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HIST232: Modern Middle East and Southwest Asia

Unit 3: Zionism and the Creation of Israel   In this unit, we will examine the origins and the development of the State of Israel and look at the uneasy relationship between Israel and its Arab neighbors.  We will also ask how the creation of Israel impacted the lives of Palestinian inhabitants in the region and forced many to flee Israel and take up residence in massive refugee camps in surrounding nations.  The Zionist movement began in the late 19th century as a response to extreme anti-Semitism in Europe.  Zionist leaders promoted the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine, the traditional homeland of the Jewish people.  Near the end of World War I, the British government publicly supported this plan in what became known as the Balfour Declaration.  During the 1920s and 1930s, Jewish immigrants began settling in Palestine and purchasing property for local landlords.  As their numbers began to swell, tensions arose with local Arab inhabitants.  British colonial administrators attempted to maintain peace in Palestine and impose limits on Jewish immigration, but the policy was only partially successful.  At the end of World War II, a massive wave of Jewish settlers—many of them Holocaust victims—began arriving in Palestine.  By 1947, the United Nations recommended that part of Palestine become a Jewish state.  The following year, Jewish leaders announced the creation of the State of Israel.  They immediately faced an invasion by the armies of the Arab nations surrounding Israel.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.3: 3 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Identify the political and cultural origins of the State of Israel, and assess how Israel’s creation and expansion has affected the peoples and nations of the Middle East. - Identify Arab political and cultural reaction to the creation of the State of Israel.

3.1 Zionism   3.1.1 Zionism in Europe   - Reading: Wikipedia: “History of Zionism” Link: Wikipedia: “History of Zionism” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage in order to get a sense of the history of Zionism. 
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

3.1.2 The Balfour Declaration   - Web Media: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle: A Century of Conflict: The Balfour Declaration and the British Mandate” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Mideast: A Century of Conflict: The Balfour Declaration and the British Mandate” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above to go to the NPR webpage, and then click on Listen to Part 2 of Mike Shuster’s series to hear this program (approximately 9 minutes).  This program provides a brief overview of Balfour Declaration’s effects in the Middle East. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Professor Paul Halsall’s version of “The Balfour Declaration, 1917” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Professor Paul Halsall’s version of “The Balfour Declaration, 1917” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the linked material.  In this 1917 letter to Lord Rothschild, a prominent Jewish banker in England, British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour states that Great Britain will officially support the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.  Balfour’s declaration provided impetus to the Zionist movement, which eventually led to the creation of the modern state of Israel in 1948. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2 Palestine during the Interwar Years   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Palestine during the Interwar Years” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Palestine during the Interwar Years” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire document.  This reading addresses subunits 3.2.1 through 3.2.3.

3.2.1 Jewish Migration   3.2.2 Jewish and Arab Tensions   3.2.3 British Administration   3.3 Israel   - Web Media: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle: A Century of Conflict: Partition, War and Independence” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Mideast: A Century of Conflict: Partition, War and Independence” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above to go to the NPR webpage, and then click on Listen to Part 3 of Mike Shuster’s series to hear this program (approximately 9 minutes).  This program provides a brief overview of roots of the Palestinian-Zionist conflict.  This link also addresses the topics outlined in subunits 3.3.1 through 3.3.9 of this course.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Gale/Cengage Learning: Dr. Arich Kochavi’s “The Politics of Displaced Persons in Post-War Europe, 1945-1950” Link: Gale/Cengage Learning: Dr. Arich Kochavi’s “The Politics of Displaced Persons in Post-War Europe, 1945-1950” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link, and then scroll down the webpage to find ThePoliticsofDisplacedPersons.pdf (note that the links are organized in alphabetical order).  Please click this link, and then read the entire PDF (4 pages) to learn about the problem of displaced persons in post-WWII Europe.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed here.

  • Reading: Gale/Cengage Learning: Dr. Angelika Konigseder and Dr. Juliane Wetzel’s “Displaced Persons, 1945-1950: The Social and Cultural Perspective” Link: Gale/Cengage Learning: Dr. Angelika Konigseder and Dr. Juliane Wetzel’s “Displaced Persons, 1945-1950: The Social and Cultural Perspective” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link, and then scroll down the webpage to find DisplacedPersons1945-1950.pdf (note the links are organized in alphabetical order).  Please click on this link, and then read the entire PDF (4 pages) to learn about the problem of displaced persons in post-WWII Europe.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed here.

3.3.1 1947 United Nations Recommendation for Jewish State in Palestine   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Israel: A Country Study: “Prelude to Statehood,” “Problems of the New State,1948-67,” and “Ingathering of the Exiles” Readings: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Israel: A Country Study: “Prelude to Statehood,” “Problems of the New State,1948-67,” and “Ingathering of the Exiles”
 
Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Israel: A Country Study: “Prelude to Statehood” (HTML), “Problems of the New State, 1948-67” (HTML), and “Ingathering of the Exiles” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the emergence of Israel following World War II.  These readings also address the topics outlined in subunits 3.3.2 through 3.3.9 of this course. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

3.3.2 Israel Created in 1948   3.3.3 First Arab-Israeli War   3.3.4 Creation of Jordan   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Jordan: A Country Study: “Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan” Link: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Jordan: A Country Study: “Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to better understand the emergence of Jordan following World War II. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.5 Arab Refuges   3.3.6 Second Arab-Israeli War   3.3.7 Political, Economic, and Social Institutions in Israel   3.3.8 Third Arab-Israeli War   3.3.9 Arab Resistance Movements