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HIST321: Comparative New Worlds, 1400-1750

Unit 11: New World Conflicts   Between the first voyages of the 1400s and the height of European colonization in the eighteenth century, the New World was plagued by war between European nations or between European forces and native peoples.  European conflicts in the Americas were usually an extension of conflicts centered in Europe.  The War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714), for example, embroiled European powers in a contest over the issue of the inheritance of the Spanish crown and kingdom; it resulted in raids and conflicts in the Caribbean, South America, and North America.  On the other hand, violence between native peoples and European colonizers usually erupted when colonists infringed on tribal lands or disrupted local economies.  King Philip’s War (1675), one of the bloodiest New World conflicts, pitted the Wampanoag Indians and their allies against English colonists, resulting in thousands of deaths.

In this unit, we will consider how inter-European conflicts often migrated to New World settings.  We will also consider the uprisings that broke out between land-hungry Europeans and the native inhabitants.

Unit 11 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 8 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 11.1: 4.5 hours

☐    Subunit 11.2: 3.5 hours

Unit11 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:

  • identify and describe conflicts between European imperial powers in the New World; and
  • identify and describe conflicts between indigenous peoples and imperial powers in the New World.

11.1 European Wars in the New World   Note: This topic is covered in the resources under sub-subunits 11.1.1-11.1.7.

11.1.1 Conflicts between the Portuguese, Dutch, and French in Brazil   - Reading: U.S. Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Brazil: A Country Study: “French and Dutch Incursions” Link: U.S. Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Brazil: A Country Study: “French and Dutch Incursions” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read the whole excerpt in order to get a sense of the conflicts between the French, Dutch, and Portuguese—all of whom grappled for control of Brazil.  This website contains electronic texts of previous publications printed by the Library of Congress and sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Army from 1986-1998.
 
Terms of Use: This material is part of the public domain.

11.1.2 Anglo-Dutch Wars   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Anglo-Dutch Wars” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Anglo-Dutch Wars” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire text. As you read, consider the following questions: what was the primary source of conflict between England and the Dutch Republic?  What were the immediate causes of the Anglo-Dutch wars?  Where were the wars fought, and who besides the English and the Dutch were involved?  What were some of the long-term results of the wars?
 
Studying this reading and answering the questions above should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: The resource above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution License.  It is attributed to the Saylor Foundation.

11.1.3 King William’s War   - Reading: USA History: Kathy Leigh’s transcription of Henry William Elson’s History of the United States of America: “King William’s War” Link: USA History: Kathy Leigh’s transcription of Henry William Elson’s History of the United States of America: “King William’s War” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage in order to get a good overview of the conflicts that resulted in the outbreak of what was known as King William’s War, 1690-1697.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

11.1.4 Queen Anne’s War   - Reading: USA History: Kathy Leigh’s transcription of Henry William Elson’s History of the United States of America: “Queen Anne’s War” Link: USA History: Kathy Leigh’s transcription of Henry William Elson’s History of the United States of America: “Queen Anne’s War” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage in order to get a good overview of the conflicts that resulted from what was known as Queen Anne’s War, 1702-1714.
                       
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

11.1.5 War of Jenkins’ Ear   - Reading: New Georgia Encyclopedia Online: “The War of Jenkin's Ear” Link: New Georgia Encyclopedia Online: “The War of Jenkin's Ear” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please scroll down to the fourth paragraph, click the link for “The War of Jenkin’s Ear,” and read the entire webpage to learn about this conflict between Britain and Spain during the 1740s in the Americas.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

11.1.6 King George’s War   - Reading: USA History: Kathy Leigh’s transcription of Henry William Elson’s History of the United States of America: “King George’s War” Link: USA History: Kathy Leigh’s transcription of Henry William Elson’s History of the United States of America: “King George’s War” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage to get a sense of the American iteration of the European conflict called the War of the Austrian Succession.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

11.1.7 The French and Indian War   - Reading: Boundless Learning, Inc’s “The Seven Year’s War: 1754-1763” Link: Boundless Learning, Inc’s “The Seven Year’s War: 1754-1763” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please read the entire article above for an overview
of the French and Indian War, known as the Seven Years War in
Europe, between Britain, France, and their allies.  As you read, ask
yourself the following questions: What were some of the underlying
causes of the French and Indian War?  What marks the start of the
war?  In what year did the French and English actually declare war?
 What or who helped the English gain the upper hand beginning in
1758?  What were the provisions of the Treaty of Paris (1763)?
 According to the author of the slides, what are some of the lasting
effects of the French and Indian War?  
 (15 minutes)  
    
 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share
Alike](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) license.  You
can find the original Boundless.com’s version of this
article [here](https://www.boundless.com/history/british-empire-and-colonial-crisis-1754-1775/seven-year-s-war-1754-1763/seven-year-s-war-1754-1763/) (HTML).

11.2 Wars with Indigenous Peoples   Note: This topic is covered in the resources under sub-subunits 11.2.1-11.2.3.

11.2.1 King Philip’s War   - Reading: USA History: Kathy Leigh’s transcription of Henry William Elson’s History of the United States of America: “King Phillip’s War” Link: USA History: Kathy Leigh’s transcription of Henry William Elson’s History of the United States of America: “King Phillip’s War” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage to learn about the bloody conflict between Wampanoag Indians and Massachusetts colonists in 1675 and 1676.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

11.2.2 Powhatan Wars   - Reading: Connexions: Dr. James Ross-Nazzal’s “Chapter 3: British Colonial America (1588-1701)” Link: Connexions: Dr. James Ross-Nazzal’s “Chapter 3: British Colonial America (1588-1701)” (PDF)
 
Also available in:
HTML
 
Instructions: Scroll down to “Virginia”Please read the selection for information on the series of wars waged between Powhatan Indians and Anglo-Virginian colonists.  As you read, ask yourself the following questions: What conditions contributed to colonists coming into conflict with the Powhatan?  According to the author of the text, what type of warfare did the Powhatan exercise?  What did this entail?  What was the course of events and time span of the Powhatan War.  Who was involved and what were their goals?

 (15 minutes)             

 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) license.

11.2.3 Guarani War   - Reading: Renaud and Margaret Olgiati’s translation of Manuel F. Fernández’s “Brief History of the Guarani Language” Link: Renaud and Margaret Olgiati’s translation of Manuel F. Fernández’s “Brief History of the Guarani Language” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage, paying special attention to the section entitled “The Guarani and the Independence.”  Although this article focuses on the language of the Guarani, it still offers an excellent contextual explanation for the violence that erupted among the Guarani Indians, Jesuit missionaries, the Portuguese, and the Spanish in the eighteenth century.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.