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HIST222: Modern Latin America

Unit 7: Dictatorships and Revolutions of the Mid-20th Century   The 1940s through 1960s were a time of significant political instability throughout Latin America. Electoral chaos in the 1920s and 1930s and growing political conflicts between radical populists and conservative elites led to the emergence of military dictatorships, or conservative political regimes backed by the military, in many Latin American states in the 1940s. These conservative rulers feared the growing influence of Socialist and Communist political movements among the factory workers and farmers who made up the majority of the population in many countries. As left-wing political movements grew in strength, many conservative rulers attempted to suppress them through military force or political intimidation. By the 1950s, elite rulers could no longer hold back revolutionary armies in a number of Latin American nations, including Bolivia and Cuba. In a few states, conservative leaders such as Argentinean Juan Peron attempted to implement moderate social reforms while maintaining strict control over political affairs. In other states, radical leaders were elected to political office and attempted to implement major economic and social reforms. Often, these reform efforts led to broader social chaos and prompted conservative military leaders to stage coups in order to restore social order. 
 
In this unit, you will examine the political chaos of the 1940s–1960s and will look at how radical and conservative forces vied for control over many Latin American nations. You will also examine some of the economic and social reforms that radicals attempted, such as the redistribution of farmland and the nationalization of foreign businesses. Finally, you will study how the political struggles in Latin America fit into the broader Cold War struggle between the United States and the Soviet Union.  

Unit 7 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 15.5 hours.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 1.25 hours

☐    Subunit 7.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 7.4: 2.75 hours

☐    Subunit 7.5: 2.75 hours

☐    Subunit 7.6: 2.75 hours

☐    Unit 7 Assessment: 3 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - evaluate the political and economic factors that led to the emergence of political dictatorships in many Latin American nations in the early 20th century; - analyze how Cold War struggles between capitalist and communist ideologies influenced political life in the nations of Latin America and led to the rise of repressive, authoritarian regimes in the 1970s and 1980s; and - analyze and interpret primary source documents from the 19th and 20th centuries, using historical research methods to garner a more profound understanding of Latin American history.

7.1 Argentina   7.1.1 Military Dictatorship of the 1930s–1940s   - Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Eva Duarte de Perón’s Excerpt from History of Perónism, 1951

Link: Fordham University’s *Internet Modern History Sourcebook*: Eva
Duarte de Perón’s Excerpt from [*History of Perónism*,
1951](http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/1951evaperon.asp) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read this excerpt, which discusses the Argentine
labor movement. As you read, consider the following study question:
What were the social bases of Perónism?   
    
 Reading this excerpt and answering the study question should take
approximately 15 minutes.


 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.1.2 An Overview of Argentine Politics in the 20th Century   - Reading: The Encyclopedia of Earth: “Argentina: History”

Link: The Encyclopedia of Earth: [“Argentina:
History”](http://www.eoearth.org/article/Argentina?topic=49460#gen5) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: In the “History” section, read the second to the
eighth paragraphs. This overview provides the contextualization for
Argentina’s continual struggle between democratic ideals and
strongman, or *caudillo*, politics in the 20<sup>th</sup> century.  
    
 Reading these paragraphs should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.1.3 Coups and Counter-Coups of the 1960s   - Reading: Wikipedia: “History of Argentina”

Link: Wikipedia: [“History of
Argentina”](http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Argentina#Fragile_Radical_Administrations_.281958.E2.80.931966.29) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read the section titled “Fragile Radical
Administrators (1958–1966).” Pay special attention to the political
forces that emerged during this time of political, economic, and
social instability before the Argentinian Revolution (1966–1973).   
    
 Reading this section of the article should take approximately 15
minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.1.4 Left-Wing and Right-Wing Political Extremism   - Reading: PediaView: “History of Argentina (1966–1973)”

Link: PediaView: [“History of Argentina
(1966–1973)”](http://pediaview.com/openpedia/History_of_Argentina_%281966-1973%29) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read the section titled “The *Revolución Argentina*
and the Authoritarian-Bureaucratic State.”  
    
 Reading this section should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.2 Bolivia   7.2.1 Agrarian Populism versus Elite Rule   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Dennis M. Hanratty’s (ed.) Bolivia: A Country Study: “The ‘Sexenio,’ 1946–52”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Dennis M. Hanratty’s
(ed.) *Bolivia: A Country Study*: [“The ‘Sexenio,’
1946–52”](http://countrystudies.us/bolivia/18.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article from *Bolivia: A Country Study.*
The *Sexenio* is the six-year period of Bolivian history that
preceded the 1952 Revolution.   
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.2.2 Rise of the Revolutionary Nationalist Movement in the 1950s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Dennis M. Hanratty’s (ed.) Bolivia: A Country Study: “The Bolivian National Revolution, 1952–64: Radical Reforms” and “The Unfinished Revolution”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Dennis M. Hanratty’s
(ed.) *Bolivia: A Country Study*: [“The Bolivian National
Revolution, 1952–64: Radical
Reforms”](http://countrystudies.us/bolivia/19.htm) (HTML) and [“The
Unfinished
Revolution”](http://countrystudies.us/bolivia/20.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read the two articles from *Bolivia: A Country
Study.* The Bolivian Revolution is one of the most significant
sociopolitical events in 20<sup>th</sup>-century Latin American
history.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.2.3 Military Rule in the 1960s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Dennis M. Hanratty’s (ed.) Bolivia: A Country Study: “Military Rule, 1964–82: The Presidency of Barrientos”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Dennis M. Hanratty’s
(ed.) *Bolivia: A Country Study*: [“Military Rule, 1964–82: The
Presidency of
Barrientos”](http://countrystudies.us/bolivia/21.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article *Bolivia: A Country Study.* René
Barrientos Ortuño was a Bolivian politician who served as vice
president in 1964 and president from 1964 to 1969. During his
five-year rule, Barrientos and the army suppressed all opposition to
his conservative regime, including an insurgency by Che Guevara in
1967.   
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.2.4 Stability versus Political Freedom   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Dennis M. Hanratty’s (ed.) Bolivia: A Country Study: “Revolutionary Nationalism: Ovando and Torres” and “The Banzer Regime”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson and Dennis M. Hanratty’s
(ed.) *Bolivia: A Country Study*: [“Revolutionary Nationalism:
Ovando and Torres”](http://countrystudies.us/bolivia/22.htm) (HTML)
and [“The Banzer
Regime”](http://countrystudies.us/bolivia/23.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read the two articles from *Bolivia: A Country
Study.* The Ovando, Torres, and Banzer regimes defined a period of
military dictatorships in Bolivia that did not end until the 1978
election, which marked the beginning of Bolivia’s traumatic
transition to democracy. This transition would take four long years
to complete.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.3 Brazil   7.3.1 Dictatorships and Economic Development in the 1930s–1950s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Brazil: A Country Study: “The Era of Getúlio Vargas, 1930–54”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Brazil: A
Country Study*: [“The Era of Getúlio Vargas,
1930–54”](http://countrystudies.us/brazil/16.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article from *Brazil: A Country Study.*
Getúlio Dornelles Vargas served as president and dictator of Brazil
from 1930 to 1945 and from 1951 until 1954. Vargas won the nickname
O Pai dos Pobres (i.e., The Father of the Poor) because of his labor
policies. This reading also covers the topics outlined in subunits
7.3.1 and 7.3.2.   
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.3.2 Brazil and World War II  

Note: The reading assigned below subunit 7.3.1 covers this topic. Focus on the discussions of World War II, particularly in the 10th paragraph to the end of the article.  

  • Web Media: Internet Archive: Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs’ “Brazil at War”

    Link: Internet Archive: Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs’ “Brazil at War” (HTML) (Flash)

    Instructions: Watch this brief video clip from 1943. As you watch the video, consider the following study question: Why do you think this movie emphasized the similarities between Brazil and the United States?

    Watching this video, pausing to take notes, and answering the study question should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

7.3.3 Populism and Political Control in the 1950s–1960s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Brazil: A Country Study: “The Post-Vargas Republic, 1954–64”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Brazil: A
Country Study*: [“The Post-Vargas Republic,
1954–64”](http://countrystudies.us/brazil/17.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article from *Brazil: A Country Study.* Pay
special attention to the effects that populism, nationalism, and
developmentalism had on Brazil in the 1950s and early 1960s.   
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.4 Chile   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Chile: A Country Study: “Parliamentary Republic, 1891–1925,” “Urbanization,” and “Arturo Alessandri’s Reformist Presidency, 1920–25”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Chile: A
Country Study*: [“Parliamentary Republic,
1891–1925”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/17.htm) (HTML),
[“Urbanization”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/18.htm) (HTML), and
[“Arturo Alessandri’s Reformist Presidency,
1920–25”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/19.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read the three articles from *Chile: A Country
Study.* These articles describe Chilean history in the
19<sup>th</sup> century, with a particular focus on elements that
can explain two factors: firstly, the stability and
conservative/authoritarian focus of the elites and secondly, the
rise of an active labor and left movement.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.4.1 Military Rule and Political Instability in the 1930s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Chile: A Country Study: “Military Interventions, 1925–32” and “Carlos Ibáñez's First Presidency, 1927–31”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Chile: A
Country Study*: [“Military Interventions,
1925–32”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/20.htm) (HTML) and [“Carlos
Ibáñez's First Presidency,
1927–31”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/21.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these two articles from *Chile: A Country
Study.* These articles trace the roots of labor and left militancy
in Chile in the first three decades of the 20<sup>th</sup> century.
The first article also discusses the 1925 Constitution.  
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.   

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.4.2 Right-Wing and Left-Wing Politics in Chile   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Chile: A Country Study: “Mass Democracy, 1932–73,” “Alessandri’s Second Presidency, 1932–38,” and “Popular Front Rule, 1938–41”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Chile: A
Country Study*: [“Mass Democracy,
1932–73”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/22.htm) (HTML),
[“Alessandri’s Second Presidency,
1932–38”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/23.htm) (HTML), and
[“Popular Front Rule,
1938–41”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/24.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these three articles from *Chile: A Country
Study.* Pay special attention to the social, political, and economic
reforms during this turbulent period.  
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.4.3 Radical Party Rule in the 1940s–1950s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Chile: A Country Study: “Juan Antonio Ríos's Presidency, 1942–46” and “Gabriel González Videla's Presidency, 1946–52”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Chile: A
Country Study*: [“Juan Antonio Ríos's Presidency,
1942–46”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/25.htm) (HTML) and
[“Gabriel González Videla's Presidency,
1946–52”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/26.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these two articles from *Chile: A Country
Study.* During this period of Radical Party dominance, the state
increased its role in the economy. During World War II, President
Juan Antonio Ríos emphasized industrial growth under the slogan: “To
Govern Is to Produce.” His successor, President Gabriel González
Videla, forged closer economic and military bonds with the United
States during the Cold War.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.4.4 Social and Economic Reforms of the 1950s and 1960s   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Chile: A Country Study: “Ibáñez's Second Presidency, 1952–58” and “Jorge Alessandri's Rightist Term, 1958–64”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Chile: A
Country Study*: [“Ibáñez's Second Presidency,
1952–58”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/27.htm) (HTML) and [“Jorge
Alessandri's Rightist Term,
1958–64”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/28.htm) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read these two articles from *Chile: A Country
Study.* Pay special attention to the period of major reform that
started in 1964 under the slogan “Revolution in Liberty” and
included far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in
education, housing, and agrarian reforms.   
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.4.5 Growing Conservative Opposition to Reform Efforts   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Chile: A Country Study: “Eduardo Frei’s Christian Democracy, 1964–70”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Chile: A
Country Study*: [“Eduardo Frei’s Christian Democracy,
1964–70”](http://countrystudies.us/chile/29.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article from *Chile: A Country Study.* In
the 1960s and early 1970s, two political movements in Chile - one
led by Eduardo Frei and the other by Salvador Allende - achieved
remarkable victories in presidential elections. They both vowed to
bring about radical change, but both failed.   
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.5 Cuba   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Cuba: A Country Study: “The Republic” Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Cuba: A Country Study: “The Republic” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read “The Republic” section on pages 34–64. This
reading also covers the topics in subunits 7.5.1–7.5.4.   
    
 Reading this section should take approximately 1 hour.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.5.1 Modernization and Political Rule  

Note: The reading assigned below subunit 7.5 covers this topic. Pay attention to how the Platt Amendment changed the political and economic relations between the US and Cuba.

7.5.2 The Rise of Fulgencio Batista  

Note: The reading assigned below subunit 7.5 covers this topic. Pay attention to how Batista was able to maintain direct and indirect power over the Cuban government for over 25 years. 

7.5.3 Democratic Rule in the 1940s  

Note: The reading assigned below subunit 7.5 covers this topic. Pay attention to the importance of the generation of 1930 in the reformist movement and the effects of World War II on Cuba.

7.5.4 Batista and the Politics of Political Corruption in the 1950s  

Note: The reading assigned below subunit 7.5 covers this topic. Pay attention to Batista’s relations with the American mafia. 

7.5.5 Castro and the Origins of the Cuban Revolution   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Cuba: A Country Study: “The Cuban Revolution”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Cuba: A Country
Study:* [“The Cuban
Revolution”](http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/pdf/CS_Cuba.pdf) (PDF)  
    
 Instructions: Read “The Cuban Revolution” section on pages 64–85.
This article pieces together the story of Fidel Castro’s youth and
explains what may have influenced his rise to power when he was only
in his 30s.   
    
 Reading this section should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.5.6 Communist Rule and Castro’s Reform Agenda   - Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Fidel Castro’s “Second Declaration of Havana, 1962”

Link: Fordham University’s *Internet Modern History Sourcebook*:
Fidel Castro’s [“Second Declaration of Havana,
1962”](http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1962castro.html) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this declaration, which describes Castro’s
political ideology.  
    
 Reading this declaration should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.5.7 Cuba in the Cold War   - Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: “United Nations: Cuban Missile Crisis Debate, 1962”

Link: Fordham University’s *Internet Modern History Sourcebook*:
[“United Nations: Cuban Missile Crisis Debate,
1962”](http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1962-cuba-un1.html) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this debate between Adlai Stevenson and V.A.
Zorin in the United Nations Security Council on October 23, 1962.The
Cuban Missile Crisis, known as *The October Crisis* in Cuba, was a
confrontation among the Soviet Union, Cuba, and the United States in
October 1962 during the Cold War. This event has become momentous in
the history of the relations between the United States and Cuba in
the 20<sup>th</sup> century.   
    
 Reading this debate should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.6 The Dominican Republic   7.6.1 Caribbean Republics   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Caribbean: A Country Study: “Political Traditions,” “Social and Economic Developments, 1800–1960,” “Political Independence,” and “Social and Cultural Characteristics”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Caribbean: A
Country Study*: [“Political
Traditions”](http://countrystudies.us/caribbean-islands/10.htm) (HTML),
[“Social and Economic Developments,
1800–1960”](http://countrystudies.us/caribbean-islands/11.htm) (HTML),
[“Political
Independence”](http://countrystudies.us/caribbean-islands/13.htm) (HTML),
and [“Social and Cultural
Characteristics”](http://countrystudies.us/caribbean-islands/17.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these four articles from *Caribbean: A Country
Study.* These articles provide an overview of political disturbances
in the region from the time of independence and focuses on the
relationship between Caribbeannations and the United States.  
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 45 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.6.2 The Dominican Republic   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) Dominican Republic: A Country Study: “Occupation by the United States, 1916–24” and “The Era of Trujillo”

Link: US Library of Congress: Rex A. Hudson’s (ed.) *Dominican
Republic: A Country Study*: [“Occupation by the United States,
1916–24”](http://countrystudies.us/dominican-republic/10.htm) (HTML)
and [“The Era of
Trujillo”](http://countrystudies.us/dominican-republic/11.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read these two articles from *Dominican Republic: A
Country Study.* These articles focus on political instability in the
Dominican Republic in the early 20<sup>th</sup> century, including
the reign of General Rafael Trujillo.    
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.6.3 Trujillo in His Own Words   - Web Media: Internet Archive: Central Intelligence Agency’s “Interview with General Rafael Trujillo”

Link: Internet Archive: Central Intelligence Agency’s [“Interview
with General Rafael
Trujillo”](http://archive.org/details/gov.archives.arc.647563) (HTML)
(Flash)  
    
 Instructions: Watch this recently declassified footage of the
National Security Agency, a division of the Central Intelligence
Agency, interviewing General Rafael Trujillo. Trujillo answers
questions about the Dominican Republic, its relationship with Cuba,
and his response to US economic sanctions against his regime.  
    
 Watching this video and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

7.6.4 Senator Fulbright Discusses the Dominican Crisis from the US Perspective   - Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Senator Fulbright’s “Appraisal of US Policy in the Dominican Crisis, September 15, 1965” Link: Fordham University: Internet Modern History Sourcebook’s version of Senator Fulbright’s “Appraisal of US Policy in the Dominican Crisis, September 15, 1965” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read US Senator William Fulbright’s congressional testimony regarding his appraisal of the Dominican political situation at the time, from the perspective of the Cold War.
 
Reading this testimony should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 7 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Comparing Revolutions and Dictatorships in 20th Century Latin America,” “Essay Rubric,” and “Overviews”

Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “[Comparing Revolutions and
Dictatorships in 20<sup>th</sup> Century Latin
America](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HIST-222-Assessment-7.FINAL_.pdf)”
(PDF), “[Essay
Rubric](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HIST-222-Assessment-7-Rubric.FINAL_.pdf)”
(PDF), and
“[Overviews](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/HIST-222-Assessment-7-Overviews.FINAL_.pdf)”
(PDF)  

 Instructions: Read the prompt, “Comparing Revolutions and
Dictatorships in 20<sup>th</sup> Century Latin America,” and the
“Essay Rubric” before beginning your essay. Although you are only
required to write about three of the six case studies in unit 7, you
are encouraged to read the “Overviews” after completing your essay
to make sure you understand the important features of each case
study. Post your essay to the [“HIST222 Course Discussion
Board,”](http://forums.saylor.org/forum/history/HIST222/) and review
as well as respond to other students’ posts.  
    
 Completing this assessment should take approximately 3 hours.