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HIST351: Islam, The Middle East, and The West

Unit 11: The Islamic Revolution, Terrorism, and the West   The Islamic Revolution of 1979 (also known as the Iranian Revolution) overthrew the reigning shah (king) and established a theocratic state.  The leader of the revolt, a Shi’ite Muslim cleric, proclaimed himself Ayatollah—or “supreme leader”—of Iran.  The Ayatollah asserted the importance of the Islamic faith and decried Western influence and policy.  The revolution established an important precedent in the Middle East by encouraging the proliferation of an Islamic ideology throughout the region.  As a result, in the 1980s and 1990s, many fundamentalist Muslim groups emerged, including Al Qaeda and the Taliban.  Many of these groups embraced an extreme strain of Islam as well as violent anti-Western sentiment.  Islamic fundamentalists were responsible for numerous terrorist attacks against Western powers, including the 1998 embassy bombings in Africa and the September 11, 2001 attacks in New York City.

In this unit, we will consider the emergence of an Islamic ideology grounded in anti-Western sentiment that began to unite the Muslim world in the 1980s.  We will also study the manifestation of that ideology in its most extreme form: Islamic terrorist groups.

Unit 11 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 16 hours to complete.

☐    Introduction: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 11.1: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 11.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 11.3: 4 hours

Unit11 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Identify and describe the rise of Islamic nationalism and the emergence of violent anti-Western sentiment.

  • Web Media: PBS’s The Prize: “The Tinderbox” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

  • Web Media: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle East and the West: Clash With Islam” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle East and the West: The Clash With Islam” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Also available in:
    HTML Transcript

    Mp3
     
    Instructions: Please listen to this 10-minute program, which explores the contemporary Middle East.  Please click on the link above and, when the page loads, click on “Listen” to stream the program.  This program addresses some of subsections 11.1 through 11.3.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lecture 25, “A New Era of Violence” Link: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lecture 25, “A New Era of Violence” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: This 80-minute lecture explores the resurgence of violence in the Middle East over the last 30 years.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: UCTV (University of California Television): John L. Esposito’s “Islam and the West” Link: UCTV (University of California Television): John L. Esposito’s “Islam and the West” (YouTube)
     
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    Mp3
    Adobe Flash
    Mp4 Video
     
    Instructions: Please watch Professor John L. Esposito’s entire 55-minute discussion.  This interview discusses Professor Esposito’s book, Islam and the West, which addresses many of the issues raised in subsections 11.1 through 11.3.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

11.1 The Islamic Revolution of 1979   - Lecture: Columbia University SIPA (School of International and Public Affairs): Richard Bulliet’s “Three Decades of the Islamic Republic of Iran” Link: Columbia University SIPA (School of International and Public Affairs): Richard Bulliet’s “Three Decades of the Islamic Republic of Iran” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
Adobe Flash
 
Instructions: Please watch Richard Bulliet’s entire 80-minute lecture about the history and legacy of Iran’s 1979 Islamic Revolution.  This will cover the material needed for 11.1.1 and 11.1.2 as well.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Columbia University: Leiden University: Asef Bayet’s “Thirty Years of Islamic Revolution” Link: Columbia University: Leiden University: Asef Bayet’s “Thirty Years of Islamic Revolution” (YouTube)
     
    Also available in:
    Adobe Flash
     
    Instructions: Please watch Asef Bayet’s entire 80-minute lecture about the history and legacy of Iran’s 1979 Islamic Revolution.  This will cover the material needed for 11.1.1 and 11.1.2 as well.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

11.1.1 Overthrow of Iran’s Monarchy   - Reading: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Modern History Sourcebook: “Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini: The Uprising of Khurdad 15, 1979” Link: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Modern History Sourcebook:Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini: The Uprising of Khurdad 15, 1979” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this proclamation to better understand the Iranians’ perspective on the 1979 coup.  This material will also cover section 11.1.2 as well.
 
Terms of Use: This material is part of the public domain.

11.1.2 An Islamic Republic   11.1.3 Islamic Fundamentalism   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "Islamic Fundamentalism" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Islamic Fundamentalism" (PDF)

 Instructions: Please read the linked material.

11.1.4 The Iran-Iraq War   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Iran-Iraq War” Link: WikipediaIran-Iraq War” (PDF)
 
Also available in:

[iBook](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST351-11.1.4-Iran-Iraq-War-Wikipedia.epub)  

 Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to
get a sense for the causes, progress, and consequences of the
Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988).  
    
 Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran-Iraq_war) (HTML).

11.2 The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Since 1980   - Web Media: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “From the First Intifada to the Oslo Peace Agreement” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “From the First Intifada to the Oslo Peace Agreement” (RealPlayer)
 
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Instructions: Please listen to this five-minute clip, which explores the various missed opportunities for peace between Israelis and Palestinians during the 1980s and early 1990s.  Click on the link at the top of the page “Listen to Part 3 of Mike Shuster’s series” to access.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Second Intifada and the Death of Oslo” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Second Intifada and the Death of Oslo” (RealPlayer)
     
    Also available in:
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    Instructions: Please listen to this five-minute clip, which explores the failure of the Oslo Peace Accords and the outlook for peace in the future between Israel and the Palestinians.  Click on the link at the top of the page “Listen to Part 7 of Mike Shuster’s series” to access.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

11.2.1 Hezbollah   - Web Media: NPR: Neal Conan’s “Who is Hezbollah?” Link: NPR: Neal Conan’s “Who is Hezbollah?” (RealPlayer)
 
Also available in:
HTML Transcript
 
Instructions: Please listen to this 35-minute discussion that explores the history, structure and impact of Hezbollah in the Middle East.  Click on the link at the top of the page “Listen” to access.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
 

11.2.2 Al Qaeda   - Lecture: UCTV (University of California Television): Steve Coll’s “The Rise of al-Qaeda” Link: UCTV (University of California Television): Steve Coll’s “The Rise of al-Qaeda” (YouTube)
 
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Instructions: Please watch Steve Coll’s entire 55-minute discussion about the rise and progress of al-Qaeda. This interview is about addresses a series of Coll’s books, including Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 and The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century.

 Terms of Use: This video is licensed by the copyright holder, UCTV,
as CC-BY-NC-ND - Creative Commons (Attribution-Noncommercial-No
Derivative Works). For more information about this license, please
read: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/.

11.2.3 The Taliban   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Taliban” Link: WikipediaTaliban” (PDF)

 Also available in:  

[iBook](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST351-11.2.3-Taliban-Wikipedia.epub)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to
get a better understanding of the Taliban.  
    
 Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taliban) (HTML).

11.3 Terrorism and Western Responses   11.3.1 September 11 Attacks   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "September 11 Attacks" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "September 11 Attacks" (PDF)

 Instructions: Please read the linked material.

11.3.2 “War on Terror”   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "War on Terror" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "War on Terror" (PDF)

 Instructions: Please read the linked material.

11.3.3 Invasion of Iraq   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "Invasion of Iraq" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Invasion of Iraq" (PDF)

 Instructions: Please read the linked material.

11.3.4 War in Afghanistan   - Reading: Wikipedia: “War in Afghanistan (2001-Present)” Link: WikipediaWar in Afghanistan” (PDF)

 Also available in:  

[iBook](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST351-11.3.4-War-in-Afghanistan-2001-p-Wikipedia.epub)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to
get a comprehensive overview of the War in Afghanistan.  
    
 Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_in_Afghanistan_(2001-present))
(HTML).