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HIST301: Greece, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire

Unit 7: The Expansion of the Roman Republic (c. 509–133 BCE)   After the Latin people established Rome as a republic in 509 BCE, they began expanding their control over central and southern Italy in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. They subdued the Etruscans and Samnites and eventually seized control over the remaining independent Greek city-states in southern Italy at the beginning of the 3rd century BCE. One of the unresolved questions for historians concerns the motives behind Roman expansion. Were the Romans aggressively seeking to dominate their neighbors, or were their conquests preemptive strikes to prevent their neighbors from attacking them? When Rome extended her influence to Sicily in 264 BCE, the republic started a long, prolonged series of conflicts with Carthage, a Phoenician colony in North Africa (modern Tunisia), which had its own interests in Sicily. In three Punic (Phoenician) Wars, the Romans ultimately defeated the Carthaginians and established Roman dominance over the Western Mediterranean by 146 BCE. During the second of these Punic Wars (218–202 BCE) the Antigonid king of Macedon, Philip V, allied his kingdom with Carthage to counter Roman advances into the Adriatic Sea, thus instigating a series of four wars between Rome and Macedon, which resulted in the annexation of Macedon into the Roman Empire by 146 BCE. In 190 BCE a Roman army crushed the forces of the Seleucid king Antiochus III in Asia Minor (modern Turkey) at the battle of Magnesia in 190 BCE after this king had advanced his forces into Greece. Thus, in the 2nd century BCE, Rome had defeated the Antigonid and Seleucid kingdoms and established itself as the hegemonic power in the entire Mediterranean basin. In this unit, you will examine the history of Rome’s wars of conquest and analyze how Rome was able to achieve these victories.

Unit 7 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 20 hours.
 
Subunit 7.1: 0.5 hours
Subunit 7.2: 19.5 hours
Subunit 7.2.1: 9.5 hours
Subunit 7.2.2: 10 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- analyze the causes and impacts of Rome’s wars of expansion in Italy, against Carthage, and against the Hellenistic successor states; - identify the factors that enabled Rome to achieve military success in these wars; and - analyze and interpret primary source documents from the period of classical antiquity using historical research methods.

7.1 Unifying the Italian Peninsula in the 5th and 4th Centuries BCE   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Roman Conquest of Italy”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
The Saylor Foundation’s </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“The
Roman Conquest of
Italy”</span>](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/HIST301-5.2-RomanConquestItaly-FINAL.pdf)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(PDF)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article, which describes the expansion of
the Roman Republic in Italy to the early 3<sup>rd</sup> century BCE
(see subunit 5.3.5). What were the main factors that contributed to
Roman military success? To what extent did Roman culture and
institutions as described by Polybius (see subunit 6.5) contribute
to Roman military victories?</span>  

 Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;"></span>

Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.2 Regional Expansion in the 3rd and 2nd Centuries BCE   7.2.1 The Punic Wars against Carthage   - Reading: Boise State University: Professor E.L. Skip Knox’s “The Punic Wars”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
Boise State University: Professor E.L. Skip Knox’s </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“The
Punic
Wars”</span>](http://europeanhistory.boisestate.edu/westciv/punicwar/)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Click on the links on the left side of the page and
read the texts and all embedded links for an overview of the wars
fought between Rome and Carthage between 264 and 146 BCE. These wars
are collectively known as the Punic Wars. </span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Reading this material
and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes. </span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Terms
of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on
the webpages above.</span>
  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Evelyn S. Shuckburgh’s translation of Polybius’s Histories: “Book 1”

    Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Evelyn S. Shuckburgh’s translation of Polybius’s Histories: “Book 1” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read all of Book 1 in Polybius’s Histories. ** In this book, Polybius recounts the First Punic War.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 3 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Reading: Jona Lendering’s Livius.org: “Hannibal” Link: Jona Lendering’s Livius.org: “Hannibal” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this text and all embedded links, paying special attention to the role of Hannibal – one of the greatest military leaders of antiquity – in developing a distinctive Carthaginian warfare.
     
    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum”

    Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

    Instructions: Spend a few minutes reflecting on this question about Polybius’s discourse on the First Punic War: What does Polybius identify as the key to Roman victory in this conflict?

    Now, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Also, take some time to read responses other students have shared and leave any comments you have on their feedback.

    Sharing your thoughts on the discussion forum should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Evelyn S. Shuckburgh’s translation of Polybius’s Histories: “Book 3”

    Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Evelyn S. Shuckburgh’s translation of Polybius’s Histories: “Book 3” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read all of Book 3 in Polybius’s Hisories. In this book, Polybius chronicles the Second Punic War and describes the great Carthaginian general Hannibal, whom he characterizes as a great force in Roman history. Polybius also argues that Hannibal’s reputation for cruelty was due to the actions of his close associates rather than his own desire to punish the Romans. Polybius concludes that it is impossible to know Hannibal’s true character, since his legacy has been shaped by the conflicting opinions of the Romans and the Carthaginians. What factors enabled Hannibal to defeat Roman armies repeatedly?

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 3 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Cyrus Edmonds’s translation of Titus Livius’ (Livy) “The History of Rome, Book 30: Chapters 29–45” Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Cyrus Edmonds’s translation of Titus Livius’ (Livy) The History of Rome, Book 30: Chapters 29–45” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Book 30 Chapters 29–45 of Livy’s The History of Rome. Here the Roman historian Livy recounts the Battle of Zama in 202 BCE. The Carthaginian government had recalled Hannibal from Italy to defend Carthage when Roman forces under the command of Scipio threatened this city. In the ensuing battle, Hannibal lost for the first time in his distinguished military career. Note that at the conclusion of this battle the Roman Senate was already engaged in a diplomatic crisis with the kingdom of Macedon that would eventually lead to war (see subunit 7.3.2). What were the terms that Rome imposed on Carthage as a result of the peace settlement?
     
    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

7.2.2 Wars in the Eastern Mediterranean   - Reading: Wikibooks: “World History/The Roman Empire” Link: Wikibooks: “World History/The Roman Empire” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the sections “Expansion and Conquest” and “The Shift from Greek to Roman Dominance” on this webpage. This reading provides an overview of the expansion of the Roman Empire into the Greek-speaking Eastern Mediterranean in the 2nd century BCE.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Wikibooks, and the original version can be found here.

  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Evelyn S. Shuckburgh’s translation of Polybius’s Histories: “Book 7, Chapter 9: Treaty Between Hannibal and King Philip V. of Macedon”

    Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Evelyn S. Shuckburgh’s translation of Polybius’s Histories: “Book 7, Chapter 9: Treaty Between Hannibal and King Philip V. of Macedon” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this one page which is a treaty between Hannibal and Philip V of Macedon made in 215 BCE. This treaty between Philip and Rome’s greatest enemy would lead to a series of wars between Rome and Macedon, which would end in the dissolution of the latter and its annexation into the Roman Empire in the 2nd century BCE. 

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum”

    Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

    Instructions: Spend a few minutes reflecting on this question about the treaty between Hannibal and Philip V: What did Hannibal and Philip V hope to gain by their agreement?

    Now, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Also, take some time to read responses other students have shared and leave any comments you have on their feedback.

    Sharing your thoughts on the discussion forum should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Evelyn S. Shuckburgh’s translation of Polybius’s Histories: “Book 18” Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Evelyn S. Shuckburgh’s translation of Polybius’s Histories: “Book 18” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read all of Book 18 in which Polybius chronicles the war between Rome and the Antigonid King Philip V (see subunit 5.3.3), which culminated with the victory of the Roman general Titus Quinctius Flamininus over Philip’s forces at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BCE. What strategies did the Romans utilize to isolate Philip V and build an alliance against him? What factors enabled the Romans to achieve victory in this struggle?
     
    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Horace White’s translation of Appian’s Syrian Wars: “Chapters 1–7”

    Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Horace White’s translation of Appian’s Syrian Wars: “Chapters 1–7” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Chapters 1–7 in Syrian Wars in which the Greek historian, Appian (c. 130 CE), chronicles the war between Rome and the Seleucid King Antiochus III. This war ended with the Roman victory at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BCE.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Spend a few minutes reflecting on these questions about Appian’s Syrian Wars:
     
    Why was this war fought? What was Rome’s interest in waging war against the Seleucid Empire, which was largely based in distant Asia?
     
    Now, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Also, take some time to read responses other students have shared and leave any comments you have on their feedback.
     
    Sharing your thoughts on the discussion forum should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Bernadotte Perrin’s translation of Plutarch’s “Aemilius Paulus Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Bernadotte Perrin’s translation of Plutarch’s Aemilius Paulus (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this biography in which Plutarch provides a portrait of the Roman general and politician Aemilius Paulus who led Rome to victory over the Macedonian King Perseus, the son of Philip V, at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BCE. This victory established Rome, without question, as the dominant power in the Mediterranean.
     
    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Evelyn S. Shuckburgh’s translation of Polybius’s Histories: “Book 29”

    Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Evelyn S. Shuckburgh’s translation of Polybius’s Histories: “Book 29” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read all of Book 29 in which Polybius chronicles the war between Rome and Perseus of Macedon.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum”

    Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

    Instructions: Spend a few minutes reflecting on this question about the war between Rome and Perseus of Macedon: What does the conduct of the Roman envoy Popilius and the Seleucid King Antiochus IV recounted in the last chapter tell us about the nature of Rome’s hegemony in the Mediterranean by 168 BCE?

    Now, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Also, take some time to read responses other students have shared and leave any comments you have on their feedback.

    Sharing your thoughts on the discussion forum should take approximately 30 minutes.