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HIST301: Greece, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire

Unit 1: Bronze Age Civilization in Greece (c. 3000–1100 BCE)   Complex, agricultural societies emerged in mainland Greece and the coastlands and islands of the Aegean Sea during the Early Bronze Age (beginning approximately 3000 BCE). The cultures of the region eventually developed written languages, monumental architecture, and distinct styles of artistic expression. Extensive trade networks linked the peoples of the region. On the island of Crete, the Minoan civilization built labyrinthine palaces and exerted considerable political and economic influence over this area. Around 1600 BCE, Minoan civilization collapsed due, probably, to an invasion by mainland Greek peoples collectively known as Mycenaean, who incorporated Minoan culture and technology into their society and flourished until the collapse of their civilization at the close of the Bronze Age. In this unit, you will examine the development of these Aegean civilizations during the Bronze Age. You will also look at Bronze Age art and architecture and discuss how archaeologists and historians have used this art and architecture to learn more about the peoples of Greece and the Aegean region.
 

Unit 1 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately: 18.5 hours 

☐    Subunit 1.1: 5.25 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 8.25 hours

     ☐    Introduction: 0.5 hours

     ☐    Subunit 1.2.1: 1.5 hours

     ☐    Subunit 1.2.2: 1 hour

     ☐    Subunit 1.2.3: 1.5 hours

     ☐    Subunit 1.2.4: 0.5 hours

     ☐    Subunit 1.2.5: 0.75 hours

     ☐    Subunit 1.2.6: 1 hour

     ☐    Subunit 1.2.7: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3: 5 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- identify the cultural origins of ancient Greek civilization in the Aegean Bronze Age; - describe the relationship between the geographical features (i.e., mountains, islands, etc.) of Greece and developments of Greek culture in the Aegean Bronze Age; and - assess the political, social, and cultural achievements of the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations.

1.1 Introduction to Bronze Age Greece (3300–1100 BCE)   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Introduction to Early Ancient Greek History” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Introduction to Early Ancient Greek History” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this article, which discusses the mystery of the first Greek settlers, how their descendants tried to fill in the gaps of their ancestry, and how 20th-century research has guided our understanding of the first Greeks.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Early Greece: Prehistoric Greece and the Beginning of the Bronze Age” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Early Greece: Prehistoric Greece and the Beginning of the Bronze Age” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this article about early Greece. Pay special attention to the description of the sources for the Greek Bronze Age (c. 3000–1100 BCE). There are several important issues to note during this period, such as how the early kingdoms developed through trade and the extent to which trading altered the kingdom’s military, linguistic, and religious composition.

    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

1.1.1 Early Bronze Age Greece   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Emergence of Complex Societies in the Aegean Bronze Age”

Link: The Saylor Foundation’s [“The Emergence of Complex Societies
in the Aegean Bronze
Age”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/Saylor.orgs-The-Emergence-of-Complex-Societies-in-the-Aegean-Bronze-Age.pdf)


 Instructions: Read this article about the development of complex
cultures in the Aegean in the Early Bronze Age (c. 3000–2000 BCE).  

 Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.

1.1.1.1 Early Helladic Greece   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 3: The Eutresis and Korakou Cultures of Early Helladic I-II” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 3: The Eutresis and Korakou Cultures of Early Helladic I-II” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article concerning the early Helladic cultures of mainland Greece. Also explore the image galleries and the “Chronology Overview” on the sidebar.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.1.1.2 The Cyclades and Western Anatolia in the Early Bronze Age   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 4: The Early Cycladic Period” and “Lesson 7: Western Anatolia and the Eastern Aegean in the early Bronze Age” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 4: The Early Cycladic Period” (HTML) and “Lesson 7: Western Anatolia and the Eastern Aegean in the early Bronze Age” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these two articles concerning the culture of the Cycladic Islands and the site of Ancient Troy in the Early Bronze Age. Also take some time to explore the image galleries.
 
Reading this materials and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.1.1.3 Early to the Middle Bronze Age   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 8: The ‘Lefkandi I’ and Tiryns Cultures of the Early Hellaadic IIB and Early Helladic III Periods” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 8: The ‘Lefkandi I’ and Tiryns Cultures of the Early Helladic IIB and Early Helladic III Periods” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article concerning the end of the Early Bronze Age (c. 2400–2000 BCE), which witnessed, according to the archaeological record, tremendous cultural change. Some historians maintain that this period witnessed the arrival of Indo-European people into Greece, perhaps even speaking an early form of the Greek language.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.1.2 Middle Bronze Age Greece   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 9: Middle Helladic Greece” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 9: Middle Helladic Greece” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article concerning the Helladic culture of the Greek mainland in the Middle Bronze Age (c. 2000–1550 BCE).
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 45 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.2 Minoan Civilization (c. 3000–400 BCE)   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “History of Minoan Crete” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “History of Minoan Crete” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this article about the history of the Minoan world. The Minoan world was centered on the Mediterranean island of Crete, which was one of the most important mercantile civilizations of the Bronze Age.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

1.2.1 The Early Minoan Period   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 5: The Early Minoan Period: The Settlements” and “Lesson 6: The Early Minoan Period: The Tombs” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 5: The Early Minoan Period: The Settlements” (HTML) and “Lesson 6: The Early Minoan Period: The Tombs” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read these two articles, which discuss the culture of
the Early Minoan Period (c. 3000–2000 BCE) on Crete.  

 Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour and 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth
College, and the original version can be found
[here](http://www.dartmouth.edu/~prehistory/aegean/).

1.2.2 The Middle Minoan Period   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 10: Middle Minoan Crete” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 10: Middle Minoan Crete” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article concerning Crete in the Middle Minoan period (c. 2000–1700 BCE).
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.2.3 Minoan Places   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 11: The First Palaces in the Aegean” and “Lesson 12: Minoan Architecture: The Palaces” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 11: The First Palaces in the Aegean” (HTML) and “Lesson 12: Minoan Architecture: The Palaces” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these two articles, which discuss the origin and function of Minoan palaces and their architectural features.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.2.4 Minoan Material Culture   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 13: Minoan Domestic and Funerary Architecture of the Neopalatial and Post-Palatial Periods” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 13: Minoan Domestic and Funerary Architecture of the Neopalatial and Post-Palatial Periods” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article which examines Minoan towns, temples, and tombs in the Neopalatial (1700–1490 BCE) and Post-palatial (1490–1050 BCE) periods on Crete.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.2.5 Minoan Art   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Minoan Art” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Minoan Art” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read this article about Minoan art. As you will find, the palaces and other architectural accomplishments of Minoan civilization were also the site of great wall paintings, or frescoes, from which archaeologists have learned much about Minoan society, culture, and religious practices – a subject that is treated more fully in the next subunit. Some aspects of Minoan art indicate the influence of neighboring cultures, an outcome that may not come as a great surprise given the trading relationships that the Minoans developed with the surrounding world.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

1.2.6 Minoan Region   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Minoan Religion” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 15: Minoan Religion” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article, which describes how historians and archaeologists have attempted to interpret the figures and rituals displayed in Minoan art and crafts. As you will find, researchers remain divided over the exact beliefs possibly conveyed by these artifacts.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.2.7 The Collapse of Minoan Culture   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 17: Akrotiri on Thera, the Santorini Volcano and the Middle and Late Cycladic Periods in the Central Aegean Islands” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 17: Akrotiri on Thera, the Santorini Volcano and the Middle and Late Cycladic Periods in the Central Aegean Islands” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article, which provides an introduction to the theories that link the collapse of Minoan civilization to the massive Santorini volcanic eruption and the destruction of the Minoan town on the Aegean island of Thera.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

  • Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 18: The Nature and Extent of Neopalatial Minoan Influence in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Worlds”

    Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 18: The Nature and Extent of Neopalatial Minoan Influence in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Worlds” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article, which discusses the influence of Minoan civilization on the Greek mainland and the Aegean region as well as the Mycenaean occupation of Crete in the 15th century BCE.
     
    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.
     

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.3 Mycenaean Civilization (1700–1100 BCE)   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Mycenaean Civilization: The Culture of Bronze Age Greece”

Link: The Saylor Foundation’s [“Mycenaean Civilization: The Culture
of Bronze Age
Greece”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/HIST301-1.3-MycenaeanCiv-FINAL.pdf) (PDF)  

 Instructions: Read this article about Mycenaean civilization. As
you will find, our geographical focus will shift from Crete back to
the Greek mainland. The subunits that follow will provide more
detailed descriptions of what historians and archaeologists have
learned about Mycenaean social and cultural life as well as their
contacts with neighboring peoples. Note that this reading also
covers subunits 1.3.1–1.3.3.  
  

Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 15
minutes.

1.3.1 Mycenaean Settlement Patterns and Centers of Power  

Note: This subunit is also covered by the reading assigned in Subunit 1.3.

  • Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 20: Mycenaean Residential Architecture: Palaces and Ordinary Housing” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 20: Mycenaean Residential Architecture: Palaces and Ordinary Housing” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article concerning the Mycenaean palaces that were constructed in the late Helladic period (c. 1700–1100 BCE) in mainland Greece.
     
    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.3.2 Mycenaean Social and Political Organization   Note: This subunit is also covered by the reading assigned in Subunit 1.3.

  • Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 25: The Linear B Tablets and Mycenaean Social, Political, and Economic Organization” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 25: The Linear B Tablets and Mycenaean Social, Political, and Economic Organization” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article, which discusses the discovery and decipherment of the Linear B tablets and what these tablets tell us about the political, social, and economic organization of Mycenaean society.
     
    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.3.3 The Mycenaean Economy   Note: This subunit is also covered by the reading assigned in Subunit 1.3.

  • Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 22: Aspects of Mycenaean Trade” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 22: Aspects of Mycenaean Trade” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article concerning the trade between Greece and the rest of the ancient world in the late Helladic period.
     
    Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.3.4 Mycenaean Arts and Material Culture   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 21: Mycenaean Public and Funerary Architecture: Fortifications, Drainage Projects, Roads, and Chamber Tombs” and “Lesson 24: Mycenaean Pictorial Art and Pottery” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 21: Mycenaean Public and Funerary Architecture: Fortifications, Drainage Projects, Roads, and Chamber Tombs” (HTML) and “Lesson 24: Mycenaean Pictorial Art and Pottery” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these two articles concerning the achievements of Mycenaean engineers and artists.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

1.3.5 Mycenaean Achievements and Legacies   - Reading: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 26: Mycenaean and Late Cycladic Religion and Religious Architecture” and “Lesson 27: Troy VII and the Historicity of the Trojan War” Link: Dartmouth College: Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology: Jeremy B. Rutter and JoAnn Gonzalez-Major’s “Lesson 26: Mycenaean and Late Cycladic Religion and Religious Architecture” (HTML) and “Lesson 27: Troy VII and the Historicity of the Trojan War” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these two articles concerning Mycenaean religion and the site of Troy in the late Bronze Age. Historians today debate how much the oral traditions represented in the epic. Homeric poems the Iliad and the Odyssey (see subunit 2.3) preserve a record of the events and culture of Mycenaean Greece.
 
Reading this material and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Jeremy B. Rutter, JoAnn Gonzalez-Major, and Dartmouth College, and the original version can be found here.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “HIST301 Discussion Forum” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Spend a few minutes reflecting on these two questions about the articles you just read:
     
    Did the Iliad record an actual Bronze Age war between Mycenaean states and the Anatolian city-state of Troy? How similar were the religious beliefs of the Mycenaean and later classical Greeks?
     
    Now, share your thoughts on the discussion forum by clicking the link above and creating a (free) account, if you have not already done so. Also, take some time to read the responses other students have shared and leave any comments you have on their feedback.
     
    Sharing your thoughts on the discussion forum should take approximately 30 minutes.