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HIST232: Modern Middle East and Southwest Asia

Unit 2: Economic Devlopment   In this unit, we will examine how the Middle East and Southwest Asia developed economically during the Interwar Period and how European economic imperialism left a lasting impression on the economic structure of the region.  We will also examine the economic and political impact of World War II on the Middle East and how the war eventually led to independence for many of the mandate territories.  In addition to administering political affairs in the mandate territories of the Middle East, Europeans played a major role in the region’s economic development prior to World War II.  European firms established subsidiary corporations throughout the region to explore for oil and other natural resources.  The mandate territories also served as markets for European manufactured goods.  European investors were responsible for road and railroad construction projects as well as many other internal improvements.  European control of the local economy bred resentment in many states because local businesses could not compete with powerful European subsidiaries.  This growing resentment contributed to the emergence of nationalist movements in many of the mandate territories by the beginning of World War II.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 5.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.2: 0.5 hour

☐    Subunit 2.3: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 0.5 hour

☐    Subunit 2.3.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 2.3.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3.5: 2 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
-   - Identify important economic and political developments in the Middle East following World War II.

2.1 European Economic Imperialism   - Reading: Infinitesque: John L. Clark’s “World War I and the Continuity of Control in the Middle East” Link: Infinitesque: John L. Clark’s “World War I and the Continuity of Control in the Middle East” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this article for an introduction to the political status of the Middle East during the interwar period – between World War I and World War II. This will provide the context for interpreting the economic development and “modernization” of the region which will be discussed in the remainder of this subunit and in subunit 2.2. As you read, consider the following questions:

-   How did WWI enable the colonial powers to extend their influence
    in the Middle East?
-   What were “mandates”? Were they different from “colonies”?
-   What motives, economic and political, does the author identify
    for the establishment of mandates?

Reading this article and answering the questions should take
approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to John L. Clark, and the original version can be found
[here](http://infinitesque.net/articles/2011/Modern%20Middle%20East/World%20War%20I/).

2.1.1 European Investment   2.1.2 Markets for European Products   2.1.3 European Control over Economic Development   2.2 Economic Development and Modernization   - Reading: University of Notre Dame: Professor Asma Afsaruddin’s Islamic Societies of the Middle East and North Africa: Religion, History, and Culture “Modern Period: The Rise of Colonial Interests in the Middle East” and Pennsylvania State University: Karen Hagemeier Jensen’s EGEE120: Oil: International Evolution “Fifty-Fifty: The New Deal in Oil” Links: University of Notre Dame: Professor Asma Afsaruddin’s Islamic Societies of the Middle East and North Africa: Religion, History, and Culture “Modern Period: The Rise of Colonial Interests in the Middle East” (HTML) and Pennsylvania State University: Karen Hagemeier Jensen’s EGEE120: Oil: International Evolution “Fifty-Fifty: The New Deal in Oil” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read these two resources. The “Modern Period” indicates the four time periods of Western interests in the Middle East. Familiarize yourself with the four periods and analyze how the West progressed through the four periods. “Fifty-Fifty: The New Deal in Oil” provides an in-depth analysis of how the U.S. expanded its interests in oil in the Middle East.
 
Reading these two articles should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Both of these resources are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

2.2.1 Oil Development   - Reading: Qatar Embassy’s “History of Oil Discovery” Link: Qatar Embassy’s “History of Oil Development” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to better understand the development of Qatar’s oil industry.  This webpage provides a brief history of the oil industry in the Persian Gulf country of Qatar.  It describes the role that foreign investors played in developing Qatar’s oil industry
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3 Impact of World War II   - Lecture: WGBH Boston: Eugen Weber’s “The Western Tradition”: “48. The Second World War” Link: WGBH Boston: Eugen Weber’s “The Western Tradition”: “48. The Second World War” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: You must disable pop-up blockers before attempting to view the video.  Scroll down the webpage to find lecture 48.  Then, click on the VoD icon to begin the lecture.  Please listen to Professor Eugen Weber’s entire lecture (approximately 28 minutes) to get a sense of how World War II was a turning point for the Middle East. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3.1 Military Conflict in Libya and Egypt   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Libya: A Country Study: “The Desert War” Link: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Libya: A Country Study: “The Desert War” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to better understand World War II in Libya. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Egypt: A Country Study: “Egypt during the War, 1939-45” Link: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Libya: A Country Study: “Egypt during the War, 1939-45” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to better understand World War II in Egypt. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3.2 British and Soviet Co-Occupation of Iran   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran” Link: Wikipedia: “Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage in order to get a sense of the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. 
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • Reading: MIT: Lincoln P. Bloomfield and Allen Moulton’s “Cascon Case SOI: Soviet-Iran 1945-46” Link: MIT: Lincoln P. Bloomfield and Allen Moulton’s “Cascon Case SOI: Soviet-Iran 1945-45” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this entire webpage to better understand the issues regarding the USSR’s decision to remain in Iran following World War II.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3.3 Expanding Transportation Resources   - Reading: Expanding Transportation Resources The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

2.3.4 Unrest and Growing Nationalist Movements in Region   - Reading: New Zealand History Online: “Rise of Arab nationalism - Ottoman Empire”  Link: New Zealand History Online: “Rise of Arab Nationalism - Ottoman Empire” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read this succinct introduction to the rise of Arab nationalism and the potential factors leading to the revolts within the Ottoman empire and hence its collapse.
 
Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand License

2.3.5 Independence of Libya and Syria Following War   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Libya: A Country Study: “World War II and Independence” and “Independent Libya” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Libya: A Country Study: “World War II and Independence” (HTML) and “Independent Libya” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the emergence of an independent Libya following World War II.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Thomas Collelo, ed.’s Syria: A Country Study: “World War II and Independence” and “After Independence” Link: US Library of Congress: Thomas Collelo, ed.’s Syria: A Country Study:World War II and Independence” (HTML)and “After Independence” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the emergence of an independent Syria following World War II
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.