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HIST221: Colonial Latin and South America

Unit 8: The End of an Empire   By the second decade of the 19th century, Spain had lost political control of its vast colonial empire in the Americas.  Only the Caribbean islands of Cuba and Puerto Rico remained under Spanish possession.  In 1821, Brazil’s monarch declared independence from the Portuguese crown and Portugal lost control of its only major American colony.  Meanwhile, the independence movements across Central and South America resulted in the creation of numerous independent nations.  While many of these nations retained social and economic ties to Spain, they exercised their new independence by forming regional political alliances with other former Spanish colonies.  In this final unit, we will examine how independence movements reshaped Central and South America and led to new economic ties with the United States and England.  We will also look at how these new connections played a profound role in shaping the development of these young nations in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

Unit 8 Time Advisory
Time Estimate: This unit will take you 7 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 8.1: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 8.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.3: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 8.4: 1.5 hours

Unit8 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Assess how political revolutions and wars for independence throughout Latin and South America ended European colonial control of the region, and compare and contrast the consequences of these revolutions for ethnic European and indigenous populations. - Describe and analyze the development of new trade relations of the newly independent nations with the United States and England. - Analyze the development of these newly independent nations in the 19th and 20th centuries. 

8.1 Revolutions and Independence Movements in Latin America   8.1.1 Independent States   - Lecture: Oberlin College: Professor Steven Volk's “Shaping Latin American Independence: Force and the State” Link: Oberlin College: Professor Steven Volk's “Shaping Latin American Independence: Force and the State” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Please listen to or watch the entirety of the lecture (approximately 37 minutes).  In this lecture, Professor Volk works to answer important questions about Latin American independence movements, including: “What are the causes of Latin American instability in the 19th century?”  “What dangers did the newly independent Latin American nations face?”
 
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8.1.2 Consolidating Control   - Lecture: Oberlin College: Professor Steven Volk's “The View from Below. Indians in the New Independent Order” Link: Oberlin College: Professor Steven Volk's “The View from Below. Indians in the New Independent Order” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Please listen to or watch the entirety of the lecture (approximately 18 minutes).  Professor Volk discusses the choices made by the leaders of the newly independent Latin America.
 
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8.1.3 Spanish Weakness   - Reading: Library of Congress's Hispanic Division: “The World of 1898: The Spanish American War” Links: Library of Congress's Hispanic Division: “The World of 1898: The Spanish American War” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this page in its entirety, including the embedded links.  Pay special attention to the sections: Introduction, Background, Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the United States.
 
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8.2 Brazil in a Revolutionary Age   8.2.1 The United Kingdom   - Reading: Library of Congress Country Studies: “Brazil: The Transformation to Kingdom Status” Link: Library of Congress Country Studies: “Brazil: The Transformation to Kingdom Status” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this text in its entirety.  Pay special attention to the economic repercussions of the transformation of Brazil to a kingdom.
 
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8.2.2 Separation and Independence from Portugal   - Reading: Library of Congress Country Studies: “Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil” Link: Library of Congress Country Studies: “Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this text in its entirety.  This page provides information on Emperor Pedro I of Brazil.  Pedro I ruled the country after elected delegates declared Brazil’s independence from Portugal in 1821.  The web page’s author discusses the challenges that Pedro I faced as he tried to unify new nation politically and economically in the years following independence.

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  • Lecture: Oberlin College: Professor Steven Volk's “Brazil: From Independence to Order” Link: Oberlin College: Professor Steven Volk's “Brazil: From Independence to Order” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Please listen to or watch the entirety of the lecture (approximately 27 minutes).  Professor Volk describes the history of Brazil during the early years of independence by focusing on the transition from colonialism to the Brazilian Empire, Dom Pedro I and the early years of Dom Pedro II.
     
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8.3 Remnants of Empire   8.3.1 Spanish Possessions in the Caribbean   - Lecture: Google Videos: Stan Zimmerman, Pierian Spring Academy, icollege lecture: “Spanish-American War” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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8.3.2 Mexican Independence   - Reading: Texas A&M; University: Fay Robinson's "Hidalgo: Mexico and Military Chieftains" Link: Texas A&M University: Fay Robinson's "Hidalgo: Mexico and Military Chieftains" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this text for a brief look at the life of Miguel Hidalgo, the father of Mexican independence.
 
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8.3.3 Decline of Spanish Influence   - Lecture: Oberlin College: Professor Steven Volk's “The Colonial Heritage of Independent Latin America” Link: Oberlin College: Professor Steven Volk's “The Colonial Heritage of Independent Latin America” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Please listen to or watch the entirety of the lecture (approximately 37 minutes).  Professor Volk looks at the colonial heritage of the newly independent states.
 
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8.4 A New Era in the Americas   8.4.1 The Era of Independence   - Reading: University of Illinois: WHC Project: Lisa M. Edwards: “Paths to Progress in Modern Latin America” Link: University of Illinois: WHC Project: Lisa M. Edwards: “Paths to Progress in Modern Latin America” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this text for an overview of the various aspects of the post-independence era in Latin America.
 
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8.4.2 Trade Relations   - Reading: Encyclopedia of the New American Nation: “Pan-Americanism to 1850” Link: Encyclopedia of the New American Nation: “Pan-Americanism to 1850” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this text in its entirety.  Pay special attention to how and why Pan-Americanism failed. 
 
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8.4.3 The United States and Latin America in the 19th Century   - Reading: Illinois University: Dr. Drew VandeCreek: “The Mexican American War” Link: Northern Illinois University: Dr. Drew VandeCreek: “The Mexican American War” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click in all the embedded links and read these texts in their entirety. In the Mexican-American War, the U.S. defeated the Republic of Mexico, and acquired a large territory, which today comprises much of the nation’s Southwest.   Pay special attention to the impact of the war on both the United States and Mexico.
 
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