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HIST232: Modern Middle East and Southwest Asia

Unit 4: The Cold War in the Middle East   In this unit, we will examine how the Cold War shaped political and economic development in the Middle East and Southwest Asia during the 1950s and early 1960s.  We will also look at how the nations of the region attempted to create stable governments and economic systems in the postcolonial period.  Following World War II, all the former mandate territories of the Middle East and Southwest Asia gained their political independence.  While these states were no longer under direct European political control, they continued to struggle under the economic, political, and social legacy of European imperialism.  Some states, such as Egypt, attempted to nationalize European corporations in order to gain economic control of these companies.  In 1956, Egypt’s efforts to nationalize the Suez Canal Corporation led to an armed conflict with Britain and France.  The growing Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union also had a profound impact on the region.  The Americans and the Soviets used economic and military aid to secure friendships and political alliances with nations in the region.  The United States supported Israel and other pro-Western states, while the USSR provided aid to Israel’s Arab enemies.

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 6 hours to complete.

☐    Introduction: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 4.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 4.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 1 hour

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Identify and list the impacts of the Cold War on regional political and economic alliances. - Identify superpower/Middle Eastern country Cold War alliances, and describe the impact of those alliances.

  • Lecture: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, “Lecture 20: The Cold War” Link: iTunesU: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, “Lecture 20: The Cold War” (iTunes Audio)
     
    Instructions: Click on the above link.  You might be asked to launch iTunes before you can access the lecture.  Scroll down the webpage to find Lecture 20.  Please listen to this lecture (approximately 81 minutes), which addresses the ways in which the global Cold War affected and was affected by the Middle East. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the link above.

  • Web Media: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle East and the West: The U.S. Role Grows” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle East and the West: The U.S. Role Grows” (Adobe Flash or mp3)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above to go to the NPR webpage, and then click on Listen (or click download for the mp3) to hear this program (approximately 9 minutes), which explores the rising influence of the United States in the Middle East following World War II.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: WGBH Boston: Eugen Weber’s “The Western Tradition”: “49. The Cold War” and “50. Europe and the Third World” Links: WGBH Boston: Eugen Weber’s “The Western Tradition”: “49. The Cold War” (Adobe Flash) and “50. Europe and the Third World” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: You must disable pop-up blockers before attempting to view the videos.  Scroll down the webpage to find lectures 49 and 50.  Then, click on the VoD icon to begin each lecture.  Please listen to both of Professor Eugen Weber’s lectures (both are approximately 28 minutes long) to get a sense of how the Cold War was a turning point of the third world in general and the Middle East in particular. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.1 The International Politics of Development   4.1.1 U.S. Military and Economic Support of Israel, Iran, and Saudi Arabia   - Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Professor Paul Halsall’s version of “The Eisenhower Doctrine on the Middle East, A Message to Congress, January 5, 1957” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Professor Paul Halsall’s version of “The Eisenhower Doctrine on the Middle East, A Message to Congress, January 5, 1957” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read Eisenhower’s speech to Congress, which lays out what subsequently became known as the “Eisenhower Doctrine.” At the end of World War II, a new war—the Cold War—was unleashed between the United States and the Soviet Union and its satellite states.  This conflict manifested itself in the Middle East; it was one of several theaters in the contest between democracy and Communism.  In this speech, President Eisenhower describes U.S. foreign policy toward the Middle East: to preserve the independence of new Middle Eastern states while also protecting them from Communist Russia.
 
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4.1.2 Soviet Military and Economic Support of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Egypt: A Country Study: “On the Threshold of Revolution,” “The Revolution and the Early Years of the New Government: 1952-56,” “Egypt and the Arab World,” and “Nasser and Arab Socialism” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Egypt: A Country Study: “On the Threshold of Revolution, 1945-52” (HTML), “The Revolution and the Early Years of the New Government: 1952-56” (HTML), “Egypt and the Arab World” (HTML) and “Nasser and Arab Socialism” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand Egyptian politics following World War II. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Thomas Collelo, ed.’s Syria: A Country Study: “Shishakli Dictatorship,” “Radical Political Influence,” and “United Arab Republic” Links: US Library of Congress: Thomas Collelo, ed.’s Syria: A Country Study: “Shishakli Dictatorship” (HTML), “Radical Political Influence” (HTML), and “United Arab Republic” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the emergence postwar Syria. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Jordan: A Country Study: “Hussein’s Early Reign” and “Crisis and Realignment” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Jordan: A Country Study: “Hussein’s Early Reign” (HTML) and “Crisis and Realignment” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the emergence of Jordan following World War II. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

4.1.3 Soviet Central Asia and the Middle East   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Uzbekistan: A Country Study: “Rashidov” Link: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Uzbekistan: A Country Study: “Rashidov” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to better understand Soviet Control of modern Uzbekistan. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Kazakstan: A Country Study: “Russian Control” and “In the Soviet Union” Links: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Kazakstan: A Country Study: “Russian Control” (HTML) and “In the Soviet Union” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand Soviet control of Kazakstan. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Kyrgyzstan: A Country Study: “The Soviet Union and Recent History” Link: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Kyrgyzstan: A Country Study: “The Soviet Union and Recent History” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to better understand Soviet control of modern Kyrgyzstan. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Tajikistan: A Country Study: “Creation of Tajikistan,” “Collectivization,” “The Purges,” and “The Postwar Period” Links: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Tajikistan: A Country Study: “Creation of Tajikistan” (HTML), “Collectivization” (HTML), “The Purges” (HTML) and “The Postwar Period” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand Soviet control of modern Tajikistan.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

4.2 Economic Nationalism   4.2.1 Challenging European Imperialism   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Nasserism” Link: Wikipedia: “Nasserism” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage in order to get a sense of Nasserism.  This reading also addresses subunit 4.2.2. 
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • Reading: Wikipedia: “Mohammad Mosaddegh” Link: Wikipedia: “Mohammad Mosaddegh” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage in order to get a sense of Mohammad Mosaddegh.  This reading also addresses subunit 4.2.2. 
     
    Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

4.2.2 Nationalization of Foreign Companies   4.3 Political Development   - Reading: Global Politics: Quinn Coffey’s “After Authoritarianism: State Development and National Identity in the Middle East”  Link: Global Politics: Quinn Coffey’s “After Authoritarianism: State Development and National Identity in the Middle East” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article which discusses the collapse of authoritarianism in the Middle East in the midst of the recent Arab Spring. Although it focuses on contemporary issues, it sheds light on the nation formation and development of authoritarianism in Middle Eastern history.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 45 minutes. 
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

4.3.1 Democracy   4.3.2 Socialism   4.3.3 Authoritarianism