Loading...

HIST242: Modern Northeast Asia

Unit 13: China’s Re-emergence as a Global Power   *With the death of Mao Zedong, the hated ‘Gang of Four’ was arrested and after a brief two-year transition phase, power handed over to Deng Xiaoping. Under Deng, China embarked on a path of domestic reform and opening to foreign trade, modern technologies and knowledge it had once scorned as ‘bourgeois’, replacing ‘red’ bureaucrats with ‘expert’ technocrats in an effort to effect rapid modernization.

Needless to say, the modernization path has not always gone smoothly. As in South Korea and Taiwan during the 1970s, the economy has boomed, but political liberalization has been stifled, leading to intermittent protests and official clamp-downs.

Since the 1990s, economic development has accelerated, leaving many people behind and leading to rising social inequality and discontent. At the same time, China’s growth has given it huge economic (and military) clout internationally, renewing national pride, and fueling an upsurge in popular nationalism and demands that China take hard-line stances in international relations. Even though it is not democratically accountable, the regime thus faces constant challenges in attempting to retain one-party control, continue economic development that satisfies its more than a billion consumers, maintain national face in international dealings, and address discontent from various sectors of society.*

Unit 13 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 8.25 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 13.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 13.2: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 13.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 13.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 13.5: 45 minutes

Unit13 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Describe the process of economic reform in China since 1978. - Account for its success and evaluate the problems it has caused. - Explain the failure of democracy advocates to win any real concessions. - Classify the winners and losers in ‘reformed and opened’ China. - Analyze why China is unwilling to grant more autonomy (or independence) to minority regions, such as Tibet and Xinjiang, and why it persists in its claims to Taiwan.

13.1 End of an Era   - Lecture: Harvard Extension School’s “China’s Re-birth in the 1970s” Link: Harvard Extension School’s “China’s Re-birth in the 1970s” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Select your preferred format, audio or video, and connection type.
 
What are the major changes in China that took place beginning in the early 1970s that are identified in the lecture? How do you think those changes laid the foundation for China’s dramatic development from the 1990s onward?
 
Watching/listening and note-taking will take approximately 1 hour.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web page above.

13.1.1 Death of Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.1.

13.1.2 Arrest of Gang of Four   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.1.

13.2 Reform and Opening   - Reading: CUNY: Sun Y. Y.’s “The Chinese Reassessment of Socialism 1976-1992” Link: CUNY: Sun Y. Y.’s “The Chinese Reassessment of Socialism 1976-1992” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the document, paying attention to the way in which the ideology of “socialism” has been reworked to accommodate and/or legitimize China’s market reforms since the late 1970s.
 
This reading provides the ideological context of reform for subunits 13.2 and 13.3.
 
The reading will take approximately 45 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web page above.

13.2.1 Economic Reform   13.2.1.1 De-Collectivization of Agriculture   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.2.

13.2.1.2 Establishment of Limited Market Economy   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.2.

13.2.1.3 Establishment of Special Economic Zones   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.2.

13.2.2 Political Reform   13.2.2.1 Ousting of Conservative Elders from Government   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.2.

13.2.2.2 Reform of Nomenklatura System   13.2.3 Limits of Reform   - Web Media: PBS’s The Gate of Heavenly Peace: “Chronology” and “Tian’anmen Square Interactive Tour” Link: PBS’s The Gate of Heavenly Peace: “Chronology” and “Tian’anmen Square Interactive Tour” (HTML)
 
Instructions: From the main menu, first, select “Chronology” under “The Gate of Heavenly Peace.” Read through it to familiarize yourself with the timeline of events.
 
Return to the main menu and select “Tian’anmen Square Interactive Tour” and work your way through it.
 
This web media should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web page above.

13.2.3.1 Democracy Wall   - Reading: PBS’s The Gate of Heavenly Peace: “Wei Jingsheng” Link: PBS’s The Gate of Heavenly Peace: “Wei Jingsheng” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click the link to “Democracy Wall,” then click the hyperlink “Wei Jingsheng” to read a short biography. When you have read the biography, return to the “Democracy Wall” page to read short excerpts from his writings.

 This reading will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the web page above.

13.2.3.2 Campaign against Bourgeois Liberalization   13.2.3.3 Tian’anmen Square Demonstrations   13.2.3.4 Tian’anmen Square Demonstrations   - Web Media: PBS’s The Gate of Heavenly Peace: Beijing Days, Beijing Nights,” “The Night of June 3-4” and “The Truth about the Turmoil” Link: PBS’s The Gate of Heavenly Peace: “Beijing Days, Beijing Nights,” “The Night of June 3-4” and “The Truth about the Turmoil” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read all of “Beijing Days, Beijing Nights” by Geremie Barme. Then read the excerpt from Black Hands of Beijing: Lives of Defiance in China's Democracy Movement about the “The night of June 3-4”. Finally, please read “The Truth about the Turmoil.”
 
These readings should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web page above.

13.3 China in the 1990s: ‘Socialism with Chinese Characteristics’   - Reading: Atlantic Monthly: Yin Xiao-huang’s “China’s Gilded Age” Link: Atlantic Monthly: Yin Xiao-huang’s “China’s Gilded Age” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This reading provides the overview for subunits 13.3.1, 13.3.2, and 13.3.3.
What types of economic and social changes does Yin identify? Does Yin think that China is “socialist”? What political changes have there been and to what extent has China democratized?
 
This reading will take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web page above.

13.3.1 Socialist Market Economy’   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.3.

13.3.1.1 Boom in Private Industry   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.3.

13.3.1.2 Dismantling/Privatization of State-Owned Enterprises   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.3.

13.3.1.3 Fiscal Decentralization   13.3.1.4 Rising Regional Economic Disparities   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.3.

13.3.2 Limited Political Change   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.3.

13.3.3 Social Change   - Lecture: iTunesU: UCLA Center for Chinese Studies: Perry Link’s “The Quest for Moral Values in Contemporary Popular Chinese Thought” Link: iTunesU: UCLA Center for Chinese Studies: Perry Link’s “The Quest for Moral Values in Contemporary Popular Chinese Thought” (iTunesU)
 
Instructions: What values does Link identify in contemporary Chinese popular thought? To what extent does he view these values as a continuation of “traditional” thought and as a response to contemporary social and political changes and problems?
 
Listening to the podcast and taking notes will take approximately 1 hour.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the web page above.

13.3.3.1 Increasing Urbanization   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 13.3.3.

13.3.3.2 Consumer Culture   13.3.3.3 Emergence of Civil Society Movements   - Lecture: iTunesU: UCLA Center for Chinese Studies: Wan Yanhai’s “HIV/AIDS NGOs and Their Relationship with the Government” Link: iTunesU: UCLA Center for Chinese Studies: Wan Yanhai’s “HIV/AIDS NGOs and Their Relationship with the Government” (iTunesU)
 
Instructions: Listening to the podcast and taking notes will take approximately 40 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web page above. 

  • Lecture: iTunesU: UCLA Center for Chinese Studies: Guobin Yang’s “The Power of the Internet in China: Citizen Activism Online” Link: iTunesU: UCLA Center for Chinese Studies: Guobin Yang’s “The Power of the Internet in China: Citizen Activism Online” (Mp3)
     
    Instructions: Listening to the podcast and taking notes will take approximately 50 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web page above.

13.3.3.4 Effects of One-Child Policy   13.4 Chinese Nationalism and International Relations   13.4.1 Ethnic Minorities in Contemporary China   13.4.1.1 Tibet   13.4.1.2 Xinjiang   - Web Media: iTunes: Asia Society Podcasts: The Asia Society in Collaboration with the Far Eastern Economic Review’s “Revolt in China’s Muslim Northwest” Link: iTunes: Asia Society Podcasts: The Asia Society in Collaboration with the Far Eastern Economic Review’s “Revolt in China’s Muslim Northwest” (Mp3)
 
Instructions: Scroll down to find the podcast “Revolt in China’s Muslim Northwest”, broadcast on July 9, 2009. Listen to the first 6.5 minutes of the podcast which covers the uprising or riot (depending on your perspective!) in Xinjiang in 2009. Note the spectrum of views of the situation described by the speakers and the ways in which they suggest the situation in Xinjiang differs from that of Tibet. Why do you think the international community might have less support for or interest in Xinjiang than it does in Tibet?
 
Listening and answering the questions will take approximately 10 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web page above.

13.5 China in the World   - Web Media: Center for Strategic and International Studies’ “China’s Rise” Link: Center for Strategic and International Studies’ “China’s Rise” (Mp3)
 
Instructions: Click to download the podcast. Listen to the presentations by David Shambaugh and Ely Ratner to learn about China’s international relations. You do not have to listen to the question and answer session after the presentations (but you will learn more if you do!).
 
Listening to the presentations and taking notes should take approximately 45 minutes.