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HIST222: Modern Latin America

Unit 2: Latin America and the United States   In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the United States began to exert significant economic, political, and military influence over Latin American nations. In 1898, American military forces invaded and occupied Cuba and Puerto Rico as part of a broader war against Spain. As a result of the Spanish-American War, Puerto Rico became a US protectorate and Cuba gained its independence, although the United States maintained a close watch over Cuban political affairs. By the early 20th century, American corporations, such as the powerful United Fruit Company, owned vast tracts of lands throughout the Caribbean and South America. These firms commonly used bribery and intimidation to influence political affairs in the so-called Banana Republicsof Latin America. The United States government backed American corporations with military force; American political leaders such as President Theodore Roosevelt expressed a clear willingness to intervene in the internal affairs of independent nations in order to protect American and European investments. In 1904, the US government also became involved in the massive project to build a sea-level canal across the Isthmus of Panama. When the Panama Canal was completed 10 years later, it allowed the United States to exert tremendous economic and military influence throughout the region. 
 
In this unit, you will examine the relationship between the United States and the nations of Latin America in the 19th and early 20th centuries. You will also evaluate how America’s involvement in Latin American affairs influenced (for better or worse) the economic and political development of Latin American nations during this time period, especially in the years leading up to World War II.  

Unit 2 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 8.25 hours.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 0.25 hours

☐    Unit 2 Assessment: 3 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - assess how the United States used economic and cultural imperialism to control the economic, social, and political development of Latin America; and - analyze and interpret primary source documents from the 19th and 20th centuries, using historical research methods to garner a more profound understanding of Latin American history.

2.1 American Economic Imperialism in the 19th Century   2.1.1 Creating Banana Republics   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Creating Banana Republics” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Creating Banana Republics” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this article for an introduction to the main
causes, events, and consequences of the creation of the so-called
*banana republics*. Pay special attention to the permanent effect of
the *de facto* fruit companies’ stronghold over these small Latin
American countries’ society, politics, and economy.  

 Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

2.1.2 Filibustering and Private Military Expeditions   - Reading: Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association: Daniel Walker Howe’s “Lincoln’s Worldwide Audience”

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id="cke_bm_556S" style="display: none;"> </span>Link: *Journal of
the Abraham Lincoln Association*: Daniel Walker Howe’s [“Lincoln’s
Worldwide
Audience”](http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jala/2629860.0033.206/--lincoln-s-worldwide-audience-the-global-lincoln-edited?rgn=main;view=fulltext) (HTML)
(PDF)  
    
 Instructions: Read the sixth paragraph of this article, starting
with “As the Japanese experience demonstrates….” Howe offers a quick
review of Lincoln’s relations with Latin America and his views on
*filibustering*.  
    
 Reading this paragraph should take less than 15 minutes.

   
 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). It is
attributed to Daniel Walker Howe, and the original version can be
found [here](http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.2629860.0033.206).<span
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  • Reading: Charles Congdon’s Tribune Essays: Leading Articles Contributing to the New York Tribune from 1857 to 1863: “William the Conqueror” Link: Charles Congdon’s Tribune Essays: Leading Articles Contributing to the New York Tribune from 1857 to 1863: “William the Conqueror” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article, which refers to the exploits of American adventurer William Walker, who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America. Walker became president of the Republic of Nicaragua in 1856–1857.
     
    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. It is attributed to Charles Congdon, and the original version can be found here.

2.1.3 The Spanish-American War   - Reading: US Department of State’s “The Spanish-American War, 1898”

Link: US Department of State’s [“The Spanish-American War,
1898”](http://2001-2009.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/gp/90609.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article for an overview of the
Spanish-American War. Remember that the Spanish-American War was the
result of US involvement in the Cuban War of Independence.  
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.
  • Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: “US Recognition of Cuban Independence, 1898”

    Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: “US Recognition of Cuban Independence, 1898” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this primary source document of a resolution passed in response to President McKinley asking Congress for permission to intervene in Cuba in 1898. Remember that the Spanish defeat in the war meant the loss of all of Spain’s Pacific possessions at the time, such as Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico.
     
    Reading this primary source document should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

2.1.4 The Treaty of Paris of 1898   - Reading: Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library: The Avalon Project’s “Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain, 1898”

Link: Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library: The Avalon
Project’s “[Treaty of Peace between the United States and Spain,
1898](http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/sp1898.asp)” (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read the Treaty of Peace between the United States
and Spain: December 10, 1898. Also known as the Treaty of Paris of
1898, the treaty officially ended the Spanish-American War. It was
ratified on April 11, 1899 and signaled the end of the hegemony of
the Spanish Empire in Latin America and the Pacific Ocean and marks
the beginning of the hegemony of the United States in the Western
hemisphere.  
    
 Reading this treaty should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain. 

2.1.5 Roosevelt’s Corollary and Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy   - Reading: Theodore Roosevelt’s “Third Annual Message to Congress, December 6, 1904”

Link: Theodore Roosevelt’s “[Third Annual Message to Congress,
December 6,
1904](http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/us-relations/roosevelt-corollary.htm)”
(HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read Roosevelt’s third annual message to Congress in
1904. In this speech to Congress, President Theodore Roosevelt
presented a new diplomatic policy that would later be referred to as
the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. The Roosevelt
Corollary asserted the right of the United States to intervene and
stabilize the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and
Central America if they were unable to pay their international
debt. Roosevelt coined the term *dollar diplomacy* for this type of
policy, because American military interventions in Latin America
generally resulted from local interference with American firms or
unpaid debts to European firms. Though Roosevelt coined the term,
this type of policy is mostly associated with President William
Howard Taft.  
    
 Reading this speech should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.
  • Reading: Connexions: Dr. James Ross-Nazzal’s “The Progressive Era (Part II)”

    Link: Connexions: Dr. James Ross-Nazzal’s “The Progressive Era (Part II)” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this article for an overview of common characteristics and differences between Roosevelt’s big stick policy and Taft’s dollar diplomacy in terms these presidents’ approaches to foreign policy.
     
    Reading this article should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Dr. James Ross-Nazzal, and the original version can be found here

2.2 The Panama Canal   2.2.1 Early Canal Projects   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Sandra W. Meditz and Dennis M. Hanratty’s (ed.) Panama: A Country Study: “The Uncompleted French Canal”

Link: US Library of Congress: Sandra W. Meditz and Dennis M.
Hanratty’s (ed.) *Panama: A Country Study*: [“The Uncompleted French
Canal”](http://countrystudies.us/panama/6.htm) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this article from *Panama: A Country Study*. Pay
special attention to the role of the United States in the creation
of the canal.   
    
 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.2.2 The Panamanian Revolution   - Reading: US Library of Congress: Sandra W. Meditz and Dennis M. Hanratty’s (ed.) Panama: A Country Study: “The Spillover from Colombia's Civil Strife,” “The 1903 Treaty and Qualified Independence,” and “Organizing the New Republic”

Link: US Library of Congress: Sandra W. Meditz and Dennis M.
Hanratty’s (ed.) *Panama: A Country Study*: [“The Spillover from
Colombia's Civil
Strife”](http://countrystudies.us/panama/7.htm) (HTML), [“The 1903
Treaty and Qualified
Independence”](http://countrystudies.us/panama/8.htm) (HTML), and
[“Organizing the New
Republic”](http://countrystudies.us/panama/9.htm) (HTML)  

 Instructions: Read these three articles from *Panama: A Country
Study*. The separation of Panama from Colombia was formalized on
November 3, 1903, with the establishment of the Republic of Panama
from the Republic of Colombia’s Department of Panama.  
    
 Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.2.3 The US Government Takes Over the Canal Project   - Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: “Convention between the US and Panama (Panama Canal), 1903”

Link: Fordham University’s*Internet Modern History Sourcebook*:
[“Convention between the US and Panama (Panama Canal),
1903”](http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1903panama.asp) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read this primary source document. This text provides
a narrative of the origins of the United States’ renewed interest in
acquiring an inter-oceanic canal after its intervention in Cuba in
1898.   
    
 Reading this primary source document should take approximately 45
minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.3 American Military Interventions and Occupations   - Reading: Wikibooks: IB History of the Americas: “Chapter 9: United States Foreign Policy in Latin America, 1898 to 1945”

Link: Wikibooks: *IB History of the Americas*: [“Chapter 9: United
States Foreign Policy in Latin America, 1898 to
1945”](http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/IB_History_of_the_Americas/Chapter_9) (HTML)  
    
 Instructions: Read chapter 9, which discusses the economic changes
that led to US imperialism in the Latin America in the 1890s.   
    
 Reading this chapter should take approximately 15 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/).

Unit 2 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “US Involvement in Latin America,” “Rubric for US Involvement in Latin America,” and “Sample Essay for US Involvement in Latin America”

Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “[US Involvement in Latin
America](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/HIST-222-Assessment-2.FINAL_.pdf)”
(PDF), “[Rubric for US Involvement in Latin
America](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/HIST-222-Assessment-2-Rubric.FINAL_.pdf)”
(PDF), and “[Sample Essay for US Involvement in Latin
America](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/HIST-222-Assessment-2-Sample-Essay.FINAL_.pdf)”
(PDF)  

 Instructions: Once you have finished reviewing all the course
materials for unit 2, read the essay prompt “US Involvement in Latin
America.” Before you begin writing a response to the prompt, consult
the “Rubric for US Involvement in Latin America” for more details
about the expectations for this assessment and how to write an
excellent essay. Once you have completed your essay, compare it to
the “Sample Essay for US Involvement in Latin America.” Post your
essay to the [“HIST222 Course Discussion
Board,”](http://forums.saylor.org/forum/history/HIST222/) and review
as well as respond to other students’ essays.  
    
 Completing this assessment and posting to the discussion board
should take approximately 3 hours.