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HIST211: Introduction to United States History - Colonial Period to Reconstruction

Unit 10: The Civil War   *The outbreak of a civil war between the Union and the Confederacy marked the collapse of the federal union created by the Founders in 1776. Two separate nations emerged – the Union in the North and the Confederate States of America in the South – where one had once existed. In fact, some historians consider the American Civil War the first modern war because it pitted two modern nation-states against one another in a bitter contest over property rights, economy, and the role of federal and state governments. While Thomas Jefferson had defined Americans as a single “people” in his Declaration of 1776, Northerners and Southerners went to war in 1861 precisely because they considered themselves to be two separate “peoples” unable to reconcile their differences.

In all, over 620,000 soldiers died in the Civil War, more than the total American casualties in all other wars combined until the Vietnam War. The extraordinary scale of death and devastation during the Civil War made it one of the most pivotal events in American history.

In this unit, you will examine the emergence of the North and the South as two distinct nations, the major battles and military strategies that determined the course of the conflict, Lincoln’s leadership, and the social and economic impact of the Civil War.*

Unit 10 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take approximately 14.25 hours.

☐    Subunit 10.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 10.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.3: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 10.4: 6.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 10.6: 0.25 hours

Unit10 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - define and explain the causes of the Civil War; - identify the key military turning points of the Civil War; - assess the impact of the war and the Emancipation Proclamation on slaves; - assess the social impact of the Civil War; and - analyze and interpret primary source documents from the era, using historical research methods.

10.1 What Caused the Civil War?   - Lecture: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 11: Slavery and States Rights, Economies, and Ways of Life: What Caused the Civil War?” Link: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 11: Slavery and States Rights, Economies, and Ways of Life: What Caused the Civil War?” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  
 [HTML, Flash, MP3, or
QuickTime](http://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-119/lecture-11)  

 Instructions: Watch this lecture to get a sense of the presidential
election of 1860 and its immediate aftermath. Professor Blight
examines historians’ various interpretations of what caused the
American Civil War. Which of these interpretations do you consider
the most accurate?  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.2 Beginnings of War   10.2.1 Confederate Ascendancy   - Lecture: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 13: Terrible Swift Sword: The Period of Confederate Ascendancy” Link: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 13: Terrible Swift Sword: The Period of Confederate Ascendancy” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  

[Flash](http://academicearth.org/lectures/period-of-confederate-ascendency)  

 Instructions: Watch this lecture to get a sense of the Northern and
Southern perceptions of how the Civil War would play out. Professor
Blight also discusses the first important battle of the war, Bull
Run.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.2.2 Bull Run   - Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas. July 21, 1861” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “First Battle of Bull Run/Manassas. July 21, 1861” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read only this section, which discusses the first
major land battle of the Civil War. How did the outcome of this
battle alter Northern and Southern expectations on the course of the
war?  

 Reading this section and answering the question above should take
approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommerical-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).

10.3 Lincoln and Race   - Lecture: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 15: Lincoln, Leadership, and Race: Emancipation as Policy” Link: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 15: Lincoln, Leadership, and Race: Emancipation as Policy” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  

[Flash](http://academicearth.org/lectures/lincoln-leadership-emancipation-as-policy)  

 Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Blight
considers the origins of Lincoln’s decision to make the Emancipation
Proclamation, including the bloody Battle at Antietam in 1862.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.3.1 Emancipation Proclamation   - Reading: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration’s Featured Documents: “The Emancipation Proclamation” Link: U.S. National Archives and Records Administration’s Featured Documents: “The Emancipation Proclamation” (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 [eText format for
Kindle](http://www.amazon.com/The-Emancipation-Proclamation-ebook/dp/B002RKS77Y/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&m=AG56TWVU5XWC2&s=digital-text&qid=1279549926&sr=1-1) (Available
for Free)  

 Instructions: Read the introductory text as well as the transcript
of Lincoln’s famous declaration, which proclaimed all enslaved
people in the “rebellious states” to be free. To access the
transcript, click on the link under “Additional Resources.” Also,
view the thumbnail images of the primary source document of the
proclamation.  

 Reading this proclamation and viewing the images should take
approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

10.3.2 Impact and Meanings of the Emancipation Proclamation   - Lecture: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 16: Days of Jubilee: The Meanings of Emancipation and Total War” Link: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 16: Days of Jubilee: The Meanings of Emancipation and Total War” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  

[Flash](http://academicearth.org/lectures/days-of-jubilee-emancipation-and-total-war)  

 Instructions: Watch this lecture to get a sense of the impact and
implications of the Emancipation Proclamation. Professor Blight
argues that the Emancipation Proclamation made the Union Army an
army of emancipators, encouraged slaves to mobilize against slavery,
transformed the Union into an emancipator in the eyes of Europe, and
allowed African Americans to enlist in the Union Army.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.3.3 Black Soldiers   - Reading: IIP Digital: Joyce Hansen's “Black Soldiers in the Civil War” Link: IIP Digital: Joyce Hansen's “Black Soldiers in the Civil War” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this webpage to learn about the important
contributions made by African American soldiers during the Civil
War. Why did the federal government eventually decide to allow black
soldiers to fight after initially being so opposed to it?  

 Reading this article, taking notes, and answering the question
above should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain. 

10.4 The Long War   10.4.1 Confederate Ascendancy, 1861–2   - Lecture: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 14: Never Call Retreat: Military and Political Turning Points in 1863” Link: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 14: Never Call Retreat: Military and Political Turning Points in 1863” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  

[Flash](http://academicearth.org/lectures/military-and-political-turning-points-in-1863)  

 Instructions: Watch this lecture to get a sense of the Confederate
Army’s steady push northward. Professor Blight examines several
military battles, culminating with Robert E. Lee’s decision to
invade the North in 1862.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 36: The Civil War” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 36: The Civil War” (Flash)

    Instructions: Click on the link above, click the “Start lesson” button, and view the presentations for all three topics: “Military Strategy,” “The Battles,” and “The Economy during the Civil War.”  Click on the “Text” tabs for each topic and read these additional pages. Then, click on the links under “Explore” and read the accompanying text.
     
    This resource summarizes notable facets of the war, including the Antietam conflict, the role of military commanders, and foreign alliance building.

    Watching this presentations and reading the accompanying text should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.4.2 Turning Points in 1863: Gettysburg and Vicksburg   - Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The Civil War Part 2: Gettysburg to Appomattox” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The Civil War Part 2: Gettysburg to Appomattox” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this page from the beginning of the article
until the subheading “The Final Years: 1864 & 1865.” This reading
provides a nice overview of the major military campaigns of the year
1863, which was a turning point in the Civil War and marked the
beginning of the ultimate victory of the Union and the demise of the
Confederacy.  

 Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommerical-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).
  • Lecture: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 18: ‘War So Terrible’: Why the Union Won and the Confederacy Lost” Link: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 18: ‘War So Terrible’: Why the Union Won and the Confederacy Lost” (YouTube)

    Also available in:

    Flash

    Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Blight examines the many explanations for the South’s defeat and the North’s victory in the Civil War and outlines two major battles in 1863 – Gettysburg and Vicksburg.

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: OurDocuments.gov: Abraham Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” Link: OurDocuments.gov: Abraham Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read the “Document Info.”  Then, click on the link in the upper right corner on the link “Document Transcript;” read Lincoln’s short speech.

    Abraham Lincoln delivered this speech, one of the most famous in United States history, after the bloody battle at Gettysburg in July of 1863. Lincoln invoked the natural rights principles of the Declaration of Independence and redefined the Civil War as a struggle for “a new birth of freedom.”

    Reading this speech and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.4.3 1864: Toward the End of the War   - Lecture: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 19: To Appomattox and Beyond: The End of the War and a Search for Meanings” Link: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 19: To Appomattox and Beyond: The End of the War and a Search for Meanings” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  

[Flash](http://academicearth.org/lectures/appomattox-and-beyond-end-of-war)  

 Instructions: Watch this lecture to get an overview of the bloody
and fateful battles of 1864, including William Tecumseh Sherman’s
famous “March to the Sea.”  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.4.4 Lincoln’s Re-Election and Appomattox   - Lecture: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 20: Wartime Reconstruction: Imagining the Aftermath and a Second American Republic” Link: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 20: Wartime Reconstruction: Imagining the Aftermath and a Second American Republic” (YouTube)

 Also available in:  
 [Flash](http://academicearth.org/lectures/wartime-reconstruction)  

 Instructions: Watch this lecture in which Professor Blight examines
a critical turning point in the war – Lincoln’s re-election – as
well as the events leading up to Robert E. Lee’s surrender at
Appomattox Courthouse in April of 1865.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 38: Ramifications of the Civil War” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 38: Ramifications of the Civil War” (Flash)

    Instructions: Click on the link above, click the “Start Lesson” button, and view the presentations for the three topics: “Election of 1864,” “Effects of the War on the South,” and “Reconstruction Begins.”  Click on the “Text” tabs for each topic and read all of the pages.  Then, click on the links under “Explore” and read the accompanying text.
     
    This resource discusses Lincoln’s re-election campaign in 1864, the devastating impact of the Civil War on the South, and the first efforts to reconstruct the South through the creation of the Freedmen’s Bureau in 1865 to provide assistance to the millions of freed slaves in the South.

    Watching this presentations and reading the accompanying text should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.5 Social Impact of the War   - Reading: Susie King Taylor's "Reminiscences of My Life in Camp with the 33rd United States Colored Troops" Link: Susie King Taylor's "Reminiscences of My Life in Camp with the 33rd United States Colored Troops" (HTML)

 Instructions: Read pages 15–17, 22–28, and 31–34 of Susie King
Taylor's memoir. While the Civil War is often rightly recognized for
its dramatic impact on the lives of black Americans, who were
finally freed from slavery and the assertion of federal over state
power, the social cost of the war was felt by all Americans, both
North and South. This source provides insight into the daily
experience of war from the point of view of a non-combatant. Explain
how this source illustrates the devastating disruption of the Civil
War. For a brief overview of Taylor's life, check out her [Wikipedia
page](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Susie_Taylor).  

 Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.
  • Lecture: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 17: Homefronts and Battlefronts: ‘Hard War’ and the Social Impact of the Civil War” Link: YouTube: Open Yale Courses: David Blight’s HIST119: The Civil War and Reconstruction Era: “Lecture 17: Homefronts and Battlefronts: ‘Hard War’ and the Social Impact of the Civil War” (YouTube)

    Also available in:

    Flash

    Instructions: Click on the link above, and view this lecture to get a sense of the social impact of the Civil War. Professor Blight examines how individuals experienced the war, as well as the impact of the conflict on governments and economies.

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

10.6 Lincoln’s Assassination   - Lecture: YouTube: Khan Academy’s United States History: “Appomattox Court House and Lincoln’s Assassination” Link: YouTube: Khan Academy’s United States History: “Appomattox Court House and Lincoln’s Assassination” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Watch this lecture. Abraham Lincoln was the first
American president to be assassinated. How might his death have
affected potential sympathy for the South?  

 Watching this lecture and answering the question above should take
approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
Unported](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).