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HIST221: Colonial Latin and South America

Unit 7: Crisis and Revolution   The French Revolution and the resulting European political and military crisis of the 1790s and 1800s had a profound impact on Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas.  Under military pressure from Napoleon, Spain secretly transferred control of its vast Louisiana Territory to France in 1800.  Napoleon then sold the territory to the United States three years later.  In 1808, Napoleon invaded Spain and Portugal and declared his brother Joseph the new king.  The Portuguese court fled to Brazil and declared the colony to be the new capitol of the Portuguese Empire.  The sudden fall of Spain created a power vacuum in the Spanish colonies and led many local officials to assume control over colonial governments.  In 1808, a poorly planned attempt by the British to seize military control of the Spanish colonies along the Rio de la Plata, the waterway that separates modern-day Argentina and Uruguay, sparked a powerful resistance movement in the region that inspired a number of revolutionaries to organize independence movements across Central and South America.  Over the next few years, these revolutionaries challenged Spanish military forces and fought for self-rule in the Spanish colonies.  In this unit, we will examine how the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars ended Spanish control over its colonial possessions and discuss how the conflict contributed to the growth of colonial independence movements throughout the Americas. 

Unit 7 Time Advisory
Time Estimate: This unit will take you 13 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 7.1: 6 hours

☐    Subunit 7.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 7.3: 6 hours

Unit7 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Identify how the Napoleonic Wars of the early 19th century led to the rise of independence movements in the colonies of Latin and South America. - Describe and analyze the different responses to the French control of Spain by the colonies. - Identify the main figures of the resistance and the rebellion in the colonies, such as Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, and Bernardo O’Higgins. 

7.1 The European Crisis   7.1.1 The French Revolution   - Lecture: Academic Earth: University of California Los Angeles: Professor Lynn Hunt: “The French Revolution” Link: Academic Earth: University of California Los Angeles: Professor Lynn Hunt:  “The French Revolution” (Adobe Flash)
 
Also available in:
 
YouTube
 
Instructions: Please listen to or watch the entirety of the lecture (approximately 1 hour).  Professor Hunt offers a lively narrative of the ideas, attitudes, and institutions basic to the French Revolution.
 
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  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part I)” Link: Khan Academy’s "French Revolution (Part I)" (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 17 minutes).  The French Revolution began in May 1789 with the meeting of the Estates-General—a general assembly representing the three French estates of the realm: the nobility, the church, and the common people.  Summoned by King Louis XVI to propose solutions to his government’s financial problems, the Estates-General sat for several weeks in May and June 1789 but came to an impasse as the three estates clashed over their respective powers.   It was brought to an end when many members of the Third Estate formed themselves into a National Assembly, signaling the outbreak of the Revolution.   On July 14 of that same year, the Bastille—amedieval fortress and prison which represented royal authority in the center of Paris—was stormed by a mob that demanded the arms and ammunition stored there.  This web media should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part 2)” Link: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part 2)” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 15 minutes), which discusses the second stage of the French Revolution.  After Louis XV and his wife tried to escape Paris in 1791, the French revolutionary wars began soon thereafter; however, fighting soon went badly and prices rose sky-high.  In August 1792, a mob assaulted the Royal Palace in Paris and arrested the King.  In September, the Assembly abolished the monarchy and declared a republic.  This web media should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part 3) – Reign of Terror” Link: Khan Academy’s "French Revolution (Part 3) – Reign of Terror

    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 23 minutes) on the “Reign of Terror,” a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, and marked by mass executions of “enemies of the revolution.”  The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine and another 25,000 in summary executions across France.  This web media should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

7.1.2 The Napoleonic Wars   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: Professor John Merriman: “Napoleon” Link: YouTube: Yale University: Professor John Merriman: “Napoleon” 
 
Also available in:
 
Flash, Quicktime, MP3, or Transcript (HTML)
 
iTunes U
  
Instructions: Please listen to or watch the entirety of the lecture (approximately 48 minutes).  Professor John Merriman discusses Napoleon’s early life and how it influenced his military career and political thought.
 
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  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part 4) – The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte” Link: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part 4) – The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 17 minutes), which discusses the last stages of the French Revolution and how Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the French Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate.   Napoleon rose to power under the French First Republic, which formed at the end of the French Revolution, proclaimed himself dictator, and eventually, emperor under the First French Empire in 1804.  This web media should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the Wars of the First and Second Coalitions” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the Wars of the First and Second Coalitions” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 13 minutes), which discusses Napoleon’s early military campaigns.  The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleo’'s French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815.  As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution, they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly owing to the application of modern mass conscription.  This web media should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Third Coalition” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Third Coalition”  (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 22 minutes).  The War of the Third Coalition spanned from 1803 to 1806.  Under Napoleon I, it saw the defeat of an alliance of Austria, Portugal, Russia, and others by France and its client states.  This web media and note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Fourth Coalition” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Fourth Coalition” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 16 minutes).  The Fourth Coalition against Napoleon’s French Empire was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807.  Coalition partners included Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.  This web media should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “French Invasion of Russia” Link: Khan Academy’s “French Invasion of Russia” (YouTube)
               
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 17 minutes).  The French invasion of Russia in 1812 was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars.  It reduced the French invasion forces to a tiny fraction of their initial strength and triggered a major shift in European politics as it dramatically weakened French hegemony in Europe. As a result, the reputation of Napoleon as an undefeated military genius was severely shaken.  This web media should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon Forced to Abdicate” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon Forced to Abdicate” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 16 minutes).  In the War of the Sixth Coalition (1812–1814), a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain, and a number of German States finally defeated France and drove Napoleon Bonaparte into exile, thereby restoring the French monarchy under Louis XVIII.  This web media should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

7.1.3 French Control of Iberia   - Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon’s Peninsular Campaigns” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon’s Peninsular Campaigns” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 20 minutes).   The Peninsular War occurred between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula. 
This web media and note-taking should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Reading: Library of Congress Country Studies: Eric Solsten’s (ed.) Spain: A Country Study: “The Napoleonic Era” Link: Library of Congress Country Studies: Eric Solsten’s (ed.) Spain: A Country Study: “The Napoleonic Era” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of this text in order to gain an overview of the Peninsular War.
     
    This website contains electronic texts of previous publications printed by the Library of Congress and sponsored by the U.S. Department of the Army from 1986-1998.
               
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7.2 Iberian Colonies in an Age of Revolution   - Reading: Historyworld.net: Bamber Gascoigne’s "History of the Spanish Empire:" “Independence Movements” Link: Historyworld.net: Bamber Gascoigne’s “History of the Spanish Empire" “Independence Movements” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This reading covers subunits 7.2.1-7.2.2.  Please read this page and the embedded links in their entirety.  This text touches on the effects of the European revolutions as well as their impact of colonial society.
 
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7.2.1 Political Control of the Colonies   7.2.2 Colonial Possessions   7.3 Resistance and Rebellion in the Colonies   - Reading: Historical Text Archive: Donald J. Mabry's “Period of Imperial Crises” and “Causation and the Spanish American Independence Movements” Link: Historical Text Archive: Donald J. Mabry's “Period of Imperial Crisis”(HTML) and “Causation and the Spanish American Independence Movements” (HTML)
 
Instructions: This reading covers subunits 7.3.1-7.3.2.  Please read these pages in their entirety.  Donald J. Mabry, Professor Emeritus at Mississippi State University, discusses the affairs of the Spanish Empire during a time of international wars and revolutions.  Pay special attention to the how and why did the Spanish colonies go from loyalty to the Spanish crown to independence.
 
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7.3.1 Challenging Napoleonic Rule   7.3.2 Resistance Movements    

7.3.3 The Rise of Bolivar, San Martin, and O’Higgins   - Reading: Historyworld.net: Bamber Gascoigne’s "History of the Spanish Empire" “Bolívar and San Martín” Link: Historyworld.net: Bamber Gascoigne’s “History of the Spanish Empire" “Bolivar and San Martin” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this page in its entirety. Make sure to click on the embedded link and read the information for “Bernardo O’Higgins.”
 
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  • Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Professor J. S. Arkenberg’s version of Simón de Bolívar’s “Message to the Congress of Angostura, 1819” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook:  Professor J. S. Arkenberg’s version of Simón de Bolívar’s “Message to the Congress of Angostura, 1819” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entire text.  Venezuelan Revolutionary Simón Bolívar delivered this address during the Congress of Angostura in 1819.  The Congress met during the Venezuelan and Columbian war for independence against Spain with the goal of creating a new constitution for the new nation (known as Gran Columbia).  In the address, Bolívar describes Latin American revolutionaries as “Americans by birth and Europeans by law.”  He presents his thoughts on how the new nation should be governed and suggests a blend of American and British forms of representative government.
     
    This link is maintained by Paul Halsall at Fordham University.
     
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  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Bolivar” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Bolivar” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please complete the questions in the assessment.  You can check your answers against the "Guide to Responding." (PDF)  For more information about the life and work of Simón Bolívar, please visit the University of Florida's Digital Collections to read Petre F. Loraine’s “Simon Bolivar 'El Libertador': A Life of the Chief Leader in the Revolt Against Spain in Venezuela, New Granada and Peru” (1910) (http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00054973/00001).  This assessment should take you 4 hours to complete (not including the extra reading material).