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HIST242: Modern Northeast Asia

Unit 10: The Asian Tigers   After WWII, Japan quickly rebounded. It was economically booming by the 1960s, and was one of the richest countries in the world from the 1970s onwards. The Japanese ‘miracle’, was soon followed by spectacular economic growth in the “Four Little Tigers”: Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. In this unit, we will explore the origins of this growth (excluding Singapore), as well as some of the domestic and international political factors and social and cultural matrices that may have catalyzed or obstructed it along the way. We will also examine the ways in which economic success was deployed by authoritarian regimes to stave off calls for democratization, and assess whether indeed authoritarian rule was a necessary condition for development (an argument China uses today, as we will see in Unit 13).

Unit 10 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 5.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 10.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 10.2: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.3: 2 hours

Unit10 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Explain the process of economic development in Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan. - Evaluate the extent to which authoritarian rule in South Korea and Taiwan, and colonial rule in Hong Kong (i.e. non-democratic government) helped or hindered economic growth. - Describe and analyze the reasons for opposition to authoritarian rule. - Assess the role of the international climate (especially the Cold War) in perpetuating authoritarian rule.

10.1 Hong Kong   10.1.1 Immigration of Chinese Refugees from Civil War   10.1.2 Riots and Reforms   10.1.3 Economic Growth   - Reading: Hathi Trust: Gene Gleason’s “Hong Kong: Chapter 4: Industrial Growth and Growing Pains” Link: Hathi Trust: Gene Gleason’s “Hong Kong: Chapter 4: Industrial Growth and Growing Pains” (PDF)
 
Instructions: The link takes you to the first page of the chapter (113). Read the entire chapter through page 155. This provides an outline of the beginnings of Hong Kong’s economic development in the 1950s. Pay attention to general trends only – you do not need to memorize all the details of different industries.
 
The reading should take approximately 1 hour to complete.
 
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10.1.4 Civil Society and Calls for Democracy   10.2 Taiwan   - Reading: Taiwan Documents Project: John Leighton Stuart’s “Memorandum on the Situation in Taiwan” April 1947 Link: Taiwan Documents Project: John Leighton Stuart’s “Memorandum on the Situation in Taiwan” April 1947 (HTML)
 
Instructions: What image does Stuart paint of Taiwan since its return to Chinese control? Why is he writing this to Chiang Kai-Shek? What do you think he aims to accomplish?
 
Pay particular attention to his description of the “February Incident,” events the Taiwanese today call the Feb. 28 Incident or Massacre.
 
The primary source reading and questions should take approximately 1.25 hours to complete.
 
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  • Reading: Taiwan Documents Project: “Inscription on the 228 Massacre Monument” Link: Taiwan Documents Project: “Inscription on the 228 Massacre Monument” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the inscription. Does the account there coincide with the one written by Stuart 50 years earlier?
     
    This primary source reading and questions should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the web page above.

10.2.1 Hand-over to KMT rule   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 10.2.

10.2.1.1 Resistance to New Regime   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 10.2.

10.2.1.2 Feb. 28th Massacre 1947   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 10.2.

10.2.2 KMT Retreat to Taiwan 1949   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 10.2.

10.2.2.1 KMT Authoritarian Rule: Anti-Communism and the White Terror   10.2.2.2 Re-making Taiwan ‘Chinese’   10.2.3 Economic Development   - Reading: Ohio State Press: Peter L. Hahn and Mary Ann Heiss eds’ “The United States and the Third World Since 1945” Chapter 10: Nick Cullather: “Fuel for the Good Dragon: The United States and Industrial Policy in Taiwan 1950-1965” Link: Ohio State Press: Peter L. Hahn and Mary Ann Heiss eds: “The United States and the Third World Since 1945” Chapter 10: Nick Cullather: “Fuel for the Good Dragon: The United States and Industrial Policy in Taiwan 1950-1965” (PDF)
 
Please read the PDF chapter entitled “Fuel for the Good Dragon”. As you read the chapter, pay attention to the role the author argues the US played (or did not play) in Taiwan’s economic development.
 
This reading should take approximately 1 hour.
 
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10.3 South Korea   - Reading: Asia Society’s “Population Change and Development in Korea” Link: Asia Society’s “Population Change and Development in Korea” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the document up to the section on North Korea. What factors are identified as contributing to South Korea’s dramatic growth from the 1960s? What are chaebol? What is the significance of South Korea’s changing demography?
 
This reading should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
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  • Lecture: The Korea Society: Ezra Vogel and Charles Armstrong’s “The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea” Link: The Korea Society: Ezra Vogel and Charles Armstrong’s “The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea” (Mp3)
     
    Instructions: This podcast provides an overview of the period from the late 1960s to 1979.
    Much of Vogel’s discussion focuses on a comparison between Gen. Park and China’s Deng Xiaoping. Why might this seem, superficially at least, a strange comparison? What is their evaluation of Park’s contribution to South Korea’s development?
     
    This lecture provides the overview for units 10.3.3-10.3.4.
     
    Listening to the podcast should take approximately 1.5 hours to complete.

10.3.1 State Formation 1948   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 10.3.

10.3.2 The Impact and Aftermath of Civil War   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 8.4.

10.3.3 Authoritarian Rule and its Challengers   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 10.3.

10.3.3.1 Anti-Communism as State Raison d’Être   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 10.3.

  • Web Media: Wikimedia Commons’ “South Korean Propaganda Leaflet” Link: Wikimedia Commons’ “South Korean Propaganda Leaflet” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: What is the message here and how is that message conveyed through the image?
     
    This exercise should take approximately 5 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the Web Page above.

10.3.3.2 Suppression of Social and Political Opposition   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 10.3.

10.3.4 Economic Development   Note: This subunit is covered by the reading for subunit 10.3.