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HIST301: Greece, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire

Unit 2: The Greek Dark Ages and the 8th-Century Renaissance (c. 1100–700 BCE)   The end of the Bronze Age witnessed the destruction of the great Mycenaean palaces and archaeological evidence, and the testimony of ancient Greek historians indicates that this period was marked by wars and migrations. In the era that followed, the Greek Dark Ages (c.1100–800 BCE), literacy disappeared along with the immense palaces, in which scribes had used the Mycenaean Linear B script for record keeping. In this period the Greek mainland and the Aegean region were much less populated than in the preceding Bronze Age, and long distance trade with the Near East declined considerably. Beginning c. 800 BCE, Greece experienced a renaissance, or rebirth, of complex culture with archaeological evidence indicating a large population increase as well as the revival of monumental architecture and trade with the Near East. This era most notably experienced the emergence of the Polisor Greek city-state, which would serve as the center for Greek political and economic life through the classical period. During this renaissance, literacy also revived with the Greek adoption and adaptation of the Phoenician alphabet. This new Greek alphabet was employed at this time to record the epic poetry of Homer and Hesiod, which would shape Greek culture for centuries. In this unit you will examine the Greek Dark Ages, this Greek Renaissance, and the epic poetry of Homer and Hesiod.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 15.5 hours.
 
Subunit 2.1: 2.75 hours
Subunit 2.2: 1.5 hours
Subunit 2.3: 5.75 hours
Subunit 2.4: 5.5 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
   - analyze the archaeological and literary evidence for the causes of the collapse of the Bronze Age Aegean civilization and the implications of this collapse; - identify the political, social, and economic aspects of Dark Age Greece; - analyze the historical factors behind the Greek Renaissance of the 8th century BCE; - evaluate the influence of the epic poetry of Homer and Hesiod on Greek culture; and - analyze and interpret primary source documents from the period of classical antiquity using historical research methods.

2.1 The Collapse of Mycenaean Greece   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 28: The Collapse of Mycenaean Palatial Civilization and the Coming of the Dorians” and “Lesson 29: Post-Palatial Twilight: The Aegean in the Twelfth Century B.C.” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 28: The Collapse of Mycenaean Palatial Civilization and the Coming of the Dorians” (HTML) and “Lesson 29: Post-Palatial Twilight: The Aegean in the Twelfth Century B.C.” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these two articles, which discuss the archaeological evidence for the demise of Mycenaean civilization in the 12th century BCE.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1hours and 30 minutes
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

  • Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 2: The Dark Ages” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 2: The Dark Ages” (YouTube)
     
    Also available in:
    Quicktime/mp3
    iTunes U
     
    Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan explores the earliest history of Greek civilization. Pay special attention to Professor Kagan’s analysis of the Bronze Age society, his descriptions of Minoan Crete and Mycenaean Greece, and the collapse of Mycenaean civilization.
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original version can be found here.

2.2 The Dark Ages   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Greek Dark Ages”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
The Saylor Foundation’s </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“The
Greek Dark
Ages”</span>](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/HIST301-1.4-DarkAgeGreece-FINAL.pdf)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(PDF)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article about the Greek Dark Ages, during
which the Greek world entered a time of decline when important trade
links were broken and towns and villages were left abandoned.
Community life appears to have declined to the level of small-scale
or kinship-based societies. The archaeological evidence for the
period is sparse and shows no significant works of construction.
This long period of stagnation finally gave way to an
8<sup>th</sup>-century Renaissance, or time of recovery, during
which settlements (which would eventually become thriving cities)
were established across the Aegean Sea.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Reading
this material and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.</span>
  • Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 3: The Dark Ages (cont.)” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 3: The Dark Ages (cont.)” (YouTube)
     
    Also Available in:
    Quicktime/mp3
    iTunes U
     
    Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan addresses “The Homeric Question.” Which society (Dark Age or Mycenaean) does Homer’s poetry describe (See subunit 1.3.6)?
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original version can be found here.

2.3 The Greek Renaissance (c. 800–700 BCE)   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 4: The Rise of the Polis” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 4: The Rise of the Polis” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
Quicktime/mp3
iTunes U
 
Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan describes the Greek heroic code of ethics, which emerged out of the Greek Dark Ages and are exemplified in the heroes portrayed in the Homeric epics of the 8th century BCE. Professor Kagan demonstrates that, in the Greek community, honor was extremely important and even worth dying for, as exemplified by Achilles.
 
Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original version can be found here.

2.3.1 Economic, Social, and Political Change in the Greek Renaissance   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 5: The Rise of the Polis (cont.)”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s *CLCV 205:
Introduction to Ancient Greek History*: </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
5: The Rise of the Polis
(cont.)”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BB-i7hZadLc&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=5)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
(YouTube)  
    
 Also available in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-5)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/05-the-rise-of-the-polis-cont/id341651987?i=63753007)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan tells the
story of the emergence of the *polis* from the Dark Ages. Kagan
claims that the *polis* became a center of justice, law, community,
and cultural values that united the Greeks. How does Professor Kagan
explain the development of the *polis*? </span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Watching this lecture
and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15
minutes.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Terms
of Use: This resource is licensed under a </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License</span>](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">. It is
attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original
version can be found </span>[<span style="font-family:
&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">here</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-2)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">.</span>

2.3.2 The Greek Hoplite and the Concept of Citizenship   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 6: The Greek ‘Renaissance’–Colonization and Tyranny”

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Link:
YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s *CLCV 205:
Introduction to Ancient Greek History*: </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">“Lecture
6: The Greek ‘Renaissance’–Colonization and
Tyranny”</span>](http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HMs9mema--Q&feature=BF&list=PL023BCE5134243987&index=6)<span
style="font-family:
&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;"> (YouTube)  
    
 Also available in:  
 </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Quicktime/mp3</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-6)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
</span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">iTunes
U</span>](http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/06-the-greek-renaissance-colonization/id341651987?i=63752997)  
 <span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">
   
 Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan discusses
the emerging role of hoplite warfare in the Greek world in the
8<sup>th</sup> century BCE. </span>

<span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;">Watching this lecture
and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15
minutes.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Terms
of Use: This resource is licensed under a </span>[<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License</span>](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">. It is
attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original
version can be found </span>[<span style="font-family:
&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">here</span>](http://oyc.yale.edu/classics/clcv-205/lecture-2)<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;">.</span>

<span
style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,&quot;sans-serif&quot;"> </span>

2.3.3 Trade and Colonization in the Greek Renaissance   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 7: The Greek ‘Renaissance’–Colonization and Tyranny (cont.)” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor Donald Kagan’s CLCV 205: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: “Lecture 7: The Greek ‘Renaissance’–Colonization and Tyranny (cont.)” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
Quicktime/mp3
iTunes U
 
Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Kagan discusses the establishment of Greek colonies, beginning in the 8th century BCE. Professor Kagan also offers insights for understanding the rise of merchant and colonial networks.
 
Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Donald Kagan and Yale University, and the original version can be found here.

  • Web Media: University of Oregon’s Mapping History: “Colonies and Emporia”

    Link: University of Oregon’s Mapping History: “Colonies and Emporia” (Flash)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above, and then press the arrow buttons next to the timeline to view the interactive map. Be sure to read the text that accompanies the timeline. This resource provides an excellent overview of the development of Greek and Phoenician trade and colonization throughout the Mediterranean, beginning in the 8th century BCE. The information presented here also indicates the interactions between the various peoples of the region, one important outcome of which was the circulation of the alphabets described in subunit 2.3.4.

    Studying the resource and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3.4 The Greek Alphabet   - Reading: University of North Carolina, Greensboro: “Greek Alphabet” Link: University of North Carolina, Greensboro: “Greek Alphabet” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this webpage, which provides an overview of the development of the Greek alphabet. Originally adopted from the Phoenicians – an ancient people from the region known today as Lebanon – the Greek alphabet later became the basis for the Latin alphabet. The reappearance of literacy was one of the significant developments of the Greek Renaissance of the 8th century BCE.
 
Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4 Homer and Hesiod   - Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: A. T. Murray’s translation of Homer’s “Odyssey” Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: A. T. Murray’s translation of Homer’s Odyssey (HTML)

 Instructions: Read all of Book 8 in Homer’s *Odyssey* using the
navigation arrows or sidebar to advance through the pages. The epic
Homeric poems tell the tale of the Trojan War (*The* *Iliad*) and
the difficulties suffered by a hero from that struggle when
attempting to return home (*The Odyssey*). In the course of
narrating these events, Homer also provides a view of mythology,
social and political customs, moral codes, and gender roles of
inestimable value. In *The Odyssey*, the hero Odysseus, after being
shipwrecked on the island of the Phaeacians on his return home from
the Trojan War, is entertained by the king of this island, Alcinous.
The feast and athletic contests described in this book offer an
idealized portrait of the life of Dark Age Greek aristocrats.
Homeric epic poetry was performed as entertainment at such feasts as
the one in this book.  
    
 Reading this book and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  
    
 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/).  
  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum”

    Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” (HTML)

    Instructions: Spend a few minutes reflecting on these two questions about Book 8 of Homer’s Odyssey:

    What do the actions and words of the characters in this account tell us about the values of Greek aristocrats in the Dark Ages? What does the bard’s story of the adulterous affair of the gods Ares and Aphrodite tell us about how Greeks in this era viewed their deities?

    Now, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Also, take some time to read responses other students have shared and leave any comments you have on their feedback.

    Sharing your thoughts on the discussion forum should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: A. T. Murray’s translation of Homer’s “Iliad Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: A. T. Murray’s translation of Homer’s Iliad (HTML)

    Instructions: Read all of Book 22 in Homer’s Iliad using the navigation arrows or sidebar to advance through the pages. In this book of The Iliad, the Greek hero Achilles kills the Trojan prince Hector in battle and avenges the death of his best friend Patroclus, whom Hector had killed earlier. Note that in the poem the gods support one side or the other, with Apollo on the side of the Trojans and Athena on the side of the Achaeans (Greeks). Greeks viewed Achilles as the ideal hero.
     
    Reading this resource and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Spend a few minutes reflecting on these two questions about Book 22 of Homer’s Iliad:
     
    Based on the portrayal of Achilles in this book, what character traits did ancient Greeks value? Is warfare in this book portrayed in a positive or negative light?
     
    Now, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Also, take some time to read responses other students have shared and leave any comments you have on their feedback.
     
    Sharing your thoughts on the discussion forum should take approximately 30 minutes.

  • Reading: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Hugh G. Evelyn-White’s translation of Hesiod’s “Theogony

    Link: Tufts University’s Perseus Project: Hugh G. Evelyn-White’s translation of Hesiod’s Theogony (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this poem using the navigation arrows or sidebar to advance through the pages. Hesiod (c. 700 BCE), along with Homer, was regarded by ancient Greeks as one of the most authoritative sources of information about the gods. The Theogony or “Birth of the Gods,” like the Biblical book of Genesis, tells the story of the birth of the cosmos. The main theme of the poem is the triumph of order over chaos through the victory of Zeus, the king of gods and men, over his foes.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Spend a few minutes reflecting on this question about Hesiod’Theogony: What does this poem relate to us concerning how the ancient Greeks envisioned their gods?
     
    Now, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Also, take some time to read responses other students have shared and leave any comments you have on their feedback.
     
    Sharing your thoughts on the discussion forum should take approximately 30 minutes.