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HIST301: Greece, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire

Unit 3: The Archaic Period: The Rise of the Polis (c.700–500 BCE)   During the Archaic period, Greece experienced rapid population growth, and the economy expanded as trade with the Near East and the Western Mediterranean blossomed. Land-hungry Greeks migrated from the Greek mainland and islands and coastlands of the Aegean and established colonies along the Black Sea as well as in North Africa, Southern France, and especially Italy. Wars for land in Greece between rival city-states provided an opportunity for successful military leaders to achieve monarchal power in their cities as tyrants, often with the political support of the common citizens who comprised the heavy infantry in these wars and were dissatisfied with the traditional leadership of the aristocratic elites. Two city-states, Athens and Sparta, in this period developed two very different and unique political systems to govern their cities. By 500 BCE, Athens had emerged as a democracy in which all Athenian-born adult males actively participated as citizens in the task of running the city, whereas in Sparta, citizenship was restricted to the members of its elite, highly trained military force, which had conquered and enslaved Sparta’s neighbors. In the Archaic period, poetry took a new direction with the lyric poets whose verses often treated subjects and expressed views that were unknown in epic poetry, while philosophers by the end of this period were challenging the world view of the epics of Homer and Hesiod. In this unit you will be examining the rise of tyrannies, the political development of Athens and Sparta, and the lyric poets and Pre-Socratic philosophers.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 23 hours.
 
Subunit 3.1: 3 hours
Subunit 3.2: 9.5 hours
Introduction: 0.5 hours
Subunit 3.2.1: 1.25 hours
Subunit 3.2.2: 7.75 hours
Subunit 3.3: 7.75 hours
Introduction: 0.75 hours
Subunit 3.3.1: 1.5 hours
Subunit 3.3.2: 5.5 hours
Subunit 3.4: 2.75 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- analyze the historical factors that enabled the establishment of tyrannies in many Greek city-states; - compare and contrast the political development of Athens and Sparta; - evaluate the innovative ways in which poets and philosophers in this era challenged traditional values as expressed in epic poetry; and - analyze and interpret primary source documents from the period of classical antiquity using historical research methods.

3.1 Social and Economic Change during the Archaic Period and the Rise of Tyrannies   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Archaic Greece (ca. 700–480 BCE)” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Archaic Greece (ca. 700–480 BCE)” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this article, which offers a brief overview of
Archaic Greece and the development of the *polis.*  
    
 Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.
  • Reading: The International World History Project: Robert A. Guisepi’s “Economy and Society in Classical Greece” Link: The International World History Project: Robert A. Guisepi’s “Economy and Society in Classical Greece” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article, which focuses on classical Greek economy and society as it developed in the Archaic period.
     
    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 8: Sparta”

    Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 8: Sparta” (YouTube)

    Also available in:
    Quicktime/mp3
    iTunes U
     
    Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan explores the rise, fall, and significance of tyrannies in the Greek polis. Pay special attention to the effects (both positive and negative) of the various tyrannies in the Greek world.

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes. 

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original version can be found here.

  • Reading: Nipissing University: Professor Steve Muhlberger’s “The Invention of Politics in Archaic Greece”

    Link: Nipissing University: Professor Steve Muhlberger’s “The Invention of Politics in Archaic Greece” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article. Pay special attention to the reasons Muhlberger gives for the political and social superiority of the Archaic aristocrats and his explanation of why tyranny came to be a common form of government in Archaic and classical Greece.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2 Archaic Sparta   - Reading: Oxford University Press: Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, and Jennifer Tolbert Roberts’s A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society and Culture: “Chapter 4: Sparta” Link: Oxford University Press: Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, and Jennifer Tolbert Roberts’s A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society and Culture: “Chapter 4: Sparta” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read Chapter 4, which describes the development of
culture, society, and the political assembly of Sparta, the most
powerful city in the Greek world for the majority of the Archaic and
classical periods.   
    
 Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.   
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.1 The Rise of Sparta   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 9: Sparta (cont.)” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 9: Sparta (cont.)” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
Quicktime/mp3
iTunes U
 
Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan explores the development and defining characteristics of Sparta. How were the Spartans able to create a distinct military culture?
 
Watching the lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes. 
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original version can be found here.
 

3.2.2 The Spartan Constitution   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 10: The Rise of Athens” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 10: The Rise of Athens” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
Quicktime/mp3
iTunes U
 
Instructions: Watch the first 35 minutes of this lecture in which Professor Kagan provides a description of the Spartan constitution. How does it compare to the Athenian constitution (see Subunit 3.3)?
 
Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 45 minutes.

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original
version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-2).
  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: A. D. Godley’s translation of Herodotus’s “The Histories

    Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: A. D. Godley’s translation of Herodotus’s The Histories (HTML)

    Instructions: Read all of Book 1 using the navigation arrows or sidebar to advance through the pages. Herodotus (c. 480–420 BCE), in his Histories, recounts the struggle between the Persian Empire and the Greek city-states. In this first book, Herodotus examines the rise of Persia under Cyrus the Great and the early history of Sparta and Athens in the Archaic period (see also subunit 3.3). The work of Herodotus is one of the main sources of information for the history of Archaic Greece.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 7 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

3.3 Archaic Athens   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 10: The Rise of Athens”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s *CLCV 205:
Introduction to Ancient Greek History*: </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
10: The Rise of
Athens”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ymChptV_Io0&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=10)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(YouTube)  
    
 Also available in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-10)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/10-the-rise-of-athens/id341651987?i=63752988)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 Instructions: Watch the last 35 minutes of this lecture in which
Professor Kagan examines the early history of Athens. How does it
compare to the early history of Sparta (see subunit 3.2.1)? </span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Watching the lecture
and pausing to take notes should take approximately 45
minutes.</span>  

 <span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Terms of Use: This
resource is licensed under a </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License</span>](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)<span
style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">. It is attributed to Donald
Kagan and Yale University, and the original version can be found
</span>[<span style="font-family:
&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">here</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-2)<span
style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">.</span>

3.3.1 Solon   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Solon and the Early Athenian Government”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
The Saylor Foundation’s </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Solon
and the Early Athenian
Government”</span>](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/HIST301-2.3.3-Solon-FINAL.pdf)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(PDF)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article, which describes the life and times
of Solon (638–560 BCE), an Athenian statesman known as one of the
Seven Wise Men of Greece. He abolished aristocratic control of the
government and introduced a more humane code of law. </span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Reading this material
and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.</span>
  • Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 11: The Rise of Athens (cont.)”

    Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 11: The Rise of Athens (cont.)” (YouTube)
     
    Also available in:
    Quicktime/mp3
    iTunes U
     
    Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan traces the development of Athens. Pay special attention to Professor Kagan’s analysis of the causes of the political and social turmoil in Athens, which preceded Solon’s reforms.

    Watching the lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes. 
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original version can be found here.

     

3.3.2 Reforms of Cleisthenes and the Rise of Athenian Democracy   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 12: The Persian Wars” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 12: The Persian Wars (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
Quicktime/mp3
iTunes U
 
Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan examines the development and emergence of Athenian democracy. According to Professor Kagan, how was Cleisthenes able to push Athens in a more democratic direction?
 
Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original version can be found here.
 

  • Reading: The Stoa Consortium: Dēmos: Classical Athenian Democracy: Christopher W. Blackwell’s “The Development of Athenian Democracy: Cleisthenes, Democracy, and Persia”

    Link: The Stoa Consortium: Dēmos: Classical Athenian Democracy: Christopher W. Blackwell’s “The Development of Athenian Democracy: Cleisthenes, Democracy, and Persia” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article, which analyzes the life and times of Cleisthenes (570–508 BCE), the statesman considered the founder of Athenian democracy.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Christopher W. Blackwell, and the original version can be found here.

     

  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: A. D. Godley’s translation of Herodotus’s “The Histories

    Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: A. D. Godley’s translation of Herodotus’s The Histories (HTML)

    Instructions: Read all of Book 5 using the navigation arrows or sidebar to advance through the pages. In Book 5, Herodotus recounts the revolt of the Ionian Greeks of Western Anatolia against Persia in 499 BCE and the aid which the Ionians received from Athens. Herodotus provides an account of the reforms of Cleisthenes near the end of the 6th century BCE.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 3 hours and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

3.4 Archaic Era Art, Poetry, and Culture   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Archaic Greek Art (700–480 BCE)”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
The Saylor Foundation’s </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Archaic
Greek Art (700–480
BCE)”</span>](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/HIST301-2.1.4-ArchaicArt-FINAL.pdf)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(PDF)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article about Archaic Greek art. Pay
special attention to the transition from the abstract geometric
patterning that was dominant before the 7<sup>th</sup> century to
the more naturalistic style influenced by the Near East and Egypt.
</span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Reading this material
and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.</span>
  • Reading: The Stoa Consortium’s Diotima: Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Fant’s Women’s Life in Greece and Rome: A Sourcebook in Translation: Translations of Sappho’s Poems

    Link: The Stoa Consortium’s Diotima: Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Fant’s Women’s Life in Greece and Rome: A Sourcebook in Translation: Translations of Sappho’s Poems (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this collection of poems from the 6th-century lyric poet Sappho. These verses recall many of the characters familiar to readers of Greek mythology and the Homeric epics, but re-imagine them in new and novel ways. Viewed in this light, the fragments of Sappho’s work found here offer a hint of both her prodigious talents and the impressive range of ways in which Greek literary artists of the Archaic age made use of their common cultural inheritance.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: King’s College London: History of Philosophy without Any Gaps: Professor Peter Adamson’s “Everything Is Full of Gods: Thales” Link: King’s College London: History of Philosophy without Any Gaps: Professor Peter Adamson’s “Everything Is Full of Gods: Thales” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Listen to this lecture in which Professor Peter Adamson introduces the Greek pre-Socratic philosophers, beginning with Thales (c. 580 BCE) the first such thinker.
     
    Listening to this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: King’s College London: History of Philosophy without Any Gaps: Professor Peter Adamson’s “Created in Our Image: Xenophanes Against Greek Religion”

    Link: Kings College London: History of Philosophy without Any Gaps: Professor Peter Adamson’s “Created in Our Image: Xenophanes Against Greek Religion” (HTML)

    Instructions: Listen to this lecture in which Professor Peter Adamson provides us with some valuable insights on the interests of pre-Socratic philosophers and their attitudes toward the works of Homer. The main subject of Professor Adamson’s lecture is the philosopher Xenophanes. Although the importance of Homer to Greek culture was immense (Professor Adamson calls the poet an essential part of the “shared culture which binds together Greek civilization”), critics could be found, such as Xenophanes, who rejected the “all too human” depiction of the gods displayed in Homer’s works. As Professor Adamson suggests, the questions raised by philosophers such as Xenophanes also provide an important preview of the ideas that interested later generations of Greek thinkers.

    Listening to this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Units 1–3 Assessment” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Units 1–3 Assessment” (PDF)

    Instructions: Follow the instructions on the document linked above to complete this written assessment. When you are finished, check your work against the Saylor Foundation’s “Guide to Responding” (PDF).
     
    Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour.