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HIST321: Comparative New Worlds, 1400-1750

Unit 5: England and France in North America   French and English adventurers arrived in the New World in the mid- to late-1500s seeking wealth and new lands.  French exploration in the New World began under the aegis of the French monarchy in the 1520s; the monarch dispatched explorers to chart North America and the Caribbean and to promote French interests there.  A number of short-lived French settlements were founded in North and South America: Cap Rouge along the St. Lawrence River, Fort Caroline in Florida, Fort Saint Louis in Texas, and a Huguenot settlement in Brazil.  More permanent settlements did not emerge in the Caribbean and along the St. Lawrence River until the 1600s.
      
The English began settling the Americas in the early 1600s; Queen Elizabeth I was keen to claim land for England and to assert a Protestant presence in the New World.  However, many of the early settlements—Roanoke Colony (North Carolina) and Popham Colony (Maine)—failed after a short time.  Competing with other European powers, the English established permanent settlements along the North American coast and in the Caribbean in the 1630s and 1640s.
      
In this unit, we will consider the many factors that imperiled early French and English New World settlements: conflicts with local peoples, disease, starvation, and internal strife.  We will also consider the transition from trading posts and forts to permanent French and English settlements.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 6.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 3.5 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:

  • identify and describe France’s early settlement efforts in North America and Brazil;
  • identify and describe England’s early settlement efforts in North America; and
  • analyze the contingent nature of French and English settlement patterns in the 1600s.

5.1 Early French Settlements in the Americas   Note: This topic is covered in the resources for sub-subunits 5.1.1-5.1.4.

5.1.1 Fort Caroline   - Reading: National Park Service’s “History of Fort Caroline”

Link: National Park Service’s [“History of Fort
Caroline”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/HIST321-5.1.1-History-of-Fort-Caroline.pdf)
(PDF)

 

Instructions: Please click on and read the link to get a sense of
the context of the French settlement at Fort Caroline in the 1500s
as well France’s claims to Spanish Florida.  
    
 Terms of Use: The resource above is in the public domain.

5.1.2 Cap Rouge   - Reading: Concepcion Saenz-Camba’s The Atlantic World, 1492-1600, “Early French Exploration of North America,” pp. 10-14. Link: Concepcion Saenz-Camba’s The Atlantic World, 1492-1600, “Early French Exploration of North America”, pp. 10-14 (PDF).

 Instructions: Please read the selection for an overview of early
French exploration of North America.  As you read, ask yourself the
following questions: Describe the circumstances that contributed to
France’s late start in overseas exploration.  What spurred King
Francis I to commission a settlement in the name of France in 1541?
 What was this settlement called and who was involved in
establishing it?  What was the relationship between the colonists
and the native population, the Iroquois?  How and why did the first
French colony come to an end?  

 (15 minutes)  
    
 Terms of Use: *The Atlantic World, 1492-1600* has been reposted by
the kind permission of Concepcion Saenz-Camba.  Please note that
this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any
capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

5.1.3 Fort Saint Louis   - Reading: Texas Beyond History: Fort St. Louis: “Main,” “The Visionary la Salle,” and “Life...and Death in the French Settlement”

Links: *Texas Beyond History:* *Fort St.
Louis*: [“Main”](http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/stlouis/index.html) (PDF),
[“The Visionary La Salle”](http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/stlouis/lasalle.html) (PDF),
and [“Life...and Death in the French
Settlement”](http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/stlouis/life.html)
(PDF).
    
 Instructions: Please read all three sections of this article on the
rise and fall of the French fort known as Fort St. Louis.  You will
get a good sense of why the settlement was established, why it
failed, and why it was significant.  

 Terms of Use: The resource above is copyright Texas Beyond History.

5.1.4 Huguenots in Brazil   - Reading: Harper’s Encyclopedia of US History’s “Huguenots” Link: Harper’s Encyclopedia of US History’s “Huguenots” (PDF)
 
Also Available in:

[HTML](http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2001.05.0132:entry=huguenots)  
    
 Instructions: Please read this short article to get a sense of the
French Huguenots and their motivations for creating settlements in
sixteenth century Brazil.  As you read, ask yourself the following
questions: Who were the Huguenots and how did they distinguish
themselves in France?  What was their motivation for establishing a
colony at the bay of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1555?  Why did
Huguenots continue to desire refuge in France’s American
possessions?  How did this lead to a new French colony in North
America?

(15 minutes)  
    
 Terms of Use: The resource above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution ShareAlike
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/).  It is
attributed to Harper’s Encyclopedia of US History, and the original
version can be found
[here](http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:2001.05.0132:entry=huguenots)
(HTML).

5.2 Early English Settlements in the Americas   - Reading: Concepcion Saenz-Camba’s The Atlantic World, 1492-1600 “The English in North America” (PDF) pp. 14-23.

Link: Concepcion Saenz-Camba’s *The Atlantic World, 1492-1600* [“The
English in North
America”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/HIST-Atlantic-World-1492-1600-OC-FINAL.pdf)
(PDF) pp. 14-23.

 

Instructions: Please read “The English in North America,” pp. 14-18
in The Atlantic World, 1492-1600 for an overview of early English
colonization efforts.  

 Terms of Use: *The Atlantic World, 1492-1600* has been reposted by
the kind permission of Concepcion Saenz-Camba.  Please note that
this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any
capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

5.2.1 Early Adventurers and Colonizers   - Reading: Concepcion Saenz-Camba’s The Atlantic World, 1492-1600 “The English in North America,” pp. 14-18, and American History’s “Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh March 25 1584” Link: Concepcion Saenz-Camba’s The Atlantic World, 1492-1600 “The English in North America” (PDF) pp. 14-18, and American History’s “Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh March 25 1584” (PDF).
 
Also Available in:

[HTML](http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/documents/before-1600/charter-to-sir-walter-raleigh-march-25-1584.php)
(“Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh March 25 1584”)  
    
 Instructions: Please read “The English in North America,” pp. 14-18
in The Atlantic World, 1492-1600 for an overview of early English
colonization efforts.  As you read, ask yourself the following
questions: What circumstances and policies delayed England’s entry
into the Atlantic race?  What was the purpose and content of the
patents King Henry VII issued to John Cabot?  What drove
developments in navigation and naval warfare in England and in what
ways did Elizabeth I capitalize on these developments with respect
to overseas exploration when she ascended to the throne?  


 Then please read “Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh” in order to get a
sense of Sir Walter Raleigh—English adventurer and colonizer.  As
you read, ask yourself the following questions: What rights and
responsibilities does Elizabeth I grant to Sir Walter Raleigh?
 According to the charter, how are any new fortifications to be
governed?  
 (20 minutes)  
    
 Terms of Use: *The Atlantic World, 1492-1600* has been reposted by
the kind permission of Concepcion Saenz-Camba.  Please note that
this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any
capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.
 “Charter to Sir Walter Raleigh March 25 1584” is in the public
domain.

5.2.2 Fledgling Settlements   - Reading: Concepcion Saenz-Camba’s The Atlantic World, 1492-1600, “The Fledgling Settlements,” pp. 18-20 Link: Concepcion Saenz-Camba’s The Atlantic World, 1492-1600, “The Fledgling Settlements” (PDF) pp. 18-20.
 
Instructions: Please read the selection, which will help you gain a sense of how and why the English tried to establish several settlements along the Atlantic seaboard between the 1580s and the 1610s.  As you read, ask yourself the following questions: What conditions compelled more explorers and merchants to take their chances in North America?  What were the early English hopes for North American colonies?  Where was the first English colony in North America and how did this come to be?  How and why did this first settlement come to an end?  What contributed to the second attempt at a settlement succumbing to a similar fate as the first settlement.  To what can the failure of the fledgling settlements be attributed?

(20 minutes)  
    
 Terms of Use: *The Atlantic World, 1492-1600* has been reposted by
the kind permission of Concepcion Saenz-Camba.  Please note that
this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any
capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder
  • Reading: The Berkeley Electronic Press: Professor Paul Royster’s version of John Smith’s A Description of New England Link: The Berkeley Electronic Press: Professor Paul Royster’s version of John Smith’s A Description of New England (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please follow the above link to the website, and click on the Download button to view the entire work in PDF format.  There are also three downloadable PDF maps on the bottom of the linked webpage.

    Smith’s 1616 work is the first to apply the term “New England” to the portion of North America from Long Island Sound to Newfoundland.  Seeking a new arena for colonial opportunities in the New World, Smith saw New England as a place where English life could be transplanted to America.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.2.3 Jamestown   - Reading: Sage American History: Henry J. Sage’s “Virginia: The London Company” and Connexions: Dr. James Ross-Nazzal’s “Ch. 3 British Colonial America (1588-1701), “Jamestown” Link: Sage American History: Henry J. Sage’s “Virginia: The London Company” (PDF) and Connexions: Dr. James Ross-Nazzal “Ch. 3 British Colonial America (1588-1701), “Jamestown” (PDF)
 
Also Available in:
HTML (Henry J. Sage’s “Virginia: The London Company”)

[HTML](http://cnx.org/content/m35277/latest/content_info#cnx_cite_header)
(Dr. James Ross-Nazzal “Ch. 3 British Colonial America (1588-1701),
“Jamestown””)  

 Instructions: Please read the selection “Virginia: The London
Company” to get a sense of the significance of the Jamestown
settlement as well as its historical context.  As you read, ask
yourself the following questions: What were the motivations and
goals of colonists and the London Company in North America?  What
role did Captain John Smith play in the colony of Jamestown?
 Describe life in the colony.  

 The please read the first two sections of Ch. 3 British Colonial
America (1588-1701), “Spain and Its Competitors” and “Jamestown.”
 As you read, ask yourself the following questions: What are the
three types of British colonies and which type was Jamestown?  What
were the objectives of the colony of Jamestown?  Describe the
relations between colonists and the natives, the Powhatten.  What
did the colonists find in lieu of gold?  
 (20 minutes)  

 Terms of Use**:** Henry Sage’s “Virginia: The London Company” is
released under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).  Dr. James
Ross-Nazzal’s “Ch. 3 British Colonial America (1588-1701) is
released under a [Creative Commons Attribution
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) license.