magazine: Richard Wolkomir’s “Review of Mark Kurlansky’s Cod: A Biography of the Fish that Changed the World (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the review
in its entirety.  Make sure to click on the “next” link at the
bottom of the first page to continue on to the second page of the
article.  

 Studying this article should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Tobacco.org: Gene Borio’s “Tobacco Timeline: The Sixteenth Century – Sailors Spread the Seeds” Link: Tobacco.org: Gene Borio’s “Tobacco Timeline: The Sixteenth Century – Sailors Spread the Seeds” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and review the timeline.

    Studying this timeline should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.5 Impact of Columbian Exchange on the Environment of the Atlantic World   - Reading: National Humanities Center: Timothy Silver’s “Three Worlds, Three Views: Culture and Environmental Change in the Colonial South” Link: National Humanities Center: Timothy Silver’s “Three Worlds, Three Views: Culture and Environmental Change in the Colonial South” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the essay in its entirety.  Historian and
author of *A New Face on the Countryside:* *Indians, Colonists, and
Slaves in South Atlantic Forests, 1500-1800*, Timothy Silver,
examines the Triangle Trade and the environmental impact on the
three sides of the Atlantic triangle.  

 Studying this essay should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.2 Human Impact   4.2.1 The Slave Trade   - Reading: EH.net Encyclopedia: Jenny B. Wahl’s “Slavery in the United States” Link: EH.net Encyclopedia: Jenny B. Wahl’s “Slavery in the United States” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the webpage
in its entirety.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: National Maritime Museum, United Kingdom: Understanding Slavery Initiative’s “The Triangular Trade” Link: National Maritime Museum, United Kingdom: Understanding Slavery Initiative’s “The Triangular Trade” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read the text on the webpage, and explore the interactive map of the Atlantic trade.

    You should dedicate approximately 30 minutes to exploring this resource.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Virginia and the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities: Jerome S. Handler and Michael L. Tuite Jr.’s “The Atlantic Slave Trade and Life in the Americas: A Visual Record” Link: University of Virginia and the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities: Jerome S. Handler and Michael L. Tuite Jr.’s “The Atlantic Slave Trade and Life in the Americas: A Visual Record” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on “Explore the Collection” link on the left side of the website.  Then, please click on the hyperlinks to navigate through the exhibition, and click on images of interest to enlarge them and read their accompanying text.

    You should dedicate at least 1 hour to exploring this resource.  You can expand your time on this resource according to your own interest and time availability.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.2 Disease Transmission   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Atlantic World, 1492-1600” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Atlantic World, 1492-1600” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read the sections titled “Disease” and “Ecological Impact” on pages 28-30. As you read, consider the following questions: What accounts for Native American susceptibility to disease? What accounts for Europeans being less susceptible to disease? What are the main diseases Europeans introduced to the Americas? What percentage of the North American population do historians estimate was reduced due to disease in the first decade of European contact? What diseases were transmitted from the Americas to Europe?

4.2.3 New Food Crops   - Reading: Gale Encyclopedia of Food and Culture: Ruben G. Mendoza’s “The Natural History of Maize” Link: Gale Encyclopedia of Food and Culture: Ruben G. Mendoza’s “The Natural History of Maize” (HTML or PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
entry.  You may download the PDF by clicking on “Download (.pdf),”
if you are able to login through a Facebook account.  

 Studying this material should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Cambridge World History of Food: Ellen Messer’s “Potatoes” Link: Cambridge World History of Food: Ellen Messer’s “Potatoes” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire entry.  In this article, author Ellen Messer discusses the history of the potato from its origins in South America to its introduction into the European diet by Spanish explorers in the mid-16th century.  Messer characterizes the potato as an extremely important food crop in European and later in global society, arguing that it continues to play an important role in agribusiness ventures throughout the world today.

    Studying this material should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.4 Impact on Africa   - Web Media: iTunes U: Yale University: Robert Harms’ “Slave Traders and Colonialism in Equatorial Africa” iTunes U: Yale University: Robert Harms’ “Slave Traders and Colonialism in Equatorial Africa” (iTunes U)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and scroll down to
the lecture titled “Slave Traders and Colonialism in Equatorial
Africa.”  Click “View in iTunes” to download the video lecture. 
Please watch the entire linked video lecture (24:23 minutes).  

 Viewing this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Hofstra University: Alan J. Singer’s “The Impact of the Columbian Exchange on West Africa” Link: Hofstra University: Alan J. Singer’s “The Impact of the Columbian Exchange on West Africa” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please scroll down the webpage to the article’s title, and click on the title to open the PDF.  Please read the article in its entirety.  This resource gives a good overview on the African experience of the Triangle Trade.  Attempt to answer the questions at the end of each section of the reading.

    Reading and answering the questions provided should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.5 Impact on Europe   - Reading: Yale University: Nathan Nunn and Nancy Qian’s “The Impact of Potatoes on Old World Population and Urbanization” Link: Yale University: Nathan Nunn and Nancy Qian’s “The Impact of Potatoes on Old World Population and Urbanization” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the PDF hyperlink under the
“Publications” section of the webpage to access the text.  Please
read pages 1–10 up to “Section 3 Conceptual Framework.”  

 Studying this material should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: CNN: Edythe Preet’s “Thanks for the Miracle of Corn” Link: CNN: Edythe Preet’s “Thanks for the Miracle of Corn” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the article in its entirety.

    Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.2.6 Impact on the Americas   - Reading: University of Massachusetts, Amherst: Peter d’Errico’s “Jeffrey Amherst and the Smallpox Blankets” Link: University of Massachusetts, Amherst: Peter d’Errico’s “Jeffrey Amherst and the Smallpox Blankets” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the linked article, and click on the
embedded hyperlinks and images to explore the media.  Massive deaths
resulting from introduced species of disease are historically and
scientifically verifiable, but the historical community is not in
agreement over how many people lived in the Americas prior to mass
colonization, so there is disagreement over how many died.  There is
also contention over whether Europeans intentionally sought death on
the scale that was achieved, whether the term “genocide” is
appropriate.  Peter d’Errico believes that intentional eradication
was very much a feature of European thinking regarding indigenous
Americans; Guenter Lewy (below) disputes this.  

 Studying and exploring this resource should take approximately 45
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: George Mason University’s History News Network: Guenter Lewy’s “Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?” Link: George Mason University’s History News Network: Guenter Lewy’s “Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire article on the first webpage.  In his article, Professor Guenter Lewy discusses the reasons of the sharp decrease in the population of Native Americans from the sixteenth to the nineteenth centuries.  Find out how Lewy disputes d’Errico’s argument in the previous reading.

    Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: H-Environment Roundtable Reviews, Vol.1, No. 1 (2011): “On J. R. McNeill, Mosquito Empires: Ecology and War in the Greater Caribbean, 1620-1914” Link: H-Environment Roundtable Reviews, Vol.1, No. 1 (2011): “On J. R. McNeill, Mosquito Empires: Ecology and War in the Greater Caribbean, 1620-1914 (HTML or PDF)

    Instructions: Please note that this is an optional reading.  Click on the link above, scroll down to the bottom of the webpage and click on the title of McNeill’s book “Mosquito Empires” to open the PDF.  Choose one to read among the reviews by Lisa M. Brady, Stuart McCook, Richard Tucker, and Paul Sutter, and read the response by J. R. McNeill.  In his book Mosquito Empires, McNeill illustrates how yellow fever played a vital role in the violent history of the Greater Caribbean.

    Studying this resource should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.3 Technology and the Environment   4.3.1 European Technologies Introduced to Americas   - Reading: University of Nebraska: Andrew LaBounty’s “Technological Introductions and Social Change: European Technology on the Great Plains” Link: University of Nebraska: Andrew LaBounty’s “Technological Introductions and Social Change: European Technology on the Great Plains” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the “Download” button to open a PDF. 
Please read the entire article (11 pages).  

 Studying this article should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.2 Technologies Adapted by Europeans   - Reading: Powhatan Museum of Indigenous Arts and Culture: Auld/Powhatan’s “The Taíno Culture” Link: Powhatan Museum of Indigenous Arts and Culture: Auld/Powhatan’s “The Taíno Culture” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
article.  Please note that this resource also applies to the topics
outlined in sub-subunits 4.3.3 and 4.3.4.  

 Studying this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: “Rice and Culture Trade” Link: Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: “Rice and Culture Trade” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please note that this resource also applies to the topics outlined in sub-subunits 4.3.3 and 4.3.4.  Please click on the link above, and read the brief entry.  Africans transported to the Americas as slaves brought no possessions with them.  They did, however, bring culture and knowledge into bondage.  Whereas Europeans were not well adapted to living in hot and humid climates, African slaves had generations of experience to draw on, especially in farming and animal husbandry.  Europeans relied heavily on Africans’ technical know-how especially in the cultivation of cash crops like rice and indigo in the swamps of the southern English colonies.  Furthermore, many technologies uniquely adapted to conditions in the new colonies were adopted by Europeans.

    Studying this resource should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.3 African Cultural Exchanges   - Reading: Beacon Press: Shane White and Graham White’s The Sounds of Slavery: “Chapter 1: ‘All We Knowed Was Go and Come by de Bells and Horns’” Link: Beacon Press: Shane White and Graham White’s The Sounds of Slavery: “Chapter 1: ‘All We Knowed Was Go and Come by de Bells and Horns’” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the hyperlink titled “Read the first
chapter (.pdf)” to open the PDF.  Please read the entire chapter (19
pages total).  Slavery and the slave trade introduced many African
cultures to the Americas and European culture.  Africans were forced
to become Christians and taught only enough English, Spanish,
French, or Portuguese to be able to understand commands from their
owners.  Forced into insular and subservient societies, remnants of
many African cultures gradually mixed with the dominant European
cultures, irrevocably changing both.  Ironically, African American
culture is now one of the biggest cultural exports from the Americas
to the rest of the world, especially in the form of music.  

 Studying this chapter should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Study Questions for Shane White and Graham White’s The Sounds of Slavery: Chapter 1” and “Guide to Responding to Study Questions” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Study Questions for Shane White and Graham White’s The Sounds of Slavery: Chapter 1” (PDF) and “Guide to Responding to Study Questions” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the first link above to download the study questions for sub-subunit 4.3.3, and follow  the instructions on the PDF.  Then, click on the second link above to download the “Guide to Responding to Study Questions,” and review this information.  Note: This resource was developed for the Saylor Foundation by Kate Sampsell-Willmann.

    Completing this assessment and reviewing the “Guide to Responding” should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes.

  • Web Media: WBUR’s OnPoint: Tom Ashbrook’s Interview with Jessica Harris, “African-American Food’s History and Soul” Link: WBUR’s OnPoint: Tom Ashbrook’s Interview with Jessica Harris, “African-American Food’s History and Soul” (Flash)

    Instructions: Please click on the button “Listen to this Show,” and listen to the entire radio broadcast (46:28 minutes).

    Listening to the podcast and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.4 European Values and the American Landscape   4.4.1 European Efforts to Reshape American Landscape   - Reading: William Cronon’s “The Trouble with Wilderness, or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature” Link: William Cronon’s “The Trouble with Wilderness, or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature” (PDF or HTML)

 Instructions: Please scroll to the title, and click on “available
here” to access the article.  You may read the article in HTML, or
you may click on the link at the bottom of the webpage to open a
PDF.  This essay by noted environmental historian William Cronon was
originally published in William Cronon, ed., *Uncommon Ground:
Rethinking the Human Place in Nature* (W. W. Norton, 1995),
69­–90).  Please read the entire article.  Cronon discusses what he
perceives as the wrongheadedness of trying to turn land “back” to
wilderness.  Cronon argues that the American continent was not an
“uninhabited wilderness” when Europeans colonized it; therefore,
modern environmentalists are imposing a new idea on the land by
attempting to make wilderness “pristine.”  

 Studying this article should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.4.2 Impact of American Environment on European Colonizers   - Reading: Environmental Literacy Council: John Opie’s “Teaching Module: Early America 1630–1812” Link: Environmental Literacy Council: John Opie’s “Teaching Module: Early America 1630–1812” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please locate the titled module in the frame on the
right.  Please click on the title to open a PDF, and read the
document from page 4-30.  Please feel free to explore the remaining
document and the online resources.  

 Studying this module should take approximately 1 hour.  You can
expand your time on this resource as your interest extends.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.4.3 Settlement Patterns and the Built Environment   - Web Media: iTunes U Podcast: K.J.W. Oosthoek’s “Empire and Environmental Anxiety” Link: iTunes U Podcast: K.J.W. Oosthoek’s “Empire and Environmental Anxiety” (iTunes)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, scroll down to the
lecture titled “Empire and Environmental Anxiety,” select “View in
iTunes” to launch the lecture, and listen to the podcast in its
entirety.  K.J.W. Oosthoek examines causes of anxiety in the later
British Empire, especially in tropical climates.  

 Listening to this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: Preservation Virginia: “Jamestown Rediscovery” Link: Preservation Virginia: “Jamestown Rediscovery” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please click on the following links at the top of the webpage: “Findings,” “Exhibitions,” and “History.”  Read the text on each webpage, and click on any embedded hyperlinks for more information.  The first permanent British settlement in North America was at Jamestown in Virginia (named for Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen).  Virginia was also the first permanent success of the British Empire.  Archaeology at the site of the original Jamestown settlement adds to historians’ knowledge about these early adventurers and their fragile society.

    Studying and exploring this resource should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.