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HIST232: Modern Middle East and Southwest Asia

Unit 1: Imperialism and Indpendence   In this unit, we will examine how European nations exercised political control over the former Ottoman territories and shaped the political and social development of these states as part of their broader empires.  We will also look at how the inhabitants of these states responded to European imperial rule and how the growth of independence movements in the Middle East and Southwest Asia threatened European control over the region.  At the end of World War I, Great Britain and France oversaw the dismantling of the defeated Ottoman Empire.  The covenant of the new League of Nations mandated that Britain and France administer and advise the former Ottoman territories in the Middle East “until such time as they are able to stand alone.”  In practice, these “mandate territories” became extensions of the colonial empires of Britain and France.  During the 1920s and 1930s, colonial administrators controlled the internal political affairs of Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Transjordan, Egypt, and Libya.  Only Turkey and Iran exercised significant political independence from European domination.

Unit 1 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 21 hours to complete.

☐    Introduction: 5 hours

☐    Reading: 1.5 hours

☐    Web Media: 0.5 hours

☐    Lecture: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 1.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 1.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 1.5: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 1.6: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 1.7: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 1.8: 1 hour

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Identify and describe the political, economic, and social consequences of 20th-century European imperialism and the Mandate System for the peoples and nations of the Middle East and Southwest Asia.
  • Analyze how European involvement in the economic development of Middle Eastern states provoked political and social unrest that destabilized the region in the 20th century.

  • Reading: Wikibooks’ European History: “World War I” Link: Wikibooks’ European History:World War I” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entire webpage to better understand the causes, conduct, and consequences of World War I.  This reading provides the background necessary to understand the subunits that follow. 
     
    Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikibooks version of this article here (HTML).

  • Lecture: WGBH Boston: Eugen Weber’s “The Western Tradition”: “47. The First World War and the Rise of Fascism” Link: WGBH Boston: Eugen Weber’s “The Western Tradition”: “47. The First World War and the Rise of Fascism” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: You must disable pop-up blockers before attempting to view the video.  Scroll down the webpage to find lecture 47.  Then, click on the VoD icon to begin the lecture.  Please listen to Professor Eugen Weber’s entire lecture (approximately 28 minutes) to learn how World War I became a turning point for the Middle East.  This website hosts an entire series of lectures produced by WGBH Boston called “The Western Tradition.”
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Geopolitics - Geoeconomics: F. William Engdahl's "Oil & World War I" Link: Geopolitics - Geoeconomics: F. William Engdahl's "Oil & World War I" (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the following in its entirety.  You should spend about 30 minutes to complete this reading.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, “Lecture 15: World War I” Link: iTunes U: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, “Lecture 15: World War I” (iTunes U Audio)
     
    Instructions: Click on the above link.  You might be asked to launch iTunes before you can access the lecture.  Scroll down to find Lecture 15.  Please listen to the entire lecture (approximately 80 minutes), which addresses World War I and its effects on the Middle East. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the link above.

  • Web Media: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle East and the West: WWI and Beyond” Link: NPR: Mike Shuster’s “The Middle East and the West: WWI and Beyond” (Adobe Flash or Mp3)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and then click Listen (or click download for the mp3 version) to hear this program (approximately 9 minutes), which explores World War I in the Middle East and its legacy for the region.  This program also provides a brief overview of WWI’s effects in the Middle East. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1 The Mandate System   - Reading: Wikipedia: “League of Nations Mandate” Link: Wikipedia: “League of Nations Mandate” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage in order to get a sense of the League of Nations Mandate. 
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

1.1.1 Formal Breakup of the Ottoman Empire at the End of World War I   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Formal Breakup of the Ottoman Empire at the End of World War I” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Formal Breakup of the Ottoman Empire at the End of World War I” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the entire document.

1.1.2 League of Nations’ Class A Mandate Status   - Reading: Yale Law School: Lillian Goldman Law Library’s version of “The Covenant of the League of Nations, December 1924” Link: Yale Law School: Lillian Goldman Law Library’s version of “The Covenant of the League of Nations, December 1924” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage in order understand the League of Nations covenant. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.3 British and French Administration of Former Ottoman Territories   - Lecture: iTunes U: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, “Lecture 16: The Time Between Wars” Link: iTunes U: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, “Lecture 16: The Time Between Wars” (iTunes U Audio)
 
Instructions: Click on the above link.  You might be asked to launch iTunes before you can access the lecture.  Scroll down to find Lecture 16.  Please listen to the entire lecture (approximately 76 minutes), which addresses British and French administration of various countries in the Middle East.  This lecture also addresses the topics outlined in subunits 1.2 through 1.8.3 of this course. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the link above.

1.2 Lebanon and Syria   - Reading: Wikipedia: “French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon” Link: Wikipedia: “French Mandate of Syria and Lebanon” (PDF)

 Also available in:  

[EPUB](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/French-Mandate-of-Syria-and-Lebanon-Thomas-Collelo.epub)  
    
 Instructions: Please read this entire webpage in order to get a
sense of France’s administration of its mandate in Syria and
Lebanon.  This reading also addresses the topics outlined in
subunits 1.2.1 and 1.2.2 in this course.   
    
 Terms of Use: The article above is released under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) (HTML).  You
can find the original Wikipedia version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Mandate_of_Syria_and_Lebanon)
(HTML).
  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Thomas Collelo, ed.’s Syria: A Country Study: “World War I” and “The French Mandate” Links: US Library of Congress: Thomas Collelo, ed.’s Syria: A Country Study:World War I” (PDF) and “The French Mandate” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read these entire webpages to better understand the emergence of France’s mandate for Syria.
     
    Terms of Use: This material is part of the public domain. 

1.2.1 French Imperialism   1.2.2 Administrative Mandate   1.3 Iraq   - Reading: Wikipedia: “British Mandate of Mesopotamia Link: Wikipedia: “British Mandate of Mesopotamia” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read this entire webpage in order to get a sense of Britain’s administration of its mandate of what became Iraq.  This reading also addresses the topics outlined in subunits 1.3.1 through 1.3.4 of this course. 
 
Terms of Use: The article above is released under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 (HTML).  You can find the original Wikipedia version of this article here (HTML).

  • Reading: Gale/Cengage Learning: Dr. Toby Dodge’s “The British Mandate in Iraq, 1914-1932” Link: Gale/Cengage Learning: Dr. Toby Dodge’s “The British Mandate in Iraq, 1914-1932” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the above link, and then scroll down the webpage to find TheBritishMandate.pdf (note that the links on this webpage are listed in alphabetical order).  Please click this link, and then read the entire PDF (3 pages) to learn about Britain’s administration of its mandate of what became Iraq.  This reading also addresses the topics covered in subunits 1.3.1 through 1.3.4 of this course. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed here.

  • Reading: Gale/Cengage Learning: Tareq Ismael’s “Iraqi Society, 1914-1974” Link: Gale/Cengage Learning: Tareq Ismael’s “Iraqi Society, 1914-1974” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the above link, and then scroll down the webpage to find IraqiSociety.pdf (note that the links on this webpage are listed in alphabetical order).  Please click on this link, and then read the entire PDF (4 pages) to learn about the evolution of Iraqi society in the twentieth century.  This reading also addresses subunits 1.3.1 through 1.3.4. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed here.

  • Reading: Gale/Cengage Learning: Dr. Gareth Stansfield’s “The Kurdish Question in Iraq, 1914-1974” Link: Gale/Cengage Learning: Dr. Gareth Stansfield’s “The Kurdish Question in Iraq, 1914-1974” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the above link, and then scroll down the webpage to find TheKurdishQuestion.pdf (note that the links on this webpage are listed in alphabetical order).  Please click on this link, and then read the entire PDF (5 pages) to learn about Iraq’s Kurdish community.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed here.

1.3.1 British Imperialism   1.3.2 Administrative Mandate   1.3.3 Creation of Kingdom of Iraq   1.3.4 Politics of Nationalism   1.4 Palestine and Transjordan   - Lecture: iTunes U: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, “Lecture 17: Palestine and Zionism” Link: iTunes U: Columbia University: Richard Bulliet’s W3719 History of the Modern Middle East, “Lecture 17: Palestine and Zionism” (iTunes U Audio)
 
Instructions: Click on the above link.  You might be asked to launch iTunes before you can access the lecture.  Scroll down to find Lecture 17.  Please listen to the entire lecture (approximately 83 minutes), which addresses tensions between Palestinians and Zionists in interwar Palestine.  This lecture also addresses the topics outlined in subunits 1.4.1 through 1.4.4 of this course. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the link above.

1.4.1 Zionists and Arab Nationalists under British Administration   1.4.2 Immigration Policies   1.4.3 British Imperialism   1.4.4 Regional Tensions   1.5 Egypt, Libya, and the Sudan   1.5.1 Egyptian Nationalism and Independence   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Egypt: A Country Study: “From Occupation to Nominal Independence: 1882-1923,” “Economy and Society under Occupation,” “Egypt under the Protectorate and the 1919 Revolution,” and “The Era of Liberal Constitutionalism and Party Politics” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Egypt: A Country Study: “From Occupation to Nominal Independence:1882-1923” (PDF), “Economy and Society under Occupation” (PDF), “Egypt under the Protectorate and the 1919 Revolution” (PDF) and “The Era of Liberal Constitutionalism and Party Politics” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand Egyptian politics and culture during and after World War I.  These readings also address the topics outlined in subunits 1.5.2 through 1.5.4 of this course. 
 
Terms of Use: This material is part of the public domain. 

1.5.2 Egyptian Politics   1.5.3 British Imperialism in Egypt   1.5.4 Social and Cultural Change   1.5.5 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Sudan: A Country Study: “The Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, 1899-1955” and “Britain’s Southern Policy” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Sudan: A Country Study: The Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, 1899-1955” (HTML) and “Britain’s Southern Policy” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand British control of Sudan. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

1.5.6 Italian Administration of Libya   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Libya: A Country Study: “Colony of Italy,” “Italy and Arab Resistance,” “The Second Italo-Sanusi War,” and “The Fourth Shore” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Libya: A Country Study: “Colony of Italy” (HTML) “Italy and Arab Resistance” (HTML), “The Second Italo-Sanusi War” (HTML) and “The Fourth Shore” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand Italian control of Libya. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

1.6 The Turkish Republic   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Turkey: A Country Study: “The Young Turks,” “World War I,” and “Atatürk and the Turkish Nation” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Turkey: A Country Study: “The Young Turks” (HTML) “World War I” (HTML) and “Atatürk and the Turkish Nation” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand Italian control of Turkey.  These readings also address the topics outlined in subunits 1.6.1 through 1.6.4 of this course. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

1.6.1 Kemal Atatürk and the Creation of the Turkish Republic   1.6.2 Kurdish Rebellion   1.6.3 Principles of Government   1.6.4 Secularism and the Turkish State   1.7 Iran   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Iran: A Country Study: “The Constitutional Revolution,” “World War I,” and “The Era of Reza Shah” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Iran: A Country Study: “The Constitutional Revolution” (HTML), “World War I” (HTML) and “The Era of Reza Shah” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the evolution of Iran.  These readings also address the topics outlined in subunits 1.7.1 through 1.7.5 of this course. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

1.7.1 Democracy and Monarchy   1.7.2 Centralization and Administration   1.7.3 Reforms   1.7.4 British Imperialism   1.7.5 The Caucasus   1.7.6 Afghanistan   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Peter R. Blood, ed.’s Afghanistan: A Country Study: “The Reign of King Habibullah, 1901-1919,” “The Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-29,” “Reform, Popular Reaction, and Forced Abdication,” “Tajik Rule, January-October 1929,” and “Muhammad Nadir Shah, 1929-1933” Links: US Library of Congress: Peter R. Blood, ed.’s Afghanistan: A Country Study: The Reign of King Habibullah, 1901-1919” (HTML), The Reign of King Amanullah, 1919-29” (HTML), “Reform, Popular Reaction, and Forced Abdication” (HTML), “Tajik Rule, January-October 1929” (HTML) and “Muhammad Nadir Shah, 1929-33” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the evolution of modern Afghanistan. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

1.7.7 Iran and Soviet Central Asia   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Kazakstan: A Country Study: “Russian Control” and “In the Soviet Union” Links: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Kazakstan: A Country Study:Russian Control” (HTML) and “In the Soviet Union” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the evolution of modern Kazakstan. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Kyrgyzstan: A Country Study: “Russian Control” and “The Soviet Union and Recent History” Links: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Kyrgyzstan: A Country Study:Russia” (HTML) and “The Soviet Union and Recent History” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the evolution of modern Kyrgyzstan. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Tajikistan: A Country Study: “The Revolutionary Era,” “Impact of the Civil War” and “The Basmachi” Links: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Tajikistan: A Country Study: “The Revolutionary Era” (HTML), “Impact of the Civil War” (HTML) and “The Basmachi” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the evolution of modern Tajikistan. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • Reading: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Uzbekistan: A Country Study: “Entering the Twentieth Century,” “The Jadidists and the Basmachis,” and “The Stalinist Period” Links: US Library of Congress: Glenn E. Curtis, ed.’s Uzbekistan: A Country Study: “Entering the Twentieth Century” (HTML), “The Jadidists and Basmachis” (HTML) and “The Stalinist Period” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand the evolution of modern Uzbekistan. 
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

1.8 Arabia   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Saudi Arabia: A Country Study: “The Rise of Abd Al Aziz” and “The Rule of Abd Al Aziz” Links: US Library of Congress: Helen Chapin Metz, ed.’s Saudi Arabia: A Country Study: The Rise of Abd Al Aziz” (HTML) and “The Rule of Abd Al Aziz” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these webpages in their entirety to better understand British control of Saudi Arabia.  These readings also address the topics outlined in subunits 1.8.1 through 1.8.3 of this course. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

1.8.1 Formation of Saudi Arabia   1.8.2 Creation of the Persian Gulf States   1.8.3 British Imperialism