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HIST351: Islam, The Middle East, and The West

Unit 8: European Challenges and the Ottoman Empire   By the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire was in decline.  The Ottomans, their imperial holdings much reduced since their heyday in the sixteenth century, became increasingly dependent on European resources to buoy their empire.  Beginning in the late 1800s, Ottoman leaders embarked upon a policy of reform that they believed would modernize their state by implementing constitutional government, educational systems, new technology, and new industry with European monies.  As a result of this financial dependence, many European powers began to dominate or annex Ottoman holdings in the Middle East in the 1800s.  With the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the Ottomans allied themselves with the Central Powers—Austria-Hungary and Germany—but were defeated by the Allied forces in 1918. 
           
In this unit, we will study the reasons for the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.  We will also examine how and why European nations challenged Ottoman authority and began to exert power in the Middle East.

Unit 8 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 4 hours to complete.

☐    Introduction: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 8.1: 2 hours

Unit8 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Analyze the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of European imperialism in/domination of the Middle East in the 1800s.
  • Differentiate between French, British, and Russian modes of colonizing the Middle East during the “Long Nineteenth Century.”

8.1 Ottoman Empire in the 1800s   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Ottoman Empire” Link: WikipediaOttoman Empire” (PDF)

 Also available in:  

[iBook](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST351-8.1-Ottoman-Empire-Wikipedia.epub)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to
get a sense of the Ottoman Empire. This link covers subpoints 8.1.1
and 8.1.2.  
    
 Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire#Stagnation_and_reform.281683.E2.80.931827.29)
(HTML).

8.1.1 “Sick Man of Europe”   8.1.2 Financial Control by European Powers   8.2 European Dominion of the Ottoman Empire   - Web Media: NPR: Mike Schuster’s “The Middle East and the West: Carving Up the Region” Link: NPR: Mike Schuster’s: “The Middle East and the West: Carving up the Region” (Adobe Flash Audio)
 
Also available in:
HTML Transcript
Mp3
 
Instructions: Please listen to this 10-minute program, which explores the expansion of European dominance in the Middle East during the 19th century.  Please click on the link above and, when the page loads, click on “Listen” to stream the program.  This program addresses subsection 8.2.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.2.1 French Annexation of Algeria and Tunisia   8.2.2 British Occupation of Egypt   8.2.3 British Control of Persian Gulf   8.2.4 French Influence in Lebanon and Syria   8.2.5 Italy in Libya and the Dodecanese Islands   8.3 Reforms in the Middle East   8.3.1 The Young Turks   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Young Turks” Link: WikipediaYoung Turks” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this entry in order to get a better understanding of the Young Turks.
 
Terms of Use: The Wikipedia article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original version of this article here (HTML).

  • Reading: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Modern History Sourcebook: “The Young Turks: Proclamation for the Ottoman Empire, 1908.” Link: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Modern History Sourcebook:The Young Turks: Proclamation for the Ottoman Empire, 1908” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of this proclamation to better understand the Young Turks’ goals.
     
    Terms of Use: This material is part of the public domain.