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HIST351: Islam, The Middle East, and The West

Unit 10: Nationalism and Independence Movements   Beginning in 1940s, Britain and France abandoned their protectorates and ended their mandates in the Middle East, largely due to conflicts that erupted between local governments and their foreign occupiers.  Between 1941 and 1947, Iran, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt (with the exception of the British-dominated Suez Canal) became independent of European rule.  And in 1948, Zionists established the state of Israel, a declaration that precipitated the 1948 Arab-Israeli war and decades of subsequent conflict.  However, while many Middle Eastern nations became independent of British and French rule in the 1940s, the onset of the Cold War attracted new foreign interest in the region.  As a result, the United States and the Soviet Union vied for control of the Middle East throughout much of the twentieth century.

In this unit, we will examine how Middle Eastern independence movements and nationalism resulted in the creation of several new states in the region.  We will also study how the end of British and French occupation of the Middle East also meant the beginning of Soviet and American influence there.

Unit 10 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 21 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 10.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 10.2: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.3: 7 hours

☐    Subunit 10.4: 6 hours

Unit10 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Analyze and describe the rise of resistance and independence movements in the Middle East.
  • Describe the emerging importance of energy politics in the Middle East.

10.1 Revolts Against European Domination   - Lecture: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lectures 18 & 19, “The Question of Islamic Authority” and “New Muslim Organization” Link: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lectures 18 & 19, “The Question of Islamic Authority” (iTunes U) and “New Muslim Organization” (iTunes U)
 
Instructions: Please listen to both 80-minute lectures, which discuss the growing anti-colonial and nationalist sentiment in the Middle East during and after World War II.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.2 World War II   - Web Media: PBS’s The Prize: “War and Oil” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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10.2.1 The Suez Canal   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Suez Crisis” Link: WikipediaSuez Crisis” (PDF)

 Also available in:  

[iBook](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST351-10.2.1-Suez-Crisis-Wikipedia.epub)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to
get a better understanding of the Suez Crisis.  
    
 Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez_Crisis) (HTML).

10.2.2 The Anglo-Iraqi War   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Anglo-Iraqi War” Link: WikipediaAnglo-Iraqi War” (PDF)

 Also available in:  

[iBook](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST351-10.2.2-Anglo-Iraqi-War-Wikipedia.epub)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to
get a better understanding of the Anglo-Iraqi War.  
    
 Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Iraqi_War) (HTML).

10.2.3 The Allied Invasion of Syria-Lebanon   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "The Allied Invasion of Syria-Lebanon" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "The Allied Invasion of Syria-Lebanon" (PDF)

 Instructions: Please read the linked material.

10.2.4 The Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran” Link: WikipediaAnglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to
get a better understanding of the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran.  
    
 Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Soviet_invasion_of_Iran)
(HTML).

10.3 The Cold War in the Middle East   - Web Media: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle East and the West: The U.S. Role Grows” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle East and the West: The U.S. Role Grows” (Adobe Flash)
 
Also available in:
HTML Transcript

[Mp3](http://public.npr.org/anon.npr-mp3/npr/atc/2004/08/20040823_atc_14.mp3?dl=1)  
    
 Instructions: Please listen to this 10-minute program, which
explores the rising influence of the U.S. in the Middle East
following World War II.  Please click on the link above and, when
the page loads, click on “Listen” to stream the program.  This
program addresses all subsections that follow.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: NPR: Columbia University: Rashid Khalidi’s “Sowing Crisis” Link: NPR: Columbia University: Rashid Khalidi’s “Sowing Crisis” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Also available in:

    Mp3
     
    Instructions: Please listen to this 30-minute lecture, which addresses the ways in which the global Cold War affected and was affected by the Middle East.  This discussion is based on Khalidi’s excellent book, Sowing Crisis: The Cold War and American Dominance in the Middle East.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lecture 20, “The Cold War” Link: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lecture 20, “The Cold War” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please listen to this 80-minute lecture, which addresses the ways in which the global Cold War affected and was affected by the Middle East.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
     

  • Web Media: Council on Foreign Relations/ NPR: Thomas W. Lippman’s “Lippman’s ‘Mirage’ Tracks History of U.S.-Saudi Ties” Link: NPR's All Things Considered: “Lippman's 'Mirage' Tracks History of U.S.-Saudi Ties” (Adobe Flash Audio)
     
    Also available in:
    Mp3
     
    Instructions: Please listen to this 6-minute program, which explores the history of U.S./Saudi relations.  This program discusses Thomas Lippman’s book, Inside the Mirage: America’s Fragile Partnership with Saudi Arabia, with the author.  Please click on the link above and, when the page loads, click on “Listen” to stream the program. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: PBS’s The Prize: “Crude Diplomacy” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials

10.3.1 Egypt and the First Revolution   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Egyptian Revolution of 1919” Link: Wikipedia:  “Egyptian Revolution of 1919” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this encyclopedia entry to better understand the significance of Egyptian Revolution of 1919.
 
Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original version of this article here (HTML).

10.3.2 Syria and the Battle of Maysalun   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation's "Syria and the Battle of Maysalun" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Syria and the Battle of Maysalun" (PDF)

 Instructions: Please read the linked material.  
  

10.3.3 Iraqi Revolt Against the British   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Iraqi Revolt Against the British” Link: Wikipedia:  “Iraqi Revolt Against the British” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this encyclopedia entry to better understand the significance of the Iraqi Revolt.
 
Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original version of this article here (HTML).

10.3.4 Arab Nationalism vs. Zionism   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Eisenhower Doctrine” Link: Wikipedia:  “Eisenhower Doctrine” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this encyclopedia entry to better understand the significance of the Eisenhower Doctrine for the subsequent development of the Middle East.
 
Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original version of this article here (HTML).

  • Reading: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Modern History Sourcebook: “The Eisenhower Doctrine on the Middle East” Link: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Modern History Sourcebook:The Eisenhower Doctrine on the Middle East” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of Eisenhower’s speech to Congress which lays out what subsequently became known as the “Eisenhower Doctrine.”
     
    Note on the text:  At the end of World War II, a new war—the Cold War—was unleashed between the United States and the Soviet Union and its satellite states.  This conflict manifested itself in the Middle East; it was one of several theaters in the contest between democracy and Communism.  In this speech, President Eisenhower describes the U.S. foreign policy toward the Middle East: to preserve the independence of New Middle Eastern States while also protecting them from Communist Russia.
     
    Terms of Use: This material is part of the public domain.

10.4 Postwar Independence   10.4.1 Iran   - Lecture: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lecture 23, “Iran Under the Shahs” Link: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lecture 23, “Iran Under the Shahs” (iTunes U)
 
Instructions: This 80 minute lecture explores Iranian political, economic, and social life under the Shahs.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Northwestern University/NPR: Steven Kinzer’s “’New York Times’’ Correspondent Stephen Kinzer” Link: NPR: Terry Gross' Fresh Air “'New York Times' Correspondent Stephen Kinzer” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Also available in:

    Mp3
     
    Instructions: Please listen to this 35-minute program, which explores Stephen Kinzer’s book All the Shah’s Men, which details the CIA’s 1953 coup that overthrew the democratically elected Iranian government.  Please click on the link above and, when the page loads, click on “Listen” to stream the program.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.4.2 Partitioning of Palestine   - Web Media: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “Partition, War and Independence” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “Partition, War and Independence” (RealPlayer)
 
Also available in:
HTML Transcript
 
Instructions: Please listen to this five-minute clip, which explores Britain’s, the U.S.’, and the U.N.’s attempts to equitably solve the Zionist-Palestinian dispute and the subsequent war between Palestinians and Israelis.  Click on the link at the top of the page “Listen to Part 3 of Mike Shuster’s series” to access.  This program also contains information about subunit 10.4.8.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.4.3 The Arab-Israeli War of 1948   - Reading: Wikipedia: “1948 Arab-Israeli War” Link: Wikipedia1948 Arab-Israeli War” (PDF)

 Also available in:  

[iBook](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST351-10.4.3-1948-Arab-Israeli-War-Wikipedia.epub)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to
get a better understanding of the 1948 war between Zionists and
Palestinians.  
    
 Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948_Arab-Israeli_War) (HTML).

10.4.4 The Six Day War (June 1967)   - Lecture: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The 1967 Six Day War” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The 1967 Six Day War” (RealPlayer)
 
Also available in:
HTML Transcript
 
Instructions: Please listen to this five-minute clip, which explores the 1967 Six Day War, a crucial turning point in Palestinian-Israeli relations.  Click on the link at the top of the page “Listen to Part 3 of Mike Shuster’s series” to access.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: UCTV (University of California Television): Tom Segev’s “Israel and the 1967 War” Link: UCTV (University of California Television): Tom Segev’s “Israel and the 1967 War” (YouTube)
                           
    Also available in:
    Adobe Flash
    Mp3
     
    Instructions: Please watch Tom Segev’s entire 55-minute discussion about the enduring impact of the Six Day War on Arab-Israeli relations.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: NPR/American Radio Works/Minnesota Public Radio: Sandy Tolan’s The Arab World and the West: “Part II” Link: NPR/American Radio Works/Minnesota Public Radio: Sandy Tolan’s The Arab World and the West: Part II” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Also available in:

    Mp3
     
    Instructions: Please listen to the 8-minute program that explores the legacy of 1967 Six Day War for the Middle East.  This program also presents a different perspective than the previous programs.  Please click on the link above and, when the page loads, click on “Listen” to stream the program.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: NPR: Mike Schuster's The Mideast: A Century of Conflict: “From the 1973 Yom Kippur War to Peace with Egypt” Link: NPR: Mike Schuster's The Mideast: A Century of Conflict: From the 1973 Yom Kippur War to Peace With Egypt” (RealPlayer)
     
    Also available in:
    HTML Transcript
     
    Instructions: Please listen to this five-minute clip, which explores the Zionist-Palestinian conflict during the 1970s, a period which saw another new war but also saw an almost unbelievable peace deal between Egypt and Israel.  Click on the link at the top of the page “Listen to Part 5 of Mike Shuster’s series” to access.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.
     

  • Web Media: PBS’s The Prize: “Power to the Producers” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

    Submit Materials