Loading...

HIST321: Comparative New Worlds, 1400-1750

Unit 7: French New World Colonies   The French colonies in the New World were highly varied outposts.  The North American holdings—called New France—were shaped mostly by the lucrative fur trade.  New France was not populous, but it was profitable, and fur trading became the center of the French North American economy.  In addition, sugar plantations were established in French Louisiana and African slaves were imported to work in the cane fields or to be sold in ports along the Mississippi River.  Jesuit missionaries had a prominent role in New France; they provided religious services to French men and women and converted native peoples to Catholicism.  The most valuable French holdings in the Americas, however, were in the Caribbean. Saint-Domingue, nicknamed the “Pearl of the Antilles,” became the most profitable plantation colony in the New World.  France also claimed a number of other islands in the Caribbean, including Guadeloupe and Martinique, and French Guiana in South America.  Sugar and coffee drove the economies of these colonies, and, after decimating the indigenous Arawak and Carib populations, French settlers imported African slaves to labor on plantations.

In this unit, we will consider the differences between New France and the French colonies in the Caribbean. We will also study French colonial governance and economy and consider the impact of these policies on native peoples.

Unit 7 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 8.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 4.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3: 2.75 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:

  • analyze and interpret the variable nature of French imperial outposts in the New World;
  • identify and analyze the economic, religious, social, and political elements of New France and Louisiana; and
  • identify and analyze the economic, religious, social, and political elements of the French Caribbean holdings.

7.1 French Holdings in the New World   Note: This topic is covered in the resources under sub-subunits 7.1.1-7.1.4.

7.1.1 The French in the Great Lakes   - Reading: Modern History Sourcebook: Samuel de Champlain’s “The Foundation of Quebec, 1608”, and University of Groningen‘s “Memoir for the Marquis de Seignelay Regarding Canada January 1687” Link: Modern History Sourcebook: Samuel de Champlain’s “The Foundation of Quebec, 1608” (PDF) and University of Groningen‘s “Memoir for the Marquis de Seignelay Regarding Canada January 1687” (PDF).
 
 
Also Available in:
HTML(“The Foundation of Quebec, 1608”)

[HTML](http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/1651-1700/memoir-for-the-marquis-de-seignelay-regarding-canada-january-1687.php)(“Memoir
for the Marquis de Seignelay Regarding Canada January 1687”)  


 Instructions: Please read the selections to get an overview of
settlement patterns in New France and motivations for French
colonization in what is now Canada.  As you read, ask yourself the
following questions: According to Champlain, why was there a ban on
trading pelts?  What were the motivations to found a settlement?
 Where does Champlain deem the best place for a settlement?  What
structures do the French build at the new settlement and what do
they find a few leagues up river?  

 According to the Marquis de Seignelay, why are the English so
troublesome in North America?  Why are they more attractive than the
French as trading partners for Native Americans?  What role do
Native Americans play in the relations between the French and the
English in North America?  Which French lands are most under threat
of English usurpation?  What role does religion play in the Marquis
de Seignelay’s account?  

 (15 minutes)  
    
 Terms of Use: The resources above are in the public domain.

7.1.2 Religion in New France   - Reading: Creighton University: Reuben Gold Thwaites’s “The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791,Volume X ‘Preface and Part First, Chapter One’” Link: Creighton University: Reuben Gold Thwaites’s “The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791,Volume X ‘Preface and Part First, Chapter One’” (PDF).
 
Also Available in:

[HTML](http://puffin.creighton.edu/jesuit/relations/relations_10.html)  

 Instructions: Please read the Preface and first chapter of the
account about Jesuits and the establishment of Catholicism in New
France.  As you read, ask yourself the following questions: How does
Le Jeune characterize his mission in New France?  How does he
describe the conversion of the Huron?  What events, circumstances,
and characteristics does he include?  What methods does Le Jeune use
to convert the Huron?  What are the benefits of these methods?  


 (20 minutes)  
    
 Terms of Use: The resource above is in the public domain.

7.1.3 The Fur Trade   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Fur Trade” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Fur Trade” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire text.  As you read, consider the following questions: what economic, social, and geographic factors shaped the early fur trade?  Who were the primary actors involved in the trade, and what roles did each play?  In what ways did disputes over the fur trade alter routes and shape both native and European policies concerning the trade?

 Reading and answering the questions above should take approximately
15 minutes to complete..  
    
 Terms of Use: The resource above is in the public domain.
  • Reading: The Manitoba Historical Society: Father Antoine Champagne’s “The Vérendryes and Their Successors, 1727-1760” Link: The Manitoba Historical Society: Father Antoine Champagne’s “The Vérendryes and Their Successors, 1727-1760” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entire article.  You will get an excellent overview of the French fur trading interests in the Great Lakes region during the eighteenth century.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.1.4 The Huron   - Reading: Creighton University: Reuben Gold Thwaites’s “The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791,Volume X [85] Part Second, ‘On the Beliefs, Manners, and Customs of the Hurons’ Chapter First.” Link: Creighton University: Reuben Gold Thwaites’s “The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents: Travels and Explorations of the Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791, Volume X [85] Part Second, ‘On the Beliefs, Manners, and Customs of the Hurons’ Chapter First” (PDF).
 
Also Available in:

[HTML](http://puffin.creighton.edu/jesuit/relations/relations_10.html)  


 Instructions: Please read the selection listed above about the
Huron tribes, many of who became allies of French traders and
settlers in New France.  As you read, ask yourself the following
questions: How does Le Jeune describe the Huron origin story?  How
do the Huron account for the creation of the world and in what ways
does this account shape their way of life?  What parallels does Le
Jeune draw between Huron beliefs and Christian beliefs?  

 (20 minutes)  
    
 Terms of Use: The resource above is in the public domain.

7.2 Louisiana   Note: This topic is covered in the resources under sub-subunits 7.2.1 and 7.2.2.

7.2.1 Colonial Louisiana   - Reading: The Library of Congress’ “Louisiana as a French Colony: Difficult Early Years of the Colony” Link: Library of Congress’ “Louisiana as a French Colony: Difficult Early Years of the Colony” (PDF)
           

Also Available in:  

[HTML](http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/maps/lapurchase/essay2.html)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the selection in order to get a sense of
the nature of settlements in colonial Louisiana.  As you read, ask
yourself the following questions: How does the author describe the
relationship between the settlers of Louisiana and the parent
country of France?  What circumstances affected this relationship?
 What did settlers do to survive?  What privileges did Antoine
Crozat receive in the proprietary charter of 1712?  Who was John Law
and what was his role in developing the economic viability of
Louisiana?  To what fate did he succumb?  

 (15 minutes)  
    
 Terms of Use: The resource above is in the public domain.

7.2.2 The Mississippi River Valley   - Reading: The Library of Congress’ “A Map of Louisiana and of the River Mississippi,” and Connexions: Jack E. Maxfield’s “America: A.D. 1601 to 1700.” Link: The Library of Congress: The Library of Congress’s “A Map of Louisiana and of the River Mississippi” (PDF), and Connexions: Jack E. Maxfield’s “America: A.D. 1601 to 1700” (PDF).
 
Also Available in:

[HTML](http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/map_item.pl?data=/home/www/data/gmd/gmd370/g3701/g3701s/ct003029.jp2&style=gmd&itemLink=D?gmd:2:./temp/~ammem_8sMt::@@@mdb=mcc,gottscho,detr,nfor,wpa,aap,cwar,bbpix,cowellbib,calbkbib,consrvbib,bdsbib,dag,fsaal)
(“A Map of Louisiana and of the River Mississippi”  

[HTML](http://cnx.org/content/m17800/latest/?collection=col10595/latest)
(“America: A.D. 1601 to 1700”)  

                                                                                                                                               

Instructions: Please view the image and read the selection in order
to get a sense of French colonization efforts in the Mississippi
River valley.  Scroll down to “The Mississippi River Region and
Louisiana”.  As you read, ask yourself the following questions: What
was the motivation of Robert Cavelier de La Salle to explore the
Mississippi River?  What reasons did La Salle provide to encourage
the French crown to settle the Mississippi region?  What happened to
La Salle on a subsequent voyage?  Who established the French colony
at the mouth of the Mississippi delta around 1700 and how did this
come to be?  

 (15 minutes)  
         
 Terms of Use: “America: A.D. 1601 to 1700” is released under a
[Creative Commons Attribution
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/).  It is
attributed to Jack E. Maxfield, and the original version can be
found
[here](http://cnx.org/content/m17800/latest/?collection=col10595/latest)
(HTML).  “A Map of Louisiana and of the River Mississippi” is in the
public domain.

7.3 Caribbean   Note: This topic is covered in the resources under sub-subunits 7.3.1 and 7.3.2.

7.3.1 Origins of the French West Indies   - Reading: The L’Ouverture Project’s “General Whyte’s Proclamation to the People of Saint-Domingue (1794)”, and The L’Ouverture Project’s “Toussaint L’Ouverture's ‘Dictatorial Proclamation’ (1801)”

Link: The L’Ouverture Project’s [“General
Whyte’](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIST321-7.3.2-General-Whyte-Proclamation.pdf)[s
Proclamation to the People of Saint-Domingue
(1794)”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIST321-7.3.2-General-Whyte-Proclamation.pdf)
(PDF), and The L'Ouverture Project’s [“Toussaint L’Ouverture’s
‘Dictatorial Proclamation’
(1801)”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIST321-7.3.2-Toussaint-Louverture-Dict.-Proc..pdf)
(PDF). 

 

Also Available in:  

[HTML](http://thelouvertureproject.org/index.php?title=General_Whyte%27s_Proclamation_to_the_People_of_Saint-Domingue)(“General
Whyte’s Proclamation to the People of Saint-Dominque (1794)”) [  

HTML](http://thelouvertureproject.org/index.php?title=Toussaint_Louverture%27s_%27Dictatorial_Proclamation%27_%281801%29)(“Toussaint
L’Ouverture’s ‘Dictatorial Proclamation’ (1801)”)  

 Instructions: Please read the selections to gain an overview of the
revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue and the establishment
of the Haitian Republic.  As you read, ask yourself the following
questions: Who is General Whyte and why does he issue a proclamation
to the people of Saint-Domingue?  What does Whyte encourage the
people of Saint-Domingue to do?  What does he offer in return?  How
does Toussaint L’Ouverture describe his recent actions in his 1801
Proclamation?  How does he describe the children of Saint-Domingue?
 Who has authority in Saint-Domingue under L’Ouverture’s rule?
 According to the Proclamation, how are foreigners to be treated?
 What restrictions does L’Ouverture place on citizens of
Saint-Domingue   
 <span style="font-size: 12px;">(20 minutes)</span>  

 Terms of Use: Both of the resources above are released under
[Creative Commons Attribution
Licenses](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/).  They are
attributed to The L’Ouverture Project, and the original versions can
be found
[here](http://thelouvertureproject.org/index.php?title=General_Whyte%27s_Proclamation_to_the_People_of_Saint-Domingue)
and
[here](http://thelouvertureproject.org/index.php?title=Toussaint_Louverture%27s_%27Dictatorial_Proclamation%27_%281801%29)
(HTML).

7.3.2 Saint Domingue   - Reading: The L’Ouverture Project: “General Whyte’s Proclamation to the People of Saint-Domingue (1794)” and “Toussaint L’Ouverture's ‘Dictatorial Proclamation’ (1801)”

Link: The L’Ouverture Project: [“General Whyte's Proclamation to the
People of Saint-Domingue
(1794)”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIST321-7.3.2-General-Whyte-Proclamation.pdf)
(PDF), and [“Toussaint L’Ouverture's ‘Dictatorial Proclamation’
(1801)”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/HIST321-7.3.2-Toussaint-Louverture-Dict.-Proc..pdf) (PDF)

 

Also Available in:  

[HTML](http://thelouvertureproject.org/index.php?title=General_Whyte%27s_Proclamation_to_the_People_of_Saint-Domingue)(“General
Whyte’s Proclamation to the People of Saint-Dominque (1794)”)  

[HTML](http://thelouvertureproject.org/index.php?title=Toussaint_Louverture%27s_%27Dictatorial_Proclamation%27_%281801%29)(“Toussaint
L’Ouverture’s ‘Dictatorial Proclamation’ (1801)”)  

 Instructions: Please read the selections to gain an overview of the
revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue and the establishment
of the Haitian Republic.  As you read, ask yourself the following
questions: Who is General Whyte and why does he issue a proclamation
to the people of Saint-Domingue?  What does Whyte encourage the
people of Saint-Domingue to do?  What does he offer in return?  How
does Toussaint L’Ouverture describe his recent actions in his 1801
Proclamation?  How does he describe the children of Saint-Domingue?
 Who has authority in Saint-Domingue under L’Ouverture’s rule?
 According to the Proclamation, how are foreigners to be treated?
 What restrictions does L’Ouverture place on citizens of
Saint-Domingue   
 (20 minutes)  

 Terms of Use: Both of the resources above are released under
[Creative Commons Attribution
Licenses](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/) (HTML).  They
are attributed to The L’Ouverture Project, and the original versions
can be found
[here](http://thelouvertureproject.org/index.php?title=General_Whyte%27s_Proclamation_to_the_People_of_Saint-Domingue)
and
[here](http://thelouvertureproject.org/index.php?title=Toussaint_Louverture%27s_%27Dictatorial_Proclamation%27_%281801%29)
(HTML).
  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Haitian Revolution Part 1” and “Haitian Revolution Part 2” Link: Khan Academy’s “Haitian Revolution Part 1” (YouTube) and Khan Academy’s “Haitian Revolution Part 2” (YouTube).

    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 27 minutes), which provides an overview of the slave rebellion in Saint-Domingue, which sparked the Haitian Revolution and the rise of the commander and revolutionary leader Toussaint L’Ouverture.  The Haitian Revolution is considered the most successful slave rebellion ever to have occurred in the Americas and a defining moment in the history of Africans in the New World.  This web media should take 30 minutes to complete.  Then, please watch the other above video (approx. 17 minutes) on the second phase of the Haitian Revolution under Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who became leader after the capture of L’Ouverture in 1802.  This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: The videos above are released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License.  They are attributed to the Khan Academy.