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HIST351: Islam, The Middle East, and The West

Unit 9: The Islamic World in an Age of European Domination   The collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the end of World War I, and the discovery of oil allowed European powers to gain new influence in the Middle East.  Near the end of World War I, Britain and France negotiated for the partition of the Middle East between them, proclaiming territorial “mandates.”  In addition, Britain promised European Zionists a Jewish homeland in Palestine.  Not only were Britain and France interested in expanding their influence in the Middle East, but they were keen on exploiting the Middle East’s primary resource: oil.  Oil fueled the development of industrial Europe, and by mandating control over Middle Eastern countries, Britain and France were guaranteed access to sought-after petroleum products.
           
In this unit, we will consider the how and why territorial mandates and protectorates under the authority of European powers were established in the Middle East.  We will also study how these policies ignited conflict among Islamic peoples, especially in Palestine.

Unit 9 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 17 hours to complete.

☐    Introduction: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 9.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 9.2: 10 hours

Unit9 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Identify and describe how and why European powers garnered increased spheres of influence after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire and the end of World War I.
  • Describe the European approach to the Middle East during and immediately following World War I.

  • Lecture: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lecture 15, “World War I” Link: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lecture 15, “World War I” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please listen to the entire 80-minute lecture, which addresses World War I and its effects on the Middle East.  This lecture addresses subsections 9.1 through 9.1.4 and 9.2 through 9.2.5.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Marshall University/BBC: David R. Woodward’s World Wars In-depth: “The Middle East During World War I” Link: Marshall University/BBC: David R. Woodward’s World Wars In-depth: “The Middle East During World War I” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of the website in order to get a sense of World War I’s effect on the Middle East.   This link addresses subsections 9.1 through 9.2.2.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle East and the West: WWI and Beyond” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle East and the West: WWI and Beyond” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Also available in:
    HTML Transcript

    Mp3
     
    Instructions: Please listen to the 10-minute program that explores the World War I in the Middle East and its legacy for the region.  Please click on the link above and, when the page loads, click on “Listen” to stream the program.  This program addresses subsections 9.1 through 9.2.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: NPR: Terry Gross' Fresh Air: “Historian Margaret Macmillan” Link: NPR: Terry Gross' Fresh Air: Historian Margaret Macmillan” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Also available in:

    Mp3
     
    Instructions: Please listen to this 40-minute program, which explores the World War I in the Middle East and its legacy for the region and the contemporary world.  This program discusses Macmillan’s prize-winning book, Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World, with the author.  Please click on the link above and, when the page loads, click on “Listen” to stream the program.  This program addresses subsections 9.2 through 9.2.4.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.1 The End of the Ottoman Empire   9.1.1 Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary   9.1.2 World War I   9.1.3 The Arab Revolt   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Arab Revolt” Link: WikipediaArab Revolt” (PDF)

 Also available in:  

[iBook](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST351-9.1.3-Arab-Revolt-Wikipedia.epub)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to
get a better understanding of the Arab Revolt.  
    
 Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Revolt) (HTML).

9.1.4 Defeat of the Ottomans in 1918   9.1.5 Rise of Kemal Ataturk and the Europeanization of Turkey   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Mustafa Kemal Ataturk” Link: WikipediaMustafa Kemal Ataturk” (PDF)

 Also available in:  

[iBook](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST351-9.1.5-Mustafa-Kemal-Ataturk-Wikipedia.epub)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to
get a sense of the Ataturk’s biography and continuing importance in
Turkey.  
    
 Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mustafa_Kemal_Ataturk) (HTML).

9.2 Partitioning the Middle East   - Lecture: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lectures 16 & 17, “The Time Between Wars” and “Palestine and Zionism” Link: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, Lectures 16 & 17, “The Time Between Wars” and “Palestine and Zionism” (iTunes U)
 
Instructions: Please listen to both 80-minute lectures, which address social, political, and economic change in the Middle East following World War I.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

9.2.1 The Sykes-Picot Agreement   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Sykes-Picot Agreement” Link: WikipediaSykes-Picot Agreement” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to better understand the content and implications of the Sykes-Picot Agreement.
 
Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original version of this article here (HTML).

  • Reading: WWI Document Archive: “Sykes-Picot Agreement” Link: WWI Document Archive: “Sykes-Picot Agreement” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to better understand the actual text of the Sykes-Picot Agreement.
     
    About the link: This primary source document archive is administered by Richard Hacken and Brigham Young University.
     
    Terms of Use: This material is part of the public domain.

9.2.2 The Balfour Declaration   - Web Media: NPR: Mike Shuster’s The Mideast: A Century of Conflict: “The Balfour Declaration and the British Mandate” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s The Mideast: A Century of Conflict: The Balfour Declaration and the British Mandate” (RealPlayer)
 
Also available in:
HTML Transcript
 
Instructions: Please listen to this 5-minute clip, which explores the Balfour Declaration and the subsequent British Mandate.  Click on the link at the top of the page “Listen to Part 2 of Mike Shuster’s series” to access.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above
 

9.2.3 British Mandated Territories   - Web Media: Wikipedia: “British Mandate Territories” Link: WikipediaBritish Mandate Territories” (PNG Image)
 
Instructions: Please examine this map to better understand the extent of the British’s Middle Eastern mandate.
 
Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original version of this article here (HTML).

9.2.4 French Mandated Territories   - Web Media: Wikipedia: “French Mandate Territories” Link: Wikipedia:  “French Mandate Territories” (PNG Image)
 
Instructions: Please examine this map to better understand the extent of France’s Middle Eastern mandate.
 
Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original version of this article here (HTML).

9.2.5 Discovery of Oil   - Web Media: PBS’s The Prize: “The Black Giant” Link: PBS’s The Prize: “The Black Giant” (Google Video)
 
Instructions: Please watch the entire 50-minute documentary for a better understanding of Europe’s interest in Middle East oil following World War I.
 
About the link: This documentary is based on Daniel Yergin’s Pulitzer Prize-winning book, The Prize: The Epic Struggle for Oil, Money, and Power
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.