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HIST222: Modern Latin America

Unit 8: Authoritarianism in the 1970s and 1980s   The political chaos of the 1950s and 1960s - particularly the emergence of organized Socialist and Communist parties in industrializing nations such as Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil - led to major political crackdowns by conservative military leaders in the 1970s and 1980s. Often, these ruthless political leaders received covert - and at times overt - support from American officials, who viewed Latin America as a new front in the international war against Communism and the Soviet Union. In Chile, Socialist Salvador Allende was elected president in 1970. As he began to nationalize foreign-owned business and reorganize the Chilean economy, the US government and the Central Intelligence Agency began encouraging Chilean military officials to stage a coup. The coup took place in 1973, Allende committed suicide, and military leaders took control of the nation, rounding up opposition supporters and having them disappear, often through torture and secret executions. Similar crackdowns on leftist political movements took place in Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay during the same time period. By the end of the 1970s, authoritarian military leaders with US backing had seized control of many of the nations of Latin America in order to keep them free from Socialist or Communist political influences. 
 
In this unit, you will learn how military forces took control of major Latin American nations in the 1970s and look at the social and economic consequences of authoritarian rule in the region. You will also study the ways in which civil rights abuses and political repression by military regimes influenced social and cultural life in the region and led to resistance campaigns in some nations.  

Unit 8 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 10 hours.

☐    Subunit 8.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 8.2: 2.75 hours

☐    Subunit 8.3: 1.25 hours

☐    Subunit 8.4: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.5: 0.5 hours

Unit8 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - evaluate the political and economic factors that led to the emergence of political dictatorships in many Latin American nations in the early 20th century; - analyze how Cold War struggles between capitalist and communist ideologies influenced political life in the nations of Latin America and led to the rise of repressive, authoritarian regimes in the 1970s and 1980s; and  - analyze and interpret primary source documents from the 19th and 20th centuries, using historical research methods to garner a more profound understanding of Latin American history.

8.1 Argentinian Political Crisis   - Reading: International Relations Center: Marie Trigona’s “Argentina 30 Years after the Coup”

Link: International Relations Center: Marie Trigona’s “[Argentina 30
Years after the
Coup](http://courses.wcupa.edu/rbove/eco338/060compecon/LatinAmerica/Argentina/060329aniversary.txt)”
(TXT)  

 Instructions: Read this article, which discusses the consequences
of the crisis in Argentina that ultimately led to the military coup
of March 1976.   

 Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.1.1 The Falklands Crisis   - Reading: Open Writing: Derek Hudson’s “The Falklands War – 1,” “The Falklands War – 2,” and “The Falklands War – 3”

Link: Open Writing: Derek Hudson’s [“The Falklands War –
1”](http://www.openwriting.com/archives/2012/05/the_falklands_w_1.php) (HTML),
[“The Falklands War –
2”](http://www.openwriting.com/archives/2012/06/the_falklands_w_2.php) (HTML),
and [“The Falklands War –
3”](http://www.openwriting.com/archives/2012/06/the_falklands_w_3.php) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these three articles on the Falklands War. Derek
Hudson, a reporter, offers a first-hand account of his experiences
with British troops during the Falklands crisis.  
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 1 hour.  
                          
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.1.2 Return to Democratic Rule in the Mid-1980s   - Reading: Open Democracy: Celia Szusterman’s “Argentina: Celebrating Democracy”

Link: Open Democracy: Celia Szusterman’s “[Argentina: Celebrating
Democracy](http://www.opendemocracy.net/article/argentina-celebrating-democracy)”
(HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article on the 25 years of democracy in
Argentina. In this article, Szusterman presents a series of lessons
about the flaws in the country’s dominant style of governance.   
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.1.3 Truth Commissions and Recovering the Past   - Reading: Utrecht Law Review: Elena Maculan’s “Prosecuting International Crimes at National Level: Lessons from the Argentine ‘Truth-Finding Trials’”

Link: *Utrecht Law Review*: Elena Maculan’s [“Prosecuting
International Crimes at National Level: Lessons from the Argentine
‘Truth-Finding
Trials’”](http://www.utrechtlawreview.org/index.php/ulr/article/view/183) (PDF)  
    
 Instructions: Select the PDF link below the abstract to download
the PDF file, and read this article. The consequences of what was
called the *Dirty War* were high in terms of lives lost and basic
human rights violated. The 1984 Commission on the Disappeared
documented the disappearance and probable deaths of about 11,000
people at the hands of the military regime; human rights groups
estimate that there were over 30,000 disappearances during the
1976–1983 period.   
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 1 hour.

   
 Terms of Use: This article is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). It is
attributed to Elena Maculan, and the original version can be found
[here](http://www.utrechtlawreview.org/index.php/ulr/article/view/183).

8.2 Chile   8.2.1 Election of Salvador Allende in 1970   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Chile: A Country Study: “Salvador Allende's Leftist Regime, 1970–73”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Chile: A
Country Study*: [“Salvador Allende's Leftist Regime,
1970–73”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/30.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article from *Chile: A Country Study.* This
article discusses the election of Salvador Allende. Remember
Washington attempted to prevent his selection in the Congress.  
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Central Intelligence Agency’s “Report of CIA: Chilean Task Force Activities, 15 September to 3 November 1970”

    Link: Central Intelligence Agency’s “Report of CIA: Chilean Task Force Activities, 15 September to 3 November 1970” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this unclassified report. This 1970 opinion paper, prepared for US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and the National Security Council, discusses the election of Marxist Salvador Allende as president of Chile. The author expresses concerns about the possibility of Chile falling under Communist control and serving as a springboard for Soviet plots against other countries in the region. The report concludes that the United States should work behind the scenes to undermine the new government through economic pressure and covert intervention if necessary. 
     
    Reading this report should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.2.2 Consequences of Allende’s Radical Reform Agenda   - Reading: Le Journal des Alternatives: James D. Cockcroft’s “Chile 30 Years Later”

Link: *Le Journal des Alternatives*: James D. Cockcroft’s [“Chile 30
Years
Later”](http://journal.alternatives.ca/spip.php?article889) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article, which offers a first-hand account
of how Salvador Allende’s reforms transformed the country.  
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: This article is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 Canada
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/ca/). This
article is attributed to James D. Cockcroft, and the original
version can be found
[here](http://journal.alternatives.ca/spip.php?article889). 

8.2.3 1973 Military Coup and the Rise of Augusto Pinochet   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Dennis M. Hanratty and Sandra W. Meditz’s (ed.) Chile: A Country Study: “Military Rule, 1973–90”

Link: US Library of Congress: Dennis M. Hanratty and Sandra W.
Meditz’s (ed.) *Chile: A Country Study*: [“Military Rule,
1973–90”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/31.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article from *Chile: A Country Study.* This
article offers an overview of the rise to power of Augusto
Pinochet.  
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.2.4 Political Repression and Authoritarian Rule under Pinochet in the 1980s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Dennis M. Hanratty and Sandra W. Meditz’s (ed.) Chile: A Country Study: “Neoliberal Economics,” “The 1980 Constitution,” and “The Crisis of 1982 and the Erosion of Military Rule”

Link: US Library of Congress: Dennis M. Hanratty and Sandra W.
Meditz’s (ed.) *Chile: A Country Study*: [“Neoliberal
Economics”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/32.htm) (HTML), [“The
1980 Constitution”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/33.htm) (HTML),
and [“The Crisis of 1982 and the Erosion of Military
Rule”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/34.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these three articles from *Chile: A Country
Study.* Pay special attention to the role of Augusto Pinochet as
self-appointed president of the Republic of Chile from 1974 until he
transferred power to a democratically elected president in 1990.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  
              
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.2.5 Return to Democratic Rule in the 1990s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Dennis M. Hanratty and Sandra W. Meditz’s (ed.) Chile: A Country Study: “The Return to Democracy, 1990”

Link: US Library of Congress: Dennis M. Hanratty and Sandra W.
Meditz’s (ed.) *Chile: A Country Study*: [“The Return to Democracy,
1990”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/68.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article from *Chile: A Country Study.* The
17-year military-led government was marked by severe human rights
violations and deep market-oriented economic reforms. These economic
policies continued and were strengthened by successive governments
after 1990.   
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  
              
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.  

8.3 Uruguay   8.3.1 Democracy and Economic Prosperity in the 1950s–1960s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Sandra W. Meditz’s (ed.) Uruguay: A Country Study: “Decline of the Economy and the Colorado Party, 1951–58” and “Economic Crisis and Decline, The Blanco Administrations, 1959–67”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Sandra W. Meditz’s
(ed.) *Uruguay: A Country Study*: [“Decline of the Economy and the
Colorado Party,
1951–58”](http://countrystudies.us/uruguay/18.htm) (HTML) and
[“Economic Crisis and Decline, The Blanco Administrations,
1959–67”](http://countrystudies.us/uruguay/19.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these two articles from *Uruguay: A Country
Study.* Pay special attention to the social and economic
developments, because they led Uruguay to becoming a major economic
center in Latin America.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 15 minutes.  
              
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.  

8.3.2 Emergence of the Tupamaro Urban Guerrilla Movement in the 1960s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Sandra W. Meditz’s (ed.) Uruguay: A Country Study: “Pachequism, 1967–72” and “The Emergence of Militarism, 1972–73”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Sandra W. Meditz’s
(ed.) *Uruguay: A Country Study*: [“Pachequism,
1967–72”](http://countrystudies.us/uruguay/20.htm) (HTML) and [“The
Emergence of Militarism,
1972–73”](http://countrystudies.us/uruguay/21.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these two articles from *Uruguay: A Country
Study.* Tupamaros, also known as the MLN (*Movimiento de Liberación
Nacional* or National Liberation Movement), was an urban guerrilla
organization in Uruguay in the 1960s and 1970s. The MLN is linked to
its most important leader, Raúl Sendic, and his brand of social
politics. José Mujica, President of Uruguay, was also a member.   
  

Reading these articles should take approximately 15 minutes.  
              
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.  

8.3.3 State of Emergency and Military Rule in the 1970s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Sandra W. Meditz’s (ed.) Uruguay: A Country Study: “The Military Government, 1973–85” and “The Military’s Economic Record”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Sandra W. Meditz’s
(ed.) *Uruguay: A Country Study*: [“The Military Government,
1973–85”](http://countrystudies.us/uruguay/22.htm) (HTML) and [“The
Military’s Economic
Record”](http://countrystudies.us/uruguay/23.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these two articles from *Uruguay: A Country
Study.* During this period, Uruguay had the highest per capita
percentage of political prisoners in the world.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  
              
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.  

8.3.4 Return to Democratic Rule in the 1980s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Sandra W. Meditz’s (ed.) Uruguay: A Country Study: “The Opposition and the Reemergence of Parties, 1980–84” and “The Transition to Democracy, 1984–85”

Link: US Library of Congress: Dennis M. Hanratty and Sandra W.
Meditz’s (ed.) *Uruguay: A Country Study*: [“The Opposition and the
Reemergence of Parties,
1980–84”](http://countrystudies.us/uruguay/24.htm) (HTML) and “[The
Transition to Democracy,
1984–85”](http://countrystudies.us/uruguay/25.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these two articles from *Uruguay: A Country
Study.* In 1984, massive protests against the dictatorship broke
out. National elections were held in 1984; Colorado Party leader
Julio María Sanguinetti won the presidency and, following the brief
interim presidency of Rafael Addiego Bruno, served from 1985 to
1990. The first Sanguinetti administration implemented economic
reforms and consolidated democratization after the country had seen
years and years of military rule. Nonetheless, Sanguinetti never
supported the human rights violations accusations, and his
government did not prosecute the military officials who engaged in
repression and torture against either the Tupamaros or the MLN. He
opted to sign an amnesty treaty instead.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 15 minutes.  
              
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.  

8.4 Central America and the Caribbean during the Cold War   - Reading: Juan Bosch’s Excerpt from “1962 Speech”

Link: Juan Bosch’s Excerpt from [“1962
Speech”](http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/slatta/hi453/bosch.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this excerpt from Bosch’s speech, given on
December 10, 1962. Pay special attention to his description of
Trujillo’s rule.  
    
 Reading this excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.  

8.4.1 Nicaraguan Civil War   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Tim Merrill’s (ed.) Nicaragua: A Country Study: “End of the Anastasio Somoza Debayle Era,” “The Sandinista Revolution,” and “The Sandinista Years, 1979–90”

Link: US Library of Congress: Tim Merrill’s (ed.) *Nicaragua: A
Country Study*: [“End of the Anastasio Somoza Debayle
Era”](http://countrystudies.us/nicaragua/13.htm) (HTML), [“The
Sandinista
Revolution”](http://countrystudies.us/nicaragua/14.htm) (HTML), and
[“The Sandinista Years,
1979–90”](http://countrystudies.us/nicaragua/15.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these three articles from *Nicaragua: A Country
Study.* The Nicaraguan Revolution (*Revolución Nicaragüense* or
*Revolución Popular Sandinista*, also RPS) encompasses the rising
opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the
campaign led by the Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN)
that led to the violent ousting of that dictatorship in 1979 and the
subsequent efforts of the FSLN, which governed from 1979 until 1990,
to reform the society and economy of the country along somewhat
socialistic lines.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.4.2 Haiti   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Richard A. Haggerty’s (ed.) Haiti: A Country Study: “François Duvalier, 1957–71” and “Jean-Claude Duvalier, 1971–1986”

Link: US Library of Congress: Richard A. Haggerty’s (ed.) *Haiti: A
Country Study*: [“François Duvalier,
1957–71”](http://countrystudies.us/haiti/17.htm) (HTML) and
[“Jean-Claude Duvalier,
1971–1986”](http://countrystudies.us/haiti/18.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these two articles from *Haiti: A Country
Study.* Pay special attention to the relations between the Haitian
government and the US administration.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  
              
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.4.3 Grenada   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Sandra W. Meditz and Dennis M. Hanratty’s (ed.) Caribbean Islands: A Country Study: “Grenada: Foreign Relations”

Link: US Library of Congress: Sandra W. Meditz and Dennis M.
Hanratty’s (ed.) *Caribbean Islands: A Country Study*: [“Grenada:
Foreign
Relations”](http://countrystudies.us/caribbean-islands/80.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article from *Caribbean Islands: A Country
Study.* This article discusses the foreign relations of the small
nation of Grenada under the People’s Revolutionary Government.   

 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  
              
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.4.4 Colombia   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Sandra W. Meditz and Dennis M. Hanratty’s (ed.) Colombia: A Country Study: “The National Front, 1958–74,” “Instituting the Coalition Government,” “Opposition to the National Front,” “Dismantling the Coalition Apparatus,” “The Post-National Front Period, 1974–82,” and “The Liberal Tenure”

Link: US Library of Congress: Sandra W. Meditz and Dennis M.
Hanratty’s (ed.) *Colombia: A Country Study*: [“The National Front,
1958–74”](http://countrystudies.us/colombia/24.htm) (HTML),
[“Instituting the Coalition
Government”](http://countrystudies.us/colombia/25.htm) (HTML),
[“Opposition to the National
Front”](http://countrystudies.us/colombia/26.htm) (HTML),
[“Dismantling the Coalition
Apparatus”](http://countrystudies.us/colombia/27.htm) (HTML), [“The
Post-National Front Period,
1974–82”](http://countrystudies.us/colombia/28.htm) (HTML), and
[“The Liberal
Tenure”](http://countrystudies.us/colombia/29.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these six articles from *Colombia: A Country
Study.* Under the National Front regime in 1958–1974, the presidency
of Colombia was to be determined by an alternating conservative and
liberal president every 4 years for 16 years; the two parties would
have parity in all other elective offices. The results of the
successive Liberal and Conservative administrations had mixed
results. From 1974 until 1982, different presidential
administrations focused on ending the persistent insurgencies that
sought to undermine Colombia’s traditional political system.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 1 hour.  
              
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.5 Brazil   8.5.1 The Brazilian Military Republic   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Brazil: A Country Study: “The Military Republic, 1964–85”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Brazil: A
Country Study*: [“The Military Republic,
1964–85”](http://countrystudies.us/brazil/18.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article from *Brazil: A Country Study.* The
*Military Republic*, also known as the *Military Dictatorship*,
started in 1964 with a coup d’état against President João Goulart by
the Brazilian military. This coup is widely understood as part of
the Cold War and a response to the perceived threat of Communism.   
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  
      
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

8.5.2 Return to Elected Civilian Rule in 1990s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Brazil: A Country Study: “The Presidential Election of 1989,” “Congressional and State Elections, 1990,” and “Collor de Mello’s Presidency, 1990–92”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Brazil: A
Country Study*: [“The Presidential Election of
1989”](http://countrystudies.us/brazil/101.htm) (HTML),
[“Congressional and State Elections,
1990”](http://countrystudies.us/brazil/102.htm) (HTML), and [“Collor
de Mello’s Presidency,
1990–92”](http://countrystudies.us/brazil/96.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these three articles from *Brazil: A Country
Study.* Even though Tancredo Neves was elected president of Brazil
in an indirect election in 1985, Fernando Collor de Mello was the
first president of Brazil elected by popular vote.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 15 minutes.  
              
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.