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HIST222: Modern Latin America

Unit 6: Gender and Race in Modern Latin America   Since the colonial period, gender and race have played an important role in shaping Latin American society. In the postcolonial era, women began to demand a greater role in national life. After they achieved independence at the beginning of the 19th century, some Latin American nations granted women the right to vote. On the other hand, many public institutions continued to discriminate against women. In the late 19th century, feminists in nations such as Argentina began advocating for women to be admitted to institutions of higher education. They also agitated for new laws regarding women’s rights to their own bodies and their legal rights in marriage and divorce. Indigenous peoples and Latin Americans of African descent also became more assertive about their political and economic rights in the 20th century. Both groups also demanded recognition of their ethnic heritage and cultural values by dominant elites of European ancestry. 
 
In this unit, you will look at different ways that women and people of indigenous and African ancestry challenged the power and dominance of white male authorities throughout Latin America. You will also look at how these groups created unique cultural expressions of their backgrounds.

Unit 6 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 5.25 hours.

☐    Subunit 6.1: 0.25 hours

☐    Subunit 6.2: 3.25 hours

☐    Subunit 6.3: 1.75 hours 

Unit6 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - explain the role played by women, indigenous peoples, and Afro-Latinos in the social and political development of Latin America; and - analyze and interpret primary source documents from the 19th and 20th centuries, using historical research methods to garner a more profound understanding of Latin American history.

6.1 Women in Latin American Society   - Reading: Maria Eugenia Echenique’s Excerpt from “The Emancipation of Women, 1876”

Link: Maria Eugenia Echenique’s Excerpt from [“The Emancipation of
Women,
1876”](http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/slatta/hi216/documents/dfeminism.htm) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read this excerpt from Echenique’s essay, “The
Emancipation of Women.” In this essay, 19<sup>th</sup>-century
Argentinean feminist Maria Eugenia Echenique argues that women are
capable of more than caring for a home and having children. She
asserts that women must be free to pursue other interests and
educate themselves in order to be intellectually equal to men in
Argentinean society. She concludes that only by doing this will
Argentine women be truly emancipated.  
    
 Reading this excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

6.2 Indigenous Peoples and Contemporary Indigenous Rights Movements   - Reading: Association for Women’s Rights in Development: Gabriela De Cicco’s “Two Decades of Indigenous Women’s Leadership in Latin America”

Link: Association for Women’s Rights in Development: Gabriela De
Cicco’s [“Two Decades of Indigenous Women’s Leadership in Latin
America”](http://www.awid.org/News-Analysis/Friday-Files/Two-Decades-of-Indigenous-Women-s-Leadership-in-Latin-America) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this interview with Otilia Lux de Coti, the
Executive Direction of the Indigenous Women’s Forum.  
    
 Reading this interview should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Rigoberta Menchu Tum’s “Five Hundred Years of Sacrifice before Alien Gods”

    Link: Rigoberta Menchu Tum’s “Five Hundred Years of Sacrifice before Alien Gods” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Anders Riis-Hansen’s 1992 interview with Rigoberta Menchu Tum shortly before she was named the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. The interviewer is from the Commission for Human Rights in Central America.
     
    Reading this interview should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Primary Source Analysis: Rigoberta Menchu Tum” and “Answer Guide”

    Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Primary Source Analysis: Rigoberta Menchu Tum” (PDF) and “Answer Guide” (PDF)

    Instructions: Review Anders Riis-Hansen's interview with activist Rigoberta Menchu Tum and your notes for this subunit before beginning this assessment. Then, answer the questions in “Primary Source Analysis: Rigoberta Menchu Tum” as best as you can. Post your written responses to the “HIST222 Course Discussion Board,” and review as well as respond to other students’ posts. When you have finished answering the questions, consult the Answer Guide.
     
    Completing this assessment and posting to the course discussion board should take approximately 2 hours.

6.3 Afro-Latinos   6.3.1 The History of Afro-Latinos in Latin America   - Reading: Carolina Maria de Jesus’s Excerpt from Bitita’s Diary: The Childhood Memoirs of Carolina Maria de Jesus

Link: Carolina Maria de Jesus’s Excerpt from *[Bitita’s Diary: The
Childhood Memoirs of Carolina Maria de
Jesus](http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/slatta/hi216/documents/BETITA.HTM) *(HTML)  

 Instructions: Read the introductory note and the excerpt from
*Bitita’s Diary.* Pay special attention to the role of religion in
Carolina Maria de Jesus’s daily-life.  
 Reading this excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

6.3.2 Cultural Contributions of Afro-Latinos   - Reading: Federation of American Scientists, Congressional Research Service Reports on Foreign Policy and Regional Affairs: Clare Ribando Seelke’s “Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for US Policy”

Link: Federation of American Scientists, Congressional Research
Service Reports on Foreign Policy and Regional Affairs: Clare
Ribando Seelke’s “[Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations
for US Policy](http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/)” (PDF)  
    
 Instructions: Scroll down to “Americas,” and select the link for
the report’s title, “Afro-Latinos in Latin America and
Considerations for US Policy,” to download the PDF. Read this
report, and pay special attention to the “Historical Background”
section.   
    
 Reading this report should take approximately 1.5 hours.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.