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HIST242: Modern Northeast Asia

Unit 12: Democratization in South Korea, Taiwan and Mongolia   *Despite (or perhaps because of) economic success in South Korea and Taiwan, long championed by the state as a justification for continued authoritarian rule, the clamor for democracy did not cease. In the face of growing domestic and international pressure, the regimes in both countries finally relented and began to implement democratic reforms, first at the local, then at the national level. Since the 1990s, both countries have had vibrant representative democracy and an entirely free (and frequently highly partisan) press. Mongolia, meanwhile, democratized following the adoption of the perestroikaand glasnostpolicies in the USSR. As in the USSR, the reforms were soon not felt to have gone far enough, and following massive demonstrations in early 1990, multiparty democracy was introduced and direct election of the president authorized.

In all three countries, however, much of the authoritarian old guard (bureaucrats or political parties) has continued to enjoy power in the democracy era. In addition to examining the origins and course of democratization, therefore, this unit also explores the domestic and international factors shaping the composition of the new regimes.*

Unit 12 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 5.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 12.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 12.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 12.3: 1.5 hours

Unit12 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Identify the origins and composition of the democracy movements. - Explain the strategies deployed by the regime to maintain its power and the strategies used against it by their opponents. - Describe the political systems of Mongolia, South Korea and Taiwan. - Summarize the positions of the main political camps. - Evaluate the impact of relations with China/North Korea on the democratization process and post-democratization polity in Taiwan and South Korea.

12.1 Mongolia   12.1.1 Perestroika and Glasnost in USSR   12.1.2 Perestroika and Glasnost in Mongolia under Batmonkh (1985-1990)   12.1.3 Demonstrations in Ulaanbaatar 1990   12.1.4 Democratization   - Reading: Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade’s “Constitution of the Republic of Mongolia” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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  • Reading: Nautilus Institute: Jeong-Jin Lee’s “Stabilized Democracy in Mongolia in 2005” Link: Nautilus Institute: Jeong-Jin Lee’s “Stabilized Democracy in Mongolia in 2005” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: How does Lee view the trajectory of Mongolian democratization? What role does he argue has been played by civil society? How has the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party retained/regained power?
     
    This reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the Web Page above.

12.1.5 Continued Strength of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP, re-named Mongolian People’s Party, MPP) in the Democracy Period   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 12.1.4.

12.1.6 Old Friends, New Alliances?   - Reading: Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade’s “Concept of Foreign Policy” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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12.2 South Korea   12.2.1 Challenges to State Authority 1970s-1980s   - Reading: The May 18 Memorial Foundation’s “May 18 Democratic Uprising” Link: The May 18 Memorial Foundation’s “May 18 Democratic Uprising” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the history section. What perspective on the
Kwangju uprising does this account attempt to convey? Do you agree
that this was the “starting point” of South Korea’s democratization?
(Compare this to the view expressed by Paik Nak-Chung in the reading
under subunit 12.2.3.) How do you think these events were viewed by
the regime? By its US allies?  
    
 When you have completed this reading and answered the questions,
select “testimonies” from the menu on the left. Read the testimonies
– there is no need to take notes. Why do you think these particular
testimonies (from foreigners) have been chosen over others that
could have been included?  
    
 OPTIONAL: Search Youtube for video footage of the uprising and news
coverage from the time.  
    
 These readings and questions should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the web page above.

12.2.2 Liberalization 1980s   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 12.2.1.

12.2.2.2 Legalization of Opposition Parties   12.2.3 Democratization   - Reading: Japan Focus: Paik Nak-Chung’s “Democracy and Peace in Korea Twenty Years after 1987: Where Are We Now and Where Do We Go from Here?” Link: Japan Focus: Paik Nak-Chung’s “Democracy and Peace in Korea Twenty Years after 1987: Where Are We Now and Where Do We Go from Here?” (HTML)
 
Instructions: To what does the writer attribute the (relative) success of the democratization movement in 1987 compared to previous (failed) democratization movements?
 
This reading should take approximately 1 hour.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web page above.

12.2.3.1 Peaceful Transfer of Power to Kim Young Sam   12.2.3.2 Prosecution of Chun Doo-Hwan and Roh Tae-Woo   12.2.3.3 Election of Kim Dae Jung   12.3 Taiwan   - Lecture: iTunesU: UCLA: Wu Jieh-min’s “Taiwan’s Civil Society and the Blue-Green Deadlock 1986-2007 (podcast)” and “Taiwan’s Civil Society and the Blue-Green Deadlock 1986-2007 (lecture notes)” Link: iTunesU: UCLA: Wu Jieh-min’s “Taiwan’s Civil Society and the Blue-Green Deadlock 1986-2007 (podcast) (iTunesU)” and “Taiwan’s Civil Society and the Blue-Green Deadlock 1986-2007 (lecture notes)” (iTunesU)
 
Instructions: Listen to the lecture and read the accompanying notes.
 
What major changes have there been in Taiwan in terms of national identification? And why have these changes come about? What role has civil society played in the democratization process in Taiwan? To what extent has it been cause or consequence of democratization?
 
Listening to the lecture, reading the text and taking notes should take approximately 1.5 hours.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the Web Pages above.

12.3.1 Liberalization in 1980s   12.3.1.1 Lifting of Martial Law 1987   12.3.1.2 Legalization of Opposition Parties   12.3.2 Democratization in the 1990s   12.3.2.1 Temporary Provisions Effective during the Period of Communist Rebellion Lifted   12.3.2.2 Reform of Legislature   12.3.2.3 First Direct Elections for President   12.3.2.4 First non-KMT President, Chen Shui-Bien, Elected 2000   12.3.3 Continued Dominance of KMT in Democracy Era