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HIST301: Greece, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire

Unit 4: The Classical Age (c. 500–350 BCE)   The classical period saw the production of some of the greatest artistic and literary masterpieces of Western Civilization, featuring iconic works by sculptors, architects, dramatists, historians, and philosophers. Athens emerged as the home of many of these intellectual and artistic achievements. But this same era witnessed frequent wars and revolutions as the rival city-states, including Athens, struggled with one another for hegemony while factions did battle within these cities to establish democratic or oligarchic regimes. The period began with many Greek city-states joining together under the leadership of Athens and Sparta to defend themselves from invasion by the Persian Empire during the Persian Wars (480–479 BCE), a story recounted by the historian Herodotus. Athens emerged from this war with a powerful navy which came to dominate the Aegean Sea by the mid-5th century BCE. This new Athenian Empire challenged the traditional hegemony of Sparta, which soon went to war against Athens. The rivalry between the two cities culminated in the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BCE), which was chronicled by the Athenian historian Thucydides. This war ended with the defeat of Athens and the dissolution of its empire, but the high-handed actions of Sparta after this victory resulted in decades of war as the other Greek city-states joined forces to liberate themselves from Spartan domination. For a brief period (371–362 BCE) another city-state, Thebes, eclipsed both Athens and Sparta as the hegemonic power in Greece. By the mid-4th century BCE, the Greek city-states were exhausted from years of constant war, leaving them vulnerable to aggression from a rising foreign power to the north, Macedon. In this unit you will study the Persian Wars, the rise of the Athenian Empire, the Peloponnesian War, the struggle for hegemony in the 4th century BCE, and the artistic and literary achievements of this era.
 

Unit 4 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 53 hours.
 
Subunit 4.1: 11 hours
Introduction: 0.5 hours
Subunit 4.1.1: 1.5 hours
Subunit 4.1.2: 9 hours
Subunit 4.2: 2.5 hours
Subunit 4.3: 29.25 hours
Introduction 1.25 hours
Subunit 4.3.1: 2.75 hours
Subunit 4.3.2: 1.75 hours
Subunit 4.3.3: 9 hours
Subunit 4.3.4: 14.5 hours
Subunit 4.4: 2.5 hours
Subunit 4.5: 1.25 hours
Subunit 4.6: 6.5 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- identify the causes and the impact of the Persian Wars on the Greek city-states in the classical era; - analyze the historical factors behind the establishment of an Athenian Empire by the mid-5th century BCE; - identify the causes and the impact of the Peloponnesian War on the history of classical Greece in the subsequent 4th century BCE; - analyze the causes for the continued wars for hegemony in the 4th century BCE and the effects of these conflicts on the Greek city-states; and - evaluate the achievements of artists, philosophers, and poets in this period.

4.1 The Persian Wars (490, 480–479 BCE)   - Reading: Oxford University Press: Dr. Sarah B. Pomeroy, et al.’s A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture: “Chapter 5: The Growth of Athens and the Persian Wars” Link: Oxford University Press: Dr. Sarah B. Pomeroy, et al.’s A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture: ** “Chapter 5: The Growth of Athens and the Persian Wars” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read all of Chapter 5. The authors provide an
overview of the rise of Athens and the leading position of this
city-state in the Persian Wars.  
    
 Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

4.1.1 Marathon (490 BCE)   - Reading: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 13: The Athenian Empire” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 13: The Athenian Empire” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
Quicktime/mp3
iTunes U
 
Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan traces the development of the Persian Empire. Why and how did the Persian Empire and the Greek world come into conflict? Pay special attention to Professor Kagan’s account of the events of the battle of Marathon in which the Athenians defeated the Persians. 
 
Watching the lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes. 
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original version can be found here.

4.1.2 Thermopylae, Salamis, Plataea, and the Formation of the Delian League   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 14: The Athenian Empire” and “The Athenian Empire (cont.)” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 14: The Athenian Empire (cont.)” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
Quicktime/mp3
iTunes U
 
Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan examines the developments that took place after the Greek victory over the Persians in 479 BCE. Why was the Delian League formed? Pay special attention to Professor Kagan’s analysis of the role of the Delian League in the creation of the Athenian empire.
 
Watching the lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes. 
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original version can be found here.

  • Reading: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: “11th Brittanica: Delian League” Link: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: “11th Brittanica: Delian League” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article for a description of the formation of the Delian League in 478 BCE. Note that the Delian League was an association of 173 Greek city-states under the leadership of Athens.
     
    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: A. D. Godley’s translation of Herodotus’s “The Histories

    Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: A. D. Godley’s translation of Herodotus’s The Histories (HTML)

    Instructions: Read all of Books 7–9 using the navigation arrows or sidebar to advance through the pages. In these books Herodotus recounts the massive Persian invasion of 480–479 BCE. These books cover the heroic defense of Thermopylae by the 300 Spartans, the naval battle at Salamis near Athens, and the land battle of Plataea in Boeotia.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 6 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum”

    Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

    Instructions: Spend a few minutes reflecting on these questions about Books 7–9 of Herodotus’s The Histories:

    According to Herodotus what enabled the allied Greek city-states to defeat Persia? How do Herodotus’s ideas regarding causation in his historical analysis differ from those of a modern historian? As a Greek, does Herodotus show prejudicial bias in favor of the Greek side in his account of this conflict? How do the historical figures portrayed by Herodotus resemble the heroes in the Homeric epics in respect to their actions and words?

    Now, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Also, take some time to read responses other students have shared and leave any comments you have on their feedback.

    Sharing your thoughts on the discussion forum should take approximately 30 minutes.

     

4.2 Classical Athens: Empire and Democracy   - Reading: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 15: Athenian Democracy” and “Lecture 16: Athenian Democracy (cont.)”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s *CLCV 205:
Introduction to Ancient Greek History*: </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
15: Athenian
Democracy”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CmupK_shCBY&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=15)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(YouTube) and </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
16: Athenian Democracy
(cont.)”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o0DWXr6kKPg&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=16)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(YouTube)  
    
 “Lecture 15: Athenian Democracy” also available in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-15)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/15-athenian-democracy/id341651987?i=63752994)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 “Lecture 16: Athenian Democracy (cont.)” also available in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-16)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/16-athenian-democracy-cont/id341651987?i=63753005)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 Instructions: Watch these two lectures. In the first lecture,
Professor Kagan describes the mechanics of the Delian League and its
transformation into the Athenian empire. Note how this
transformation enabled Athens to rival Sparta as an equal in power
and prestige. According to Professor Kagan, how do the workings of
Athenian democracy compare to modern American democracy? In the
second lecture, Professor Kagan continues his discussion of the
constitution of Athens by focusing on the judicial system. Pay
special attention to Kagan’s analysis of the role of women in
Athens. </span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Watching the lectures
and pausing to take notes should take approximately 2 hours and 30
minutes.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Terms
of Use: This resource is licensed under a </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License</span>](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">. It is
attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original
version can be found </span>[<span style="font-family:
&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">here</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-2)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;"> </span>

4.3 The Peloponnesian War   - Reading: Jona Lendering’s Livius.org: “Peloponnesian League”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
Jona Lendering’s Livius.org: </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Peloponnesian
League”</span>](http://www.livius.org/so-st/sparta/peloponnesian_league.html)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this text and all embedded links for an overview
of Sparta’s role in the creation of the Peloponnesian League and the
rivalry between this league and the rising Athenian Empire in the
5<sup>th</sup> century BCE.</span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Reading this material
and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Terms
of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on
the webpage above.</span>
  • Reading: Jona Lendering’s Livius.org: “Peloponnesian War” Link: Jona Lendering’s Livius.org: “Peloponnesian War” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this text, which provides an overview of the Peloponnesian War fought between the Athenian Empire and the Sparta-led Peloponnesian League between the years 431–404 BCE. How did this war break out?
     
    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.1 The Pentecontaetia   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 17: The Peloponnesian War, Part I” and “Lecture 18: The Peloponnesian War, Part I (cont.)”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s *CLCV 205:
Introduction to Ancient Greek History*: </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
17: The Peloponnesian War, Part
I”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nMlkvfFJYPo&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=17)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(YouTube) and </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
18: The Peloponnesian War, Part I
(cont.)”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W7xOLKKcm2s&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=18)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(YouTube)  
    
 “Lecture 17: The Peloponnesian War, Part I” also available in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-17)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/17-the-peloponnesian-war-part/id341651987?i=63752998)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 “Lecture 18: The Peloponnesian War, Part I (cont.)” also available
in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-18)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/18-the-peloponnesian-war-part/id341651987?i=63752996)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 Instructions: Watch these two lectures. In the first lecture,
Professor Kagan describes the causes of the Peloponnesian War
(431–404 BCE) in the era historians refer to as the *Pentecontaetia*
(“50 years”), the period between the end of the Persian Wars in 479
BCE and the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War in 431 BCE. Was this a
preventable war? Compare your thoughts on this question with those
Kagan presents in his second lecture, in which he also describes the
aftermath of the Thirty Years Peace in 445 BCE. </span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Watching the lectures
and pausing to take notes should take approximately 2 hours and 45
minutes.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Terms
of Use: This resource is licensed under a </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License</span>](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">. It is
attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original
version can be found </span>[<span style="font-family:
&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">here</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-2)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;"> </span>

4.3.2 Pericles and Athens   - Reading: Jona Lendering’s Livius.org: “Pericles”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
Jona Lendering’s Livius.org: </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Pericles”</span>](http://www.livius.org/pen-pg/pericles/pericles.html)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these texts and all embedded links for an
account of the life and times of Pericles, the most influential
statesman and general of Athens and a key figure in the preceding
lectures on the Pentecontaetia.</span>  

 <span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Reading this material
and taking notes should take approximately 45 minutes.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Terms
of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on
the webpage above.</span>
  • Reading: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: “11th Brittanica: Pericles”

    Link: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: “11th Brittanica: Pericles” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article, paying special attention to the profound influence that Pericles had on Athenian society.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.3 The War Begins   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 19: The Peloponnesian War, Part II” and “Lecture 20: The Peloponnesian War, Part II (cont.)”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s *CLCV 205:
Introduction to Ancient Greek History*: </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
19: The Peloponnesian War, Part
II”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5NcR-fU3QM&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=19)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(YouTube) and </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
20: The Peloponnesian War, Part II
(cont.)”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjunpZz2EhU&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=20)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(YouTube)  
    
 “Lecture 19: The Peloponnesian War, Part II” also available in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-19)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/19-the-peloponnesian-war-part/id341651987?i=63753010)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 “Lecture 20: The Peloponnesian War, Part II (cont.)” also available
in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-20)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/20-the-peloponnesian-war-part/id341651987?i=63752991)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 Instructions: Watch these two lectures. In the first lecture,
Professor Kagan focuses on the causes of the Peloponnesian War and
the possible motivations for Thucydides’s book, *The History of the
Peloponnesian War*. Professor Kagan parts ways with Thucydides and
argues that the war was not inevitable and that the Athenians under
Pericles followed a policy of deterrence that was aimed at peace.
Was Thucydides being objective or subjective? In the second lecture,
Professor Kagan examines Pericles as a general. Pay special
attention to Professor Kagan’s analysis of the Athenian war
strategy. </span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Watching the lectures
and pausing to take notes should take approximately 2 hours and 30
minutes.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Terms
of Use: This resource is licensed under a </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License</span>](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">. It is
attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original
version can be found </span>[<span style="font-family:
&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">here</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-2)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">.</span>
  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Benjamin Jowett’s translation of Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War: “Book 1”

    Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Benjamin Jowett’s translation of Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War: “Book 1” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read all of Book 1 using the navigation arrows or sidebar to advance through the pages. In this book, the Athenian historian Thucydides (c. 472–400 BCE) examines the events that directly resulted in the outbreak of war in 431 BCE. Thucydides was a firsthand witness to these events. Historians today debate as to whether the speeches in Thucydides are an accurate record of what these historical figures said in public or a vehicle for Thucydides to express his own views and commentary on these events.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 6 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum”

    Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

    Instructions: Spend a few minutes reflecting on this question about Book 1 of Thucydides’s History of the Peloponnesian War: After reading Thucydides’s account, to whom do you think Thucydides assigned blame for starting this war?

    Now, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Also, take some time to read responses other students have shared and leave any comments you have on their feedback.

    Sharing your thoughts on the discussion forum should take approximately 30 minutes.

4.3.4 The Fall of the Athenian Empire   - Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Benjamin Jowett’s translation of Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War: “Book 2”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Benjamin Jowett’s translation of
Thucydides’ *History of the Peloponnesian War*: </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Book
2”</span>](http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0105%3Abook%3D2%3Achapter%3D1)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(HTML)</span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Instructions: Read all
of Book 2 using the navigation arrows or sidebar to advance through
the pages. In this book, Pericles’s Funeral Oration at the end of
the first year of this war encapsulates the common values of
democratic Athens. Also, pay close attention to Thucydides’
description of the plague that struck Athens and his assessment of
the Athenian leader Pericles, who was a victim of this
plague.</span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Reading this material
and taking notes should take approximately 5 hours.</span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Terms of Use: This
resource is licensed under a </span>[<span style="font-family:
&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License</span>](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/)<span
style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">.</span>
  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Benjamin Jowett’s translation of Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War: “Book 6” and “Book 7” Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Benjamin Jowett’s translation of Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War: “Book 6” (HTML) and “Book 7” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Books 6 and 7 using the navigation arrows or sidebar to advance through the pages. In these books, Thucydides recounted the disastrous Syracuse Expedition (415–413 BCE), which was a major factor in the defeat of Athens and the loss of her empire in the Peloponnesian War.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 9 hours.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum”

    Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please spend a few minutes reflecting on this question about Books 6 and 7 of Thucydides’s History of the Peloponnesian War: What does Thucydides’s account of this expedition tell us about his opinion regarding democracy as a form of government?

    Now, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Also, take some time to read responses other students have shared and leave any comments you have on their feedback.

    Sharing your thoughts on the discussion forum should take approximately 30 minutes.

     

4.4 Spartan Hegemony   - Reading: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 21: The Struggle for Hegemony in Fourth” and “Lecture 22: The Struggle for Hegemony in Fourth (cont.)”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s *CLCV 205:
Introduction to Ancient Greek History*: </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
21: The Struggle for Hegemony in
Fourth</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zckc79jKOfA&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=21)[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">-Century
Greece”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zckc79jKOfA&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=21)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(YouTube) and </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
22: The Struggle for Hegemony in Fourth-Century Greece
(cont.)”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgs13OKQNnU&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=22)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(YouTube)  
    
 “Lecture 21: The Struggle for Hegemony in Fourth-Century Greece”
also available in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-21)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/21-the-struggle-for-hegemony/id341651987?i=63753000)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 “Lecture 22: The Struggle for Hegemony in Fourth-Century Greece
(cont.)” also available in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-22)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/22-the-struggle-for-hegemony/id341651987?i=63753008)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 Instructions: Watch these two lectures. In the first lecture,
Professor Kagan describes the aftermath of the Peloponnesian War and
explains how the Spartans came to dominate rather than liberate
other Greek *poleis*. Why did some of the *poleis* oppose Spartan
rule? In the second lecture, Professor Kagan examines the
continuation of Spartan tyranny over the Greek *poleis* and the
Greeks’ response to this subordination. Pay special attention to the
causes, developments, and effects of the Corinthian War. </span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Watching the lectures
and pausing to take notes should take approximately 2 hours and 30
minutes. </span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Terms
of Use: This resource is licensed under a </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License</span>](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">. It is
attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original
version can be found </span>[<span style="font-family:
&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">here</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-2)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">.</span>

4.5 Theban Hegemony   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 23: Twilight of the Polis”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s *CLCV 205:
Introduction to Ancient Greek History*: </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
23: Twilight of the
Polis”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EsjiBYBj_8I&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=23)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(YouTube)  

 Also available in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-23)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/23-twilight-of-the-polis/id341651987?i=63753009)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan describes
the growth of Thebes. How did Thebes come to be a major power?
</span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Watching the lecture
and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15
minutes.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Terms
of Use: This resource is licensed under a </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License</span>](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">. It is
attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original
version can be found </span>[<span style="font-family:
&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">here</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-2)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">.</span>

4.6 Intellectual Life in Greece   - Reading: Oxford University Press: Dr. Sarah B. Pomeroy, et al.’s A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture: “Chapter 9: The Fourth Century: Changing Ideas, Continuing Warfare”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
Oxford University Press: Dr. Sarah B. Pomeroy, et al.’s *A Brief
History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture*: **
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Chapter
9: The Fourth Century: Changing Ideas, Continuing
Warfare”</span>](http://www.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195372359/student/chapter09/?view=usa)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read Chapter 9, which provides an introduction to the
life and works of some of the greatest philosophers associated with
the classical period of ancient Greek history </span>– <span
style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Socrates, Plato, and
Aristotle. Please pay attention to the information presented on the
first two of these figures as they will be the subject of greater
study in the resources which follow.</span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Reading this material
and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.</span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Terms of Use: Please
respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage
above.</span>
  • Lecture: King's College London: History of Philosophy without Any Gaps: Professor Peter Adamson’s “In Dialogue: the Life and Works of Plato” Link: King's College London: History of Philosophy without Any Gaps: Professor Peter Adamson’s “In Dialogue: the Life and Works of Plato” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above, and listen to this entire lecture, which provides valuable insights into the life and thought of Plato (431–351 BCE). In addition to offering important biographical details about this famous philosopher, Professor Adamson introduces us to the questions that preoccupied him and the factors that may have led him to present his ideas in the form of dialogues. As you will find, the main character of Plato’s dialogues was his teacher Socrates. In the final resource of this section, we will read Plato’s account of Socrates’s trial (described briefly by Dr. Pomeroy above) in the Apology.
     
    Watching the lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Missouri-Kansas: Douglas Linder’s Famous Trials: Benjamin Jowett’s translation of Plato’s “Apology

    Link: University of Missouri-Kansas: Douglas Linder’s Famous Trials: Benjamin Jowett’s translation of Plato’s Apology (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this entire text, which provides Plato’s account of Socrates’s response to his accusers in the days preceding his execution. As indicated in the first resource from this subunit, Socrates was put on trial in 399 for a number of alleged crimes against the Athenian state including “corrupting the young.” After hearing the final judgment against him, Socrates is later said by Plato to have made a few additional remarks, uttering at one point the famous words: “the unexamined life is not worth living.” Considering the points made by Socrates in the passages read here, how would you interpret the meaning of this statement?

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.