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HIST303: The Age of Revolutions in the Atlantic World, 1776–1848

Unit 5: The Industrial Revolution   The Industrial Revolution is not a revolution in the same sense as the previous units, but a series of long-term changes that reshaped first Europe and then the world.  The Industrial Revolution does not have a start or end date, and there is much disagreement on what constitutes a ‘revolution’ when referring to these changes.  The Industrial Revolution involved new technologies and ideas, as well as long-term changes in the social and economic relationships within Britain, Europe, and the wider world.
 
The Industrial Revolution made countries that adapted to these changes much more powerful economically, both overall and per capita, than countries that did not.  These changes came at a price for many people who saw their way of life and standard of living destroyed by the new modes of production.  The revolutions of 1848 were in a large part brought about by the changes the Industrial Revolution brought to European society.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 13.25 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2: 5.5 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.2.3: 0.5 hour

☐    Subunit 5.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.5: 3.25 hours

☐    Unit 5 Assessment: 0.5 hour
 

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- identify the factors that enabled the emergence of First Industrial Revolution in the English textile industry of the mid-to-late 18th century; - undertake comparative analyses of early capitalism in England, France, and the United States and account for the differences between them; - identify the characteristics of capitalist production and what distinguishes it from earlier forms of craft production; - discuss and identify the sociological categories capitalism, rationality, class, and alienation; - identify the main phases of working-class organization from the late 18th century through 1848; and - identify the transformations in political meaning given the French Revolution by the uprisings of 1848.

5.1 What is the Industrial Revolution?   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor John Merriman’s “Industrial Revolutions” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor John Merriman’s “Industrial Revolutions” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
HTML, MP3, Adobe Flash and QuickTime
 
Instructions: Please watch the video lecture.  As you watch the lecture, consider the following study question: How did the Agrarian Revolution help the Industrial Revolution?
 
Watching this lecture, pausing to take notes, and answering the question above should take approximately 2 hours.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.2 England: The First Industrial Revolution   5.2.1 Economic Preconditions and Incentives for Technological Development   - Reading: Arnold Toynbee’s “Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England” Link: Arnold Toynbee’s “Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read these lectures for a thought-provoking survey of
the factors that led to Britain’s Industrial Revolution. Write a
summary of the conditions of workers and events that led to the
revolution.  

 Reading this text and completing the writing activity should take
approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use for the
webpage above.

5.2.2 The Steam Engine and Technology   - Reading: Dionysis Lardner’s *The Steam Engine Explained and Illustrated* Link: Dionysis Lardner’s The Steam Engine Explained and Illustrated (HTML)

 Instructions: Carefully view the illustrations and read Dyonysis
Lardner’s *The Steam Engine Explained and Illustrated,* a study of
engineering and scientific breakthroughs that drove the invention of
the steam engine and the entire Industrial Revolution.  Remember
that this power source not only fueled factories, ships, and trains
but also changed human history.  
    
 Reading this text and viewing the illustrations should take
approximately 3 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.2.3 The Factory System   - Reading: Laura Del Col’s “The Life of the Industrial Worker in 19th-Century England” Link: Laura Del Col’s “The Life of the Industrial Worker in 19th-Century England” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read these excerpts from various blue-collar
workers during and after the Industrial Revolution.  This reading
also covers the topic outlined in subunit 5.3.2.  

 Reading this text should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.3 Effects of the Industrial Revolution   5.3.1 The Rise of Industrial Countries   - Reading: San Diego State University: World History for Us All Project’s “Big Era Seven” Link: San Diego State University: World History for Us All Project’s “Big Era Seven” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this text.  This reading offers a cogent
analysis of the historical causes, developments, and consequences of
the Industrial Revolution by integrating social, political,
institutional, and cultural factors.  Moreover, this reading helps
to explain the political, economic, and social trends that dominated
the century as well as their impact on the subsequent development of
the world’s economy to the present day.  
    
 Reading this text should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.3.2 The Consequence for Workers   Note: The reading assigned below subunit 5.2.3 covers this topic.

5.4 Theories and Problems of the Industrial Economy   5.4.1 Adam Smith and Laissez Faire   - Reading: Adam Smith’s Excerpt from *An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations* Link: Adam Smith’s Excerpt from An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this text.  Remember that for most of history free-trade did not exist as such; taxes, levies, impositions, etc. are nearly as old as trade itself.

 As you read, consider the following study questions: Would you say
that free-trade is the same as fair-trade? Why, or why not?  
    
 Reading this text and answering the questions above should take
approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.4.2 Karl Marx and Socialism   - Reading: Frederick Engels’ “Karl Marx” Link: Frederick Engels’ “Karl Marx” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this article on Karl Marx.  This is a short
biography of Karl Marx based on Friedrich Engels’ version (1868).
 Remember that together Marx and Engels wrote *The Communist
Manifest,* the most influential manuscript in the history of
Communist ideology.  
    
 Reading this text should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

5.5 1848   5.5.1 Revolutions in France   - Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Percy B. St. John’s “The French Revolution of 1848” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Percy B. St. John’s “The French Revolution of 1848” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this primary source.  This reading is a first-hand account of the French Revolution of 1848 by English journalist and traveler Percy Bolingbroke St. John.
 
Reading this text should take approximately 45 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.5.2 Discontent in Cities   - Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Alphonse de Lamartine’s “History of the Revolution of 1848 in France” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Alphonse de Lamartine’s “History of the Revolution of 1848 in France” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this primary source text with Alphonse de Lamartine’s account of the French Revolution in 1848.
 
Reading this text should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.5.3 Nationalism and Counter-Revolution   - Reading: US Library of Congress’s Country Studies: “Hungary under the Habsburgs” (HTML) and “Dual Monarchy” Link: US Library of Congress’s Country Studies: “Hungary under the Habsburgs” (HTML) and “Dual Monarchy” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read all of the sections below “Hungary under the Habsburgs” from “Reign of Leopold II” through “Aftermath of the Revolution.”  Also, read all of the sections below “Dual Monarchy” from “Constitutional and Legal Framework” through “Counter-Revolution.”  These studies analyze the events that took place in Hungary from the 18th century to World War I.  Remember that Hungary was made up of a number of different ethnic groups, all speaking different languages, which often created tensions.
 
Reading these texts should take approximately 2 hours.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 5 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 5 Assessment”

Link: The Saylor Foundation’s [“Unit 5
Assessment”](https://resources.saylor.org/wwwresources/archived/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HIST303-Unit-5-Assessment.FINAL_.pdf)
(PDF)  
    
 Instructions: Please complete the entire assessment. You can check
your work against The Saylor Foundation’s [“Unit 5 Answer
Key”](https://resources.saylor.org/wwwresources/archived/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HIST303-Unit-5-Answer-Key.FINAL_.pdf)
(PDF).  

 Completing this assessment should take no more than 30 minutes.