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HIST232: Modern Middle East and Southwest Asia

Unit 7: Secular and Religious Tensions in the 1980s and 1990s   In this unit, we will examine how the major conflicts of the 1980s and early 1990s destabilized the nations of the Middle East and contributed to the emergence of militant Islamic fundamentalist movements that objected to western influences in the region and supported a return to strict theocratic Islamic rule.  A series of military and political struggles shaped the economic and political development of the Middle East and Southwest Asia in the 1980s and 1990s.  In 1979, Soviet military forces swept across the border of Afghanistan and seized political control of the country.  Afghani resistance fighters backed by the United States and other Middle Eastern nations gradually began to chip away at the Soviet military forces and eventually forced the USSR to withdraw its forces from Afghanistan in 1988.  A year after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein took advantage of the chaos of the Iranian Revolution and attacked western Iran.  The Iran-Iraq War, which ended the same year as the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, cost the lives of nearly a million Iranians and half a million Iraqis.  During this same time period, Israel faced domestic terrorist attacks by members of the Palestine Liberation Organization, a political movement that supported an independent Palestinian state.  Finally, in 1990, the United States became directly involved in a military conflict in Iraq and Kuwait after Saddam Hussein invaded the latter country.

Unit 7 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 13 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 7.4: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 7.6: 2.5 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Identify the secular and religious tensions that shaped the development of the Middle East in the 1980s and 1990s. - Identify the causes and political, economic, and social effects of the various Middle Eastern wars of this period.

7.1 Iran-Iraq War   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Iraq: A Country Study: “The Iran-Iraq Conflict” Link: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Iraq: A Country Study: “The Iran-Iraq Conflict” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to better understand the history of the Iran-Iraq conflict.  These readings also address the topics outlined in subunits 7.1.1 through 7.1.4 of this course. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.1.1 Origins of Conflict   7.1.2 Military Conflict   7.1.3 American Involvement   7.1.4 Consequences of Conflict for Iran and Iraq   - Lecture: James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (Monterey Institute)/Dr. Ibrahim al-Marashi: “Thirty Years After the Iran-Iraq War: Lessons of Counterproliferation and WMD Deployment”” Link: James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (Monterey Institute)/Dr. Ibrahim al-Marashi: “Thirty Years After the Iran-iraq War: Lessons of Counterproliferation and WMD Deployment” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch the entire discussion (approximately 35 minutes) to better understand the implications of the Iran-Iraq War. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

7.2 Afghanistan   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Peter R. Blood, ed.’s Afghanistan: A Country Study: “Early Links with the Soviet Union,” “Experiment with Liberalized Politics,” “Daoud as Prime Minister, 1953-63,” “The King Reigns: The Last Decade of the Monarchy, 1963-73,” “Daoud’s Republic, July 1973-April 1978,” and “Communism, Rebellion, and Soviet Intervention” Links: US Library of Congress: Peter R. Blood, ed.’s Afghanistan: A Country Study: “Early Links with the Soviet Union” (HTML), “Experiment with Liberalized Policies” (HTML), “Daoud as Prime Minister, 1953-63” (HTML), “The King Reigns: The Last Decade of the Monarchy, 1963-73” (HTML), “Daoud’s Republic, July 1973-April 1978” (HTML) and “Communism, Rebellion, and Soviet Intervention” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the evolution of modern Afghanistan.  These readings also address subunits 7.2.1 through 7.2.6. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

7.2.1 Soviet Invasion   - Lecture: C-SPAN BookTV: “Charlie Wilson’s War” Link: C-SPAN BookTV: “Charlie Wilson's War” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Please click on the play button on the C-SPAN website, and watch the entire discussion (approximately 55 minutes) to better understand the role that the United States played in the U.S.S.R./Afghanistan War.  This lecture addresses subunits 7.2.3 through 7.2.6.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.2.2 American and Regional Opposition   - Lecture: C-SPAN BookTV: “Charlie Wilson’s War” Link: C-SPAN BookTV: “Charlie Wilson's War” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Please click on the play button on the C-SPAN website, and watch the entire discussion (approximately 55 minutes) to better understand the role that the United States played in the U.S.S.R./Afghanistan War.  This lecture addresses subunits 7.2.3 through 7.2.6.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.2.3 The Mujahideen and the Modern Jihadist Movement   7.2.4 Soviet Withdrawal   7.2.5 Continuing Struggle for Political Control in Afghanistan   7.2.6 Regional and International Consequences of Afghan War   7.3 Israel   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Israel: A Country Study: “1967 and Afterward,” “The War of Attrition,” “The October 1973 War,” “The Decline of the Labor Party,” “Oriental Jews,” The Begin Era,” “The Peace Process,” “The Occupied Territories,” and “Israel in Lebanon” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Israel: A Country Study:1967 and Afterward” (HTML), “The War of Attrition” (HTML), “The October 1973 War” (HTML), “The Decline of the Labor Party” (HTML), “Oriental Jews” (HTML), “The Begin Era” (HTML), “The Peace Process” (HTML), “The Occupied Territories” (HTML) and “Israel in Lebanon” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the emergence of Israel following World War II.  These readings also address subunits 7.3.1 through 7.3.5. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

7.3.1 Regional Tensions   7.3.2 The Palestine Liberation Organization   - Reading: Gale/Cengage Learning: Yezid Sayigh’s “The PLO and the Palestinian Armed Struggle” Link: Gale/Cengage Learning: Yezid Sayigh’s “The PLO and the Palestinian Armed Struggle” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link, and then scroll down to find PLOandPalestinian.pdf (note the links are organized in alphabetical order).  Please click this link and then read the entire PDF (5 pages) to learn about the emergence of the PLO.
 
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7.3.3 The First Intifada   7.3.4 The Oslo Accords   7.3.5 Palestinian Self-Rule   - Reading: Yale Law School: Lillian Goldman Law Library’s “Israel-Palestine Liberation Organization Agreement, 1993” Link: Yale Law School: Lillian Goldman Law Library’s “Israel-Palestine Liberation Organization Agreement, 1993” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this document to understand the Israeli-PLO agreement of 1993.  In this year, Israeli and Palestinian negotiators reached an agreement regarding the status of the occupied Palestinian territories in Gaza and the West Bank.  The agreement provides for limited self-government in Gaza and the West Bank and establishes a timeline for Israeli military withdrawal from the occupied territories.  The agreement attempts to resolve many of the longstanding disagreements between the two sides that had sparked waves of violence in Israel and the Palestinian territories during the 1980s and early 1990s. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.4 Collapse of the Soviet Union   - Reading: Boundless: “The End of the Cold War”  Link: Boundless: “The End of the Cold War” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article to familiarize yourself with the key terms and events leading to the collapse of the Soviet Union and end of the Cold War.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

7.4.1 Caucasus and Central Asia Join the Economic and Political Sphere of the Middle East and Southwest Asia   7.4.2 Religious Conflict in the Caucasus   7.4.3 Economic Development in the Former Soviet Republics   7.4.4 American Influences   7.5 The First Gulf War   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Gulf War” Link: Wikipedia: “Gulf War” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage in order to get a sense of the first Gulf War.  This reading also addresses subunits 7.5.1 through 7.5.5. 
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • Reading: US Department of State: United States: A Country Study: “The Gulf War” Link: US Department of State: United States: A Country Study: “The Gulf War” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to better understand the first Gulf War.  This reading also addressed subunits 7.5.1 through 7.5.5.  This website hosts online versions of previously published country studies commissioned by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress as part of the Country Studies/Area Handbook Series. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

7.5.1 Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait   7.5.2 American Response   7.5.3 International Response   7.5.4 Liberation of Kuwait   7.5.5 Regional and International Consequences of Conflict   7.6 Emergence of Militant Islamic Fundamentalism   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Emergence of Militant Islamic Fundamentalism” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Emergence of Militant Islamic Fundamentalism” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire document.

7.6.1 Religion and Politics   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Religion and Politics” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Religion and Politics” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
document.

7.6.2 Political, Religious, and Social Objectives   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Political, Religious, and Social Objectives” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Political, Religious, and Social Objectives” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire
document

7.6.3 Militarism and Terrorism   - Reading: University of Notre Dame: Professor George Lopez’s Introduction to Peace Studies “Terrorism”  Link: University of Notre Dame: Professor George Lopez’s Introduction to Peace Studies “Terrorism” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article and familiarize yourself with the roots, trend, developmental stages, and examples of terrorism.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 40 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License

7.6.4 Regional Impact in the 1990s   - Reading: History Commons: “Events Leading Up to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq”  Link: History Commons: “Events Leading Up to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article to familiarize yourself with the historical events leading up to the 2003 Invasion of Iraq.
 
Reading this chronology should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

7.6.5 International Impact in the 1990s   - Reading: U.S. Department of State: Recent North Carolina “The War on Terror and the Presidency of George W. Bush”  Link: U.S. Department of State: Recent North Carolina “The War on Terror and the Presidency of George W. Bush” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read the article for an introduction to the Bush Administration and the U.S. War on Terror.
 
Reading the article should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 Generic license