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HIST211: Introduction to United States History - Colonial Period to Reconstruction

Unit 2: A New Nation Forms   *In the wake of the Seven Years’ War, Britain imposed new taxes and restrictions upon the British American colonies to help pay for the war. The colonies balked at these measures and argued that the British Parliament was not authorized to regulate trade or impose duties and that these matters could only be handled by provincial assemblies. Although many colonists protested the new imperial taxes, few believed it warranted their secession from Britain. It was not until 1775, after George III failed to address the grievances of the colonists, that a break with Britain seemed legitimate and necessary.

In this unit, you will learn how the Revolutionary War made America independent of Britain but also brought many unresolved questions to the fore. What constituted an American people? What was the nature of power and liberty? How would America survive in a dangerous world dominated by European empires? What would the American union look like, and how would it be bound together? In this unit, you will consider how these questions dominated debates about the Imperial Crisis, the American Revolution, the Articles of Confederation, the creation of the federal Constitution, and the nature of the new federal union.*

Unit 2 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take approximately 31 hours.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 7.25 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 12.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 3.75 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 7.5 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - identify and explain the political and ideological differences between Britain and the colonies, as evident in the primary sources; - explain the grievances of the colonists in North America and why they decided to rebel against British rule in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783); - explain the divisions that existed between the colonists themselves during this conflict; - explain the factors that enabled the United States to win its independence in this war; - identify and explain the central arguments around the creation of the United States Constitution; - define the political views of the Democratic Republicans and the Federalists and identify the policies that each party advocated; and - analyze and interpret primary source documents from the era, using historical research methods.

2.1 The Imperial Crisis   2.1.1 Imperial Reforms   - Lecture: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “Outraged Colonials: The Stamp Act Crisis”, “Resistance or Rebellion”, and “Being a Revolutionary” Link: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “Outraged Colonials: The Stamp Act Crisis” (iTunes U), “Resistance or Rebellion” (iTunes U), and “Being a Revolutionary” (iTunes U)

 Instructions: Please watch these lectures, in which
ProfessorFreeman discusses the actions of the British government and
the colonists’ reactions to these policies,from the passage of the
Stamp Act in 1765 through the Boston Tea Party in 1773.  

 Watching these lectures and pausing to take notesshould take
approximately 3 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: United States Library of Congress’ American Memory: “British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1763–1766” Link: United States Library of Congress’ American Memory: “British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1763–1766” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this webpage to get a sense of why British legislators imposed reforms – new taxes – on British Americans as well as how Americans responded to these reforms.

    Reading this webpage should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

2.1.2 Colonial Resistance   - Lecture: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “The Logic of Resistance” Link: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “The Logic of Resistance” (iTunes U)

 Instructions: Watch this lecture, in which Professor Freeman
discusses events following the passage of the Coercive Acts and the
meeting of the First Continental Congress.  

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: United States Library of Congress’ American Memory: “British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1767–1772” and “The Colonies Move Toward Open Rebellion, 1773–1774” Link: United States Library of Congress’ American Memory: “British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1767–1772” and “The Colonies Move Toward Open Rebellion, 1773–1774” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this webpage to get a sense of Britain’s increasingly oppressive legislative tactics – more taxes, tighter restrictions on commerce, and more British troops stationed in British America.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

  • Reading: Samuel Adams’ “The Rights of the Colonists” Link: Samuel Adams’ “The Rights of the Colonists” (PDF)

    Also available in:
    eText Format for Google Books (Start on page 350)
    eText Format for Kindle (Available for purchase, $0.99)

    Instructions: Read Adams’s treatise to get a sense of how British Americans perceived their rights in 1772. In this document, Samuel Adams of Massachusetts asserts that colonists are entitled to the same English and natural rights as the inhabitants of Britain. Although he does not argue for independence from the mother country, he does wonder “how long such treatment will or ought to be borne” by the colonists.

    Reading this treatise and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

  • Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The American Revolution: 1763–1800: Background Events, 1761–1775” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The American Revolution: 1763–1800: Background Events, 1761–1775” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this webpage for an overview of events leading up to the American Revolution and an exploration of how and why the Revolution happened. Click on the embedded links to read the associated content.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

2.1.3 Reconciliation or Independence?   - Reading: Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, Part III Link: Thomas Paine’s Common Sense, Part III (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 [eText Format for Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=e0oqAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Common+sense&hl=en&ei=7mE_TI3NBsH48Aadp5SPCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false) (Available
for free). Start on page 19.  
 [eText Format for
Kindle](http://www.amazon.com/Common-Sense-ebook/dp/B002RKRQEY/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&m=AG56TWVU5XWC2&s=digital-text&qid=1279222293&sr=1-1) (Available
for free)  

 Instructions: Read this part of this pamphlet. Thomas Paine’s
*Common Sense *was the most popular and radical pamphlet of the
Revolutionary War era. Published in January 1776, Paine’s work had
the largest circulation of any book in American history. Addressed
toward middling British Americans, not elites, Paine used plain
language to argue for the “common sense” answer to British America’s
problems with Britain: independence. Although few colonists
supported independence in early 1776, Paine’s 46-page pamphlet
mobilized new support for separation from Britain.  
 When reading this document, please consider the following
questions: What, according to Paine, are the benefits of a
republican form of government as opposed to a monarchal system? How
had the British monarch harmed the interests of the American
colonists?  

 Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.
  • Reading: William Smith’s “Reconciliation Better than Independence” Link: William Smith’s “Reconciliation Better than Independence”

    Instructions: The excerpt below is of a letter by the clergyman William Smith. Using the pseudonym Cato, Smith argues that independence would have devastating effects on British America.

    “We have already declared ourselves independent, as to all useful purposes, by resisting our oppressors upon our own foundation. And while we keep upon this ground, without connecting ourselves with any foreign nations, to involve us in fresh difficulties and endanger our liberties still further, we are able, in our own element (upon the shore), to continue this resistance; and it is our duty to continue it till Great Britain is convinced (as she must soon be) of her fatal policy, and open her arms to reconciliation, upon the permanent and sure footing of mutual interests and safety.

    Upon such a footing, we may again be happy. Our trade will be revived. Our husbandmen, our mechanics, our artificers will flourish. Our language, our laws, and manners being the same with those of the nation with which we are again to be connected, that connection will be natural; and we shall the more easily guard against future innovations. Pennsylvania has much to lose in this contest and much to hope from a proper settlement of it. We have long flourished under our charter government. What may be the consequences of another form we cannot pronounce with certainty; but this we know, that it is a road we have not traveled and may be worse than it is described.”

    Reading this text should take less than 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

  • Reading: Thomas Johnson, Jr.’s “Letter to Horatio Gates, May 3, 1775” Link: Thomas Johnson, Jr.’s “Letter to Horatio Gates, May 3, 1775” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this letter. In the wake of the skirmishes between American militiamen and British troops in 1775, Maryland delegate Johnson nonetheless advocates future reconciliation with Britain.

    Reading this letter should take less than 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

2.2 The American Revolution   2.2.1 Beginning of the Revolution   - Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The American Revolution 1775–1777” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The American Revolution 1775–1777” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this webpage to learn about the American
Revolution. Click on the embedded links to read the associated
content. This reading offers an overview of the Revolutionary War
from the outbreak of the war in 1775 through the Declaration of
Independence in 1776 and the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, which
marked a turning point in this conflict in favor of the
Americans. Please note that this resource also covers the topics
outlined for subunits 2.2.2 through 2.2.5.  

 Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).

2.2.2 Declaring Independence   Note: This subunit is also covered by the material beneath subunit 2.2.1.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “Common Sense”, “Independence”, and “Civil War” Link: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “Common Sense” (iTunes U), “Independence” (iTunes U), and “Civil War” (iTunes U)

    Instructions: Watch these lectures,in which Professor Freeman discusses the debate among Americans concerning the issue of independence, the drafting of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, and the events surrounding the outbreak of hostilities in

    Watching these lectures and pausing to take notesshould take approximately 3 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Reading: United States Library of Congress: “Declaring Independence: Drafting the Documents” and “Jefferson’s ‘original Rough draught’ of the Declaration of Independence” Link: United States Library of Congress: “Declaring Independence: Drafting the Documents” and “Jefferson’s ‘original Rough draught’ of the Declaration of Independence” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read an overview of the historical context of the Declaration of Independence; then, read Jefferson’s rough draft of the declaration. In this document, Thomas Jefferson eloquently asserts British America’s independence from Britain. Jefferson was nominated to write the draft; it was later revised by the Committee of Five and by members of Congress.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

  • Reading: “The Declaration of Independence” Link: “The Declaration of Independence” (PDF)

    Also available in:
    eText Format for Google Books
    eText Format for Kindle (Available for purchase, $0.99)

    Instructions: Read the final draft of the Declaration of Independence and compare it with Jefferson’s draft. The original text, housed at the National Archives in Washington, D.C., is the final copy of the Declaration signed by the 56 delegates of the Continental Congress on August 2, 1776.

    Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

2.2.3 The War   - Lecture: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “The Importance of George Washington”, “The Logic of a Campaign”, and “Fighting the Revolution: The Big Picture” Link: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “The Importance of George Washington” (iTunes U), “The Logic of a Campaign” (iTunes U), and “Fighting the Revolution: The Big Picture” (iTunes U)

 Instructions: Watch these lectures, in which Professor Freeman
discusses the role and historical significance of George Washington
as the commanding general of the Continental Army, the decisive
factors that enabled the United States to win the American
Revolutionary War, and the events leading up to and surrounding the
Treaty of Paris which ended the war in 1783.  

 Watching these lectures and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 3 hours.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).
  • Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The American Revolution, 1778–1783” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The American Revolution, 1778–1783” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this webpage. This reading includes topics treated in sections 2.2.4 and 2.2.5 below. This reading provides an overview of the major events of the American Revolutionary War between 1778 and the Treaty of Paris in 1783.

    Reading this webpage should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

2.2.4 Loyalists   - Lecture: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “Who Were the Loyalists?”, and “Heroes and Villains” Link: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “Who Were the Loyalists?” (iTunes U), and “Heroes and Villains” (iTunes U)

 Instructions: Watch these lectures. In Lecture 09, Professor
Freeman explores why some Americans as Loyalists opposed rebellion
and resistance to British policies, and Lecture 14 examines the
story of the notorious American traitor Benedict Arnold.  

 Watching these lectures and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).

2.2.5 Revolution and Society   - Reading: Ashland University’s TeachingAmericanHistory.org: Abigail Adams’ “Letter to John Adams, March 31, 1776” Link: Ashland University’s TeachingAmericanHistory.org: Abigail Adams’ “Letter to John Adams, March 31, 1776” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this letter. The language of revolution and the
demands of the colonists for liberty and equality were heard
throughout the colonies, with many unintended consequences. For
example, women responded to these ideas with a reconsideration of
their own status in American life. This letter from Abigail Adams to
her husband, a leader of the American Revolution, reflects this
application of new ideas to social and political conditions for all,
including women. In what ways does this letter compare to the
revolutionary goals of the male colonists?  

 Reading this letter and answering the question above should take
approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: PBS: Africans in America: Benjamin Banneker’s “Letter to Thomas Jefferson, August 19, 1791” Link: PBS: Africans in America: Benjamin Banneker’s “Letter to Thomas Jefferson, August 19, 1791” (HTML)

    Instructions: Please read this letter. Just as women responded to the rhetoric of revolution, blacks also considered the political values of the new nation and argued that if liberty and equality were to be truly honored in the United States, the status of black Americans, including slaves, needed to be examined and altered. In what ways did Benjamin Banneker inherit and apply the ideals of the American Revolution in his letter to Thomas Jefferson?

    Reading this letter and answering the question above should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “War and Society” Link: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “War and Society” (iTunes U)

    Instructions: Watch this lecture, in which Professor Freeman discusses the impact of the Revolutionary War on women, African Americans, and Native Americans and assesses the degree to which the American Revolution changed the conditions and status of these specific groups.

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

2.3 Postwar Uncertainties: The Articles of Confederation   - Reading: “Articles of Confederation”, “Constitution of North Carolina”, and “Constitution of New York” Link: “Articles of Confederation”, “Constitution of North Carolina”, and “Constitution of New York” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the Articles of Confederation (1781), the
Constitution of North Carolina (1776), and the Constitution of New
York (1777). When reading these different constitutions, please
consider the following questions: How was political power
distributed? Who made the laws? Who enforced or executed the laws?
What were the political offices under these constitutions? How were
elections to these political offices conducted?  

 Reading and analyzing these documents should take approximately 2
hours.  

 Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.
  • Reading: United States Library of Congress’ American Memory: “Identifying Defects in the Confederation” Link: United States Library of Congress’ American Memory: “Identifying Defects in the Confederation” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this webpage to get a sense of how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation left the new nation almost totally impotent because of the ineffectiveness of the Continental Congress and the inability of the national government to regulate commerce and collect revenue.

    Reading this webpage and taking notesshould take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “A Union Without Power” Link: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “A Union Without Power” (iTunes U)

    Instructions: Please watch this lecture,in which Professor Freeman discusses how the central government under the Articlesof Confederation was too weak to govern the new nation at the conclusion of the American Revolutionary War in 1783.

    Watching this lectureand pausing to take notesshould take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “America under the Articles of Confederation: 1783–1789” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “America under the Articles of Confederation: 1783–1789” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this webpage, which provides an overview of political issues and the economy in the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation. Click on the embedded links to read the associated content. Please note that diplomatic humiliation, a debt crisis, and the Shays Rebellion in the 1780s all served to highlight the weakness of the national government under the Articles of Confederation and the need for a new national constitution.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

2.4 The Federal Union   2.4.1 The Federal Constitution   - Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “Constitutional Government” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “Constitutional Government” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this webpage for an overview of events that led
up to the creation of the United States Constitution as well as more
specifics on articles within the Constitution. Click on the embedded
links to read the associated content. Be sure to click the link
“Additional Section on Ratification” and read this webpage. On this
page there is a link to the Bill of Rights, which contains the first
10 amendments to the Constitution. You should be familiar with these
amendments. This reading also covers topics discussed in subunit
2.4.2.  

 Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).
  • Lecture: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “The Road to the Constitutional Convention”, “Creating a Constitution”, and “Creating a Nation” Link: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “The Road  to the Constitutional Convention” (iTunes U), “Creating a Constitution” (iTunes U), and “Creating a Nation” (iTunes U)

    Instructions: Watch these lectures, in which Professor Freeman discusses the events leading up to the Constitutional Convention in 1787, the drafting of the Constitution at this convention, and the debate over the ratification of the Constitution in 1787–1788.

    Watching these lectures and pausing to take notes should take approximately 3 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4.2 Federalists and Anti-Federalists   Note: This subunit is also covered by the material beneath subunit 2.4.1.

  • Reading: The Forum at the Online Library of Liberty: Quentin Taylor’s “The Federalist Papers: America’s Political Classic” Link: The Forum at the Online Library of Liberty: Quentin Taylor’s “The Federalist Papers: America’s Political Classic” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article, which provides the historical background for the publication of the Federalist Papers.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain

  • Reading: The Online Library of Liberty: James Madison’s “Federalist No. 10” Link: The Online Library of Liberty: James Madison’s Federalist No. 10” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this text, using Quentin Taylor’s “The Federalist Papers: American’s Political Classic” to provide historical background. Virginia Federalist James Madison, writing under the pseudonym “Publius,” pens this famous essay of the Federalist Papers, which articulates one of the clearest visions of what the American republic should look like.

    Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Online Library of Liberty: Richard Henry Lee’s Empire and Nation: Letters from a Federal Farmer: “Letter I: October 8, 1787” Link: The Online Library of Liberty: Richard Henry Lee’s Empire and Nation: Letters from a Federal Farmer: “Letter I: October 8, 1787” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this letter to get a sense of why Anti-Federalists, such as Richard Henry Lee, objected to the Constitution. In this document, an anonymous Anti-Federalist author, thought to be Richard Henry Lee, criticizes the new Constitution and argues against states ratifying the document. The author suggests that the Constitution would demolish the sovereign states and create a consolidated government that would undermine American liberties.

    Reading this letter and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

  • Reading: University of Groningen: George M. Welling’s American History, from Revolution to Reconstruction: Lisa Marie DeCarolis’ A Biography of Alexander Hamilton (1755–1804): “Origins of a System” and “Jefferson and Madison Create a Party” Link: University of Groningen: George M. Welling’s American History, from Revolution to Reconstruction: Lisa Marie DeCarolis’ A Biography of Alexander Hamilton (1755–1804): “Origins of a System” (HTML) and “Jefferson and Madison Create a Party” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read these articles, which provide an overview of the political and economic views of Alexander Hamilton (Federalist) and Thomas Jefferson and James Madison (Republicans). These articles provide the historical background for the emergence of the Federalist Party under the leadership of Alexander Hamilton and Hamilton’s disagreement with James Madison, who along with Thomas Jefferson led the Democratic Republican Party.

    Reading these articles and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4.3 The Turbulent 1790s   - Web Media: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 18: Development of the Two-Party System” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 18: Development of the Two-Party System” (Flash)

 Instructions: Click on the link above, click the “Start Lesson”
button, and watch the presentations for all three topics:
“Hamiltonians vs. Jeffersonians,” ”Federalists and
Democratic-Republicans,” and “Washington’s Farewell Address.” Click
on the “Text” tabs and read all of the pages. Then click on the
links under “Explore” and read the accompanying text.  

 This resource concerns the presidency of George Washington
(1789–1797) and the formation of the first two-party system under
his watch. Please note that the text portion of the first topic
discusses the compromise between Hamilton and the Southern states
that resulted in the creation of Washington D.C. as the nation’s
capital. Also, after reading the primary documents and examining the
artifacts in the links under “Explore,” take some time to answer the
questions posed.  

 Watching these presentations and reading the accompanying text
should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.