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HIST232: Modern Middle East and Southwest Asia

Unit 5: Political, Economic, and Social Tensions in the 1960s and 1970s   This unit will look at the sources of political, economic, and social tensions in the Middle East and Southwest Asia during the 1960s and 1970s and examine how these tensions shaped the development of countries in the region.  We will also analyze the results of modernization campaigns in these nations and look at how these campaigns altered the place of women and religious minorities in Middle Eastern society.  The 1960s and 1970s were an era of political, economic, and social instability for many nations in the Middle East and Southwest Asia.  Nations such as Turkey, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon experimented with elected governments during this time period, but military officials and autocratic leaders seized power in many of these countries after electoral chaos and violence threatened social and political stability.  Libya, Iraq, Iran, and the Arabian states profited from oil production, but unstable oil prices prevented them from earning consistent revenues.  In 1965, these Middle Eastern states, along with nations in South America, Africa, and Asia, formed the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to control oil production and stabilize international oil prices.  Over the course of the 1970s, OPEC began to exert greater power internationally.  Some Middle Eastern OPEC nations also used oil as an economic weapon when they embargoed oil shipments to the United States after it supported Israel in the 1973 Yom Kippur War.

Unit 5 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 15 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 5.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 5.2: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 5.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 5.4: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 5.7: 3 hours

Unit5 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Compare and contrast the political and economic development of Middle Eastern and Southwest Asian nations following World War II. 
  • Identify the role mineral wealth played in the economic development of the post-World War II Middle East.

5.1 Turkey   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Turkey: A Country Study: “Turkey after Atatürk,” and “Crisis in Turkish Democracy” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Libya: A Country Study: “Turkey after Atatürk” (HTML) and “Crisis in Turkish Democracy” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand Turkey in the 1960s and 1970s.  These readings also address the topics outlined in subunits 5.1.1 through 5.1.5 of this course. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

5.1.1 Democratic Rule   5.1.2 Military Control   5.1.3 Cold War Politics   5.1.4 Development   5.1.5 Ethnic and Social Turmoil   5.2 Egypt   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Egypt: A Country Study: “Egypt, the Arabs, and Israel,” “The June 1967 War,” “The Aftermath of the War: Internal Relations,” “External Relations,” “Nasser’s Legacy,” “Anwar as Sadat,” “October 1973 War,” “Political Developments, 1971-78,” “Egypt’s New Direction,” Peace with Israel,” and “The Aftermath of Camp David and the Assassination of Sadat” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Egypt: A Country Study: “Egypt, the Arabs, and Israel” (HTML), “The June 1967 War” (HTML), “The Aftermath of the War: Internal Relations” (HTML), “External Relations” (HTML), “Nasser’s Legacy” (HTML), “Anwar as Sadat, 1970-1973” (HTML), “October 1973 War” (HTML), “Political Developments, 1971-78” (HTML), “Egypt’s New Direction” (HTML), “Peace with Israel” (HTML) and “The Aftermath of Camp David and the Assassination of Sadat” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand Egyptian politics during the 1960s and 1970s.  These readings also address the topics outlined in subunits 5.2.1 through 5.2.7 of this course. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above

5.2.1 Internal Power Struggles   5.2.2 Development and Modernization   5.2.3 Gamal Abdel Nasser and Egyptian Power in the Middle East   - Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Professor Paul Halsall’s version of Gamal Abdel Nasser’s “Denouncement of the Proposal for a Canal Users’ Association, 1956” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Professor Paul Halsall’s version of Gamal Abdel Nasser’s “Denouncement of the Proposal for a Canal Users’ Association, 1956” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire document to understand Nasser’s concerns regarding Western imperialism.  Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser gave this speech shortly after he nationalized the Suez Canal Company in 1956.  Nasser asserts that Egypt will no longer endure imperialist economic oppression from Canal Company investors England and France and warns these nations that his country will resist any military attacks to regain control of the canal “to the last drop of our blood.” 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.2.4 The United Arab Republic   - Reading: Wikipedia: “United Arab Republic” Link: Wikipedia: “United Arab Republic” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage in order to get a sense of the emergence and disappearance of the United Arab Republic (UAR). 
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

5.2.5 Conflict with Israel   5.2.6 Military Stalemate   5.2.7 Social and Cultural Change   5.3 Libya   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Libya: A Country Study: “The September 1969 Coup,” “Qadhafi,” “Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya,” “Politics of Oil,” “Libya and Arab Unity,” “Libyan Ventures in Sub-Saharan Africa,” and “Relations with the United States” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Libya: A Country Study: “The September 1969 Coup” (HTML), “Qadhafi” (HTML), “Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya” (HTML), “Politics of Oil” (HTML), “Libya and Arab Unity” (HTML), “Libyan Ventures in Sub-Saharan Africa” (HTML) and “Relations with the United States” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the history of modern Libya.  These readings also address subunits 5.3.1 through 5.3.6. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

5.3.1 Independence   5.3.2 Oil Development   5.3.3 Revolution   5.3.4 Qadhafi and the Politics of Oil   5.3.5 Social and Economic Change   5.3.6 International Isolation   5.4 Lebanon and Syria   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Thomas Collelo, ed.’s Lebanon: A Country Study: “The Franjiyah Era,” “The Civil War,” and “The Sarkis Administration” Links: US Library of Congress: Thomas Collelo, ed.’s Lebanon: A Country Study: “The Franjiyah Era” (HTML), “The Civil War” (HTML) and “The Sarkis Administration” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the emergence of modern Lebanon.  These readings also address subunits 5.4.1 through 5.4.4. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Thomas Collelo, ed.’s Syria: A Country Study: “Coups and Countercoups, 1961-70,” “Neo-Baath Dominance, 1963-66,” “The Baath Redirections of 1966 and 1970,” and “The Assad Era” Link: US Library of Congress: Thomas Collelo, ed.’s Syria: A Country Study: “Coups and Countercoups, 1961-70” (HTML), “Neo-Baath Dominance, 1963-66” (HTML), “The Baath Redirections of 1966 and 1970” (HTML) and “The Assad Era” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the emergence of France’s mandate for Syria.  These readings also address the topics outlined in subunits 5.4.5 through 5.4.7 of this course.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

5.4.1 Politics in Lebanon   5.4.2 Lebanese Civil War   5.4.3 War and Peace   5.4.4 Lebanon in the Shadow of Syria and Israel   5.4.5 Syria and Egypt   5.4.6 Ba’ath Party Control   5.4.7 Assad and Political Control   - Reading: Encyclopedia Britannica: “Hafiz al-Assad” Link: Encyclopedia Britannica: “Hafiz al-Assad” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage in order to get a sense of the collapse of the USSR. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

5.5 Iraq   - Reading: Gale/Cengage Learning: Professor Peter Sluglett’s “The Iraqi Community Party, 1934-1979” Link: Gale/Cengage Learning: Professor Peter Sluglett’s “The Iraqi Communist Party, 1934-1979” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click the link above, and then scroll down the webpage to find TheIraqiCommunist.pdf (note that the links are listed in alphabetical order).  Please click this link and then read the entire PDF (4 pages) to learn about the emergence and death of the Communist Party in Iraq.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed here.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Iraq: A Country Study: “Republican Iraq,” “Coups, Coup Attempts, and Foreign Policy,” and “The Emergence of Saddam Husayn, 1968-79” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Libya: A Country Study: “Republican Iraq” (HTML), “Coups, Coup Attempts, and Foreign Policy” (HTML) and “The Emergence of Saddam Husayn, 1968-79” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these entire webpages to better understand the history of modern Iraq.  These readings also address the topics outlined in subunits 5.5.1 through 5.5.4 of this course. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

5.5.1 The Republic of Iraq   5.5.2 Nationalism and Ba’ath Party Rule in the 1970s   5.5.3 Rise of Saddam Husain   5.5.4 Economic and Social Change   5.6 The Arabian States   - Reading: University of Notre Dame: Professor Asma Afsaruddin’s Islamic Societies of the Middle East and North Africa: Religion, History, and Culture “Introduction to the Geographical and Historical Background of the Middle East” and Pennsylvania State University: Karen Hagemeier Jensen’s EGEE120: Oil: International Evolution “’Old Mossy’ and the Struggle for Iran”  Links: University of Notre Dame: Professor Asma Afsaruddin’s Islamic Societies of the Middle East and North Africa: Religion, History, and Culture “Introduction to the Geographical and Historical Background of the Middle East” (HTML) and Pennsylvania State University: Karen Hagemeier Jensen’s EGEE120: Oil: International Evolution “’Old Mossy’ and the Struggle for Iran” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these two resources. The first resource provides a general background of the Middle East, focusing on its geography, culture, religion and worldview. The second resource discusses the nationalization of oil in Iran in the 1950s and expanded U.S. interest in the Middle East. 

 Reading these two articles should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Both of these resources are licensed under
a [Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
Unported
License](https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). 

5.6.1 Oil Politics   5.6.2 Foreign Development and Nationalism   5.6.3 Saudi Arabian Influence over Region   5.6.4 Economic Development and Social Stasis   5.6.5 European Investment and Political Influence   5.7 The Creation of OPEC   - Lecture: iTunes U: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, “Lecture 21: Oil and the State” Link: iTunes U: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, “Lecture 21: Oil and the State” (iTunes Audio)
 
Instructions: Click on the above link.  You might be asked to launch iTunes before you can access the lecture.  Scroll down to find Lecture 21.  Please listen to the entire lecture (approximately 78 minutes), which addresses oil and its effects on the Middle East. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the link above.

  • Lecture: UC Berkeley: Daniel Sargent’s 130B The United States and the World Since 1945, “Lecture 16: The Oil Shocks and the Rise of the Middle East”

    Link: UC Berkeley: Daniel Sargent’s 130B The United States and the World Since 1945, “Lecture 16: The Oil Shocks and the Rise of the Middle East” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Click on the above link.  Scroll down to find Lecture 16.  Please listen to the entire lecture (approximately 81 minutes), which addresses oil and its effects on the Middle East. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: CNN Money, “OPEC 50 Years Later” Link: CNN Money, “OPEC 50 Years Later” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Click on the above link. Please watch to the entire segment (approximately 4 minutes), which addresses the origins and influence of OPEC.  This program addresses subunits 5.7.1 through 5.7.5.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the link above.

5.7.1 Origins of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries   5.7.2 Arab Economic Nationalism   5.7.3 Expansion of OPEC   5.7.4 Challenges and Successes   5.7.5 Embargos the Politics of Oil Production