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HIST211: Introduction to United States History - Colonial Period to Reconstruction

Unit 1: Creating British America   *That North America eventually became British America was not a given. During the 16th and 17th centuries, several European powers – including the Netherlands, France, Spain, and England – struggled with Native Americans and with each other for control of the land that lay between what is now Canada and the Caribbean. Settlement boundaries were constantly drawn and redrawn as a result of conflicts in the New World and wars in Europe. Additionally, the cultures and customs of diverse native peoples helped shape the nature of European settlements in the New World but were ultimately destroyed by European war and settlement.

This unit will begin with an investigation of European colonization and settlement patterns in New France, New Spain, New Netherlands, and English/British North America, paying close attention to the impact that these New World colonies had on Native American Indians. You will then shift your focus to the formation of the Anglo-American colonies: New England, the Middle Colonies, and the Lower Colonies. You will examine the economy, society, and government of these colonies. Finally, you will conclude the unit in the mid-18th century with the Seven Years’ War and the rapid change that this world conflict produced in British America.*

Unit 1 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take approximately 3 hours.

☐    Course Introduction: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 1.1: 19.75 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 12.75 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3: 7.5 hours

☐    Subunit 1.4: 2.5 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- identify the origins and development of Native societies prior to European exploration; - explain the impact of European colonization on Native peoples in North America; - identify and explain the different goals and settlement patterns of European nations in North America; - explain the regional development of the English colonies in North America; and - identify and explain the political, cultural, and economic development of the North American colonies, including the different labor systems (i.e., slavery and indentured servitude) that emerged.

1.1 New World Encounters   - Reading: America.gov Archive: Outline of U.S. History: “Chapter 1: Early America” Link: America.gov Archive: Outline of U.S. History: “Chapter 1: Early America” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read the first chapter (pages 4-21) of the U.S.
Department of State's *Outline of U.S. History*. This chapter
discusses the origins and development of North American societies
prior to the onset of the European discovery of America and provides
an overview of the establishment of the first European colonies in
North America. This reading covers the topics discussed in subunits
1.1.1 through 1.1.5.  

 Reading this chapter and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.
  • Reading: Concepcion Saenz-Camba’s “The Atlantic World, 1492–1600” Link: Concepcion Saenz-Camba’s “The Atlantic World, 1492–1600” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this article, which discusses the history of early European exploration and colonization of North America and the effect of New World societies on native peoples. Note that this article will also covers the topics you need to know for subunits 1.1.1 through 1.1.4 and subunit 1.3.3.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The linked material above has been reposted by the kind permission of Concepcion Saenz-Camba. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • Web Media: United States Library of Congress’ Jay I. Kislak Collection: “Exploring the Early Americas” Link: United States Library of Congress’ Jay I. Kislak Collection: “Exploring the Early Americas” (HTML)

    Instructions: Click on the link above and then click on the links for each of the three sections of this website: “Pre-contact America,” “Exploration and Encounters,” and “Aftermath of the Encounter.” Click the links within each section, examine the images, and read the accompanying text. The images on this website narrate through the diverse artifacts displayed the culture of pre-conquest America, the history of contact between European explorers and native cultures, and the impact of European exploration on the history of the Americas.

    Studying these resources should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.

1.1.1 The Native Americans   - Reading: University of Groningen: George M. Welling’s American History, from Revolution to Reconstruction: Edward J. Dodson’s “Civilizations under Siege: The European Conquest of the Americas” Link: University of Groningen: George M. Welling’s American History, from Revolution to Reconstruction: Edward J. Dodson’s “Civilizations under Siege: The European Conquest of the Americas” (HTML)

 Instructions: First, click on the link above, then click the links
for “7. Pattern of Exploration and Annihilation” and “8. Resisting
the European Onslaught,” and read those webpages. These chapters
compare and contrast the views of Europeans and Native Americans
during the exploration and settlement of the Western Hemisphere.  

 Reading these chapters and taking notes should take approximately
30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “Native American Culture: The Pre-History of America” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History“Native American Cultures: The Pre-History of America” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this webpage for an overview of the history of Native Americans and their interaction with Europeans. This article explores the impact of European colonization on Native American cultures with the introduction of firearms, liquor, and epidemic disease to native populations. In addition, the author assesses the cultural differences of Europeans and Native Americans at this time of first contact.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Reading: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Medieval Sourcebook: “Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal” Link: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s Medieval Sourcebook: “Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read these extracts, focusing specifically on the entry from Thursday, October 11, in which Columbus claims that the native peoples would be “good servants” and proclaims his intention to take six of them back to Spain. 

    Christopher Columbus has become a controversial character in the history of the Americas. Some hail him as a brave discoverer who opened the continent for European exploration and trade, while others criticize him for his exploitation of native peoples, his great desire for riches, and his determination to bring Christianity to the Americas, all of which played a role in the extermination of native peoples and the eventual subjugation of those who survived. The passages are from Columbus’ diary of his 1492 journey to the New World. Which sections provide special insight on Columbus’ mindset?

    Reading these excerpts and answering the question above should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This material is reposted with permission from Paul Halsall. The original version can be found here.

  • Reading: Project Gutenberg: Bartolomé de las Casas’ “A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies” Link: Project Gutenberg: Bartolomé de las Casas’ “A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: As you read, look for consistencies in the way that native peoples were treated across different geographic regions.

    Bartolomé de las Casas was a Catholic monk who was one of the first European explorers and settlers in North and Central America. Although he at first participated in the subjugation of the native peoples of the New World, he soon came to oppose and then document the brutal enslavement and torture of native peoples by the European colonizers. His documentation of such treatment was part of his larger crusade to establish universal human rights for conquered people, and he used this material to argue with kings and emperors for better treatment of native peoples.

    Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is hosted by permission of  the Project Gutenberg License.

  • Web Media: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 1: Discovery and Settlement of the New World – Pre-Columbian Era” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 1: Discovery and Settlement of the New World – Pre-Columbian Era” (Flash)

    Instructions: Click on the link above, click the “Start Lesson” button, and watch the presentation for the first topic, “Pre-Columbian Era.” Click on the “Text” tab and read each page. Then click on the links under “Explore” and read the accompanying text.
     
    This resource offers an overview of the distinctive civilizations of North America prior to European exploration. The links, “The Anasazi” and “The Iroquois Constitution” concern the architecture and culture of the Anasazi civilization of the American Southwest and the complex political organization of the Iroquois Confederation in the American Northeast.
     
    Watching this presentation and reading the accompanying text should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 1: Discovery and Settlement of the New World – Christopher Columbus, Cortés Defeats the Aztecs” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 1: Discovery and Settlement of the New World – Christopher Columbus, Cortés Defeats the Aztecs” (Flash)

    Instructions: Click on the link above, click the “Start Lesson” button, and watch the presentations for the second topic, “Christopher Columbus,” and the third topic, “Cortés Defeats the Aztecs.” Then click on the “Text” tab for both topics and read each page. Next, click on the links under “Explore” and read the accompanying text.
     
    This resource examines the historic discoveries of Christopher Columbus and the Spanish conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires of Mexico and Peru. The “Letter to Columbus” considers the motivation of European powers for exploring the Americas through analysis of a historic document while “Treatment of the Aztecs” explores the perceived attitudes of the Spanish conquerors toward the Aztecs.
     
    Watching these presentations and reading the accompanying text should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: United States National Park Service: “Ancient Architects of the Mississippi” Link: United States National Park Service: “Ancient Architects of the Mississippi” (HTML)

    Instructions: Click on the link above and click the links for “Life along the River,” “The Moundbuilders,” “Traders and Travelers,” “Delta Voices,” “The Context,” and “Timeline.” Use the back button to navigate to and from each webpage. Read each of these. Click on any in-text links to read associated content. This website examines the culture of the Native American Moundbuilders, an extensive civilization that flourished in the Mississippi Valley in the Pre-Columbian period.

    Exploring this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: This webpage is in the public domain.

1.1.2 New France   - Web Media: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 3: Spanish and French Exploration – French Explorers” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 3: Spanish and French Exploration – French Explorers” (Flash)

 Instructions: Click on the link above, click the “Start Lesson”
button, and watch the presentation for the second topic, “French
Explorers.” Click on the “Text” tab and read each page. Then click
on the link to “Routes of Exploration” under “Explore” and read the
accompanying text. This resource focuses on the motivations and
activities of French explorers. The link “Routes of Exploration” is
an interactive map detailing the routes taken by early French and
Spanish explorers. Please consider the questions posed in this
resource.  

 Watching this presentation and reading the accompanying text should
take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: The United States Library of Congress and the National Library of France: “France in America” (HTML) Link: The United States Library of Congress and the National Library of France: “France in America” (HTML)

    Instructions: Click on the link above, click the links for “General Introduction,” “Exploration and Knowledge”, “The Colonies”, and “Franco-Indian Relations” and read each of these webpages. Be sure to read the additional content under the headings in the left-hand menu. “Exploration and Knowledge” examines the different French explorers. “The Colonies” discusses the French colonies established in Canada and Louisiana. “Franco-Indian Relations” explores the history of the interaction between the French colonizers and native societies.

    Exploring this website and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.3 New Spain   - Web Media: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 3: Spanish and French Exploration – Spanish Explorers, Mission System” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 3: Spanish and French Exploration – Spanish Explorers, Mission System” (Flash)

 Instructions: Click on the link above, click the “Start Lesson”
button, and watch the presentations for the first topic, “Spanish
Explorers,” and the third topic, “Mission System.” Click on the
“Text” tab for each topic and read each page. Then click on the
links under “Explore” and read the accompanying text.  
    
 This resource discusses the Spanish explorers in North America in
the future United States and the establishment of missions in Texas,
Florida, California, and New Mexico. The link “Black Legend” offers
a visual representation that considers the perception of Spanish
explorers as brutal and rapacious while the link “Mission San Juan
Capistrano” provides an illustration of the layout of a Spanish
mission.  

 Watching these presentations and reading the accompanying text
should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: William H. Prescott’s History of the Conquest of Mexico: “Chapter 4” Link: William H. Prescott’s History of the Conquest of Mexico: “Chapter 4” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this chapter of History of the Conquest of Mexico. American historian William H. Prescott’s 1843 work on the conquest of Mexico is based on primary sources. This excerpt concerns the opening stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico and offers insight into the motives of the Spanish conquistadors and the reasons for their success in their struggles with Native Americans.

    Reading this chapter should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

1.1.4 New Netherland   - Web Media: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 6: The Middle, Chesapeake, and Southern Colonies – New York and New Jersey” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 6: The Middle, Chesapeake, and Southern Colonies – New York and New Jersey” (Flash)

 Instructions: Click on the link above, click the “Start Lesson”
button, and watch the presentation for the first topic, “New York
and New Jersey.” Click on the “Text” tab and read each page. Then
click on the “Release of New Jersey” link under “Explore” and read
the accompanying text.  

 This resource examines the Dutch exploration and colonization of
the Hudson and Delaware River valleys in the future states of New
York and New Jersey as well as the acquisition of this region by the
English in 1664. The link “Release of New Jersey” features a primary
document, a grant of the land of New Jersey by the Duke of York.
Please consider the question posed in this link after reading this
document.  

 Watching this presentation and reading the accompanying text should
take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.5 The English in North America   - Reading: James Ross-Nazzal’s U.S. History to 1877: “Chapter 3: British Colonial America (1588–1701)” Link: James Ross-Nazzal’s U.S. History to 1877: “Chapter 3: British Colonial America (1588–1701)” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this webpage, which provides an overview of the
establishment of British colonies in North America and discusses the
struggles between Native Americans and colonists in the Middle
Grounds as these English colonists migrated away from the Atlantic
Coast into the interior and into lands also claimed by the French.
The term *Middle Grounds* refers to these interior regions claimed
by both the French and English where the interests of the colonial
powers and the Native Americans often collided. This resource also
covers the topics discussed in subunits 1.2.2–1.2.4.  

 Reading this chapter and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Arrtibution 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
  • Reading: The Berkeley Electronic Press: John Smith’s *A Description of New England* Link: The Berkeley Electronic Press: John Smith’s A Description of New England (PDF)

    Instructions: Read the text to get a sense of an Englishman’s perception of uncharted territory in northern North America in the early 17th century.

    Smith’s 1616 work is the first to apply the term New England to that portion of North America from Long Island Sound to Newfoundland. Seeking a new arena for colonial opportunities in the New World, Smith saw New England as a place where English life could be brought to America.

    Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

  • Reading: University of Michigan, MLibrary Digital Collections: The Making of America: George Bancroft’s History of the United States of America, from the Discovery of the American Continent: “Chapter 4” Link: University of Michigan, MLibrary Digital Collections: The Making of America: George Bancroft’s History of the United States of America, from the Discovery of the American Continent: “Chapter 4” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Chapter 4, on pages 117–158. George Bancroft was a noted historian of the 19th century. His commentary, terminology, and point of view reflect the values and perception of his era. This chapter examines the motivations of the English to establish a colony in Virginia and narrates the early history of the Jamestown colony including the successful efforts of John Smith to salvage the colony with the aid of the local Powhatan tribe and Pocahontas.

    Reading this chapter and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 4: The First English Settlements – The Jamestown Colony, The Plymouth Colony” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 4: The First English Settlements – The Jamestown Colony, The Plymouth Colony” (Flash)

    Instructions: Click on the link above, click the “Start Lesson” button, and watch the presentations for the first topic, “The Jamestown Colony,” and the second topic, ”The Plymouth Colony.” Click on the “Text” tab for each topic and read each page. Then click on the links under “Explore” and read the accompanying text.

    After reading about the Jamestown and Plymouth colonies and examining the two primary documents in the links “The First Virginia Charter” and “The Mayflower Compact,” please compare and contrast these two early English colonies. What type of people settled in these colonies? What were their motivations for settling in these colonies? Please note that at both Jamestown and Plymouth the local Native American peoples taught the colonists how to farm in this new environment and to live off the land.

    Watching these presentations and reading the accompanying text should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “Virginia: The London Company” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “Virginia: The London Company” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this webpage. Click on any in-text links to read associated content. This reading focuses on the problems and obstacles that the colony of Jamestown faced.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

1.2 Building Anglo-America, 1660–1750   1.2.1 The English Civil War   - Reading: University of Michigan, MLibrary Digital Collections: The Making of America: Marcius Willson’s American History: “Appendix to the Colonial History” Link: University of Michigan, MLibrary Digital Collections: The Making of America: Marcius Willson’s American History: “Appendix to the Colonial History” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read “Appendix to the Colonial History” on pages
285–324, in which Willson discusses the history of England from the
reign of James I through William III and Mary and how events in
England shaped the history of the American colonies. Please note
which factors increased the influence of British culture on the
American colonies.  

 Marcius Willson was a noted historian of the 19<sup>th</sup>
century. His commentary, terminology, and point of view reflect the
values and perception of his era.  

 Reading this appendix and taking notes should take approximately 2
hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: The Constitution Society: “The English Bill of Rights” Link: The Constitution Society: “The English Bill of Rights” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the English Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights was created in 1689, at the height of the English Civil War, which was a struggle between King Charles I and Parliament and its followers, called Parliamentarians, who rebelled against the King’s absolutism.

    After several years of conflict, Charles I was executed and Parliament established a republican commonwealth, then a Puritan dictatorship, and finally reestablished the monarchy under the authority of Parliament. The English Civil War established the precedent of representative government that limited the power of the monarch.

    As you read the English Bill of Rights, think about which ideas may have been influential in the colonies.

    Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

1.2.2 New England and the Puritans   - Reading: University of Michigan, MLibrary Digital Collections: The Making of America: Marcius Willson’s American History: “Chapters 2–5” Link: University of Michigan, MLibrary Digital Collections: The Making of America: Marcius Willson’s American History: “Chapters 2–5” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read Chapters 2 through 5 on pages 178–218, which
provide a narrative history of the New England colonies.  

 Reading these chapters and taking notes should take approximately 2
hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Hanover College Historical Texts Project: John Winthrop’s *A Modell of Christian Charity* Link: Hanover College Historical Texts Project: John Winthrop’s A Modell of Christian Charity (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this sermon by John Winthrop, who was the founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony – the Puritan settlement that would become Boston. In 1630, before Winthrop and his fellow settlers embarked for the New World on their ship the Arbella, he delivered this sermon, in which he urged the settlers to establish the colony as a model Christian “city on a hill” from which the world could learn how to live a godly and principled life. In many ways, Winthrop’s vision has remained a part of American ideology since the 17th century. As you read the sermon, note Winthrop’s main ideas and suggestions for the creation of the new colony.

    Reading this sermon and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

  • Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The Puritans of New England” and “New England Expands to New Colonies” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The Puritans of New England” and “New England Expands to New Colonies” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this webpage. Be sure to click on any in-text links and read the associated content.

    In these webpages, you will learn about colonial expansion in New England. This resource provides a comparative analysis of the economic, political, religious, and demographic characteristics in the New England colonies and the Virginia colony in the Chesapeake region of the South.

    Reading these webpages and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

  • Web Media: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 5: The New England Colonies” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 5: The New England Colonies” (Flash)

    Instructions: Click on the link above, select the “Start Lesson” button, and watch the presentations for all three topics: “Massachusetts Bay Colony,” ”The Puritan Religion,” and “Dissention in the Bay Colony.” Click on the “Text” tab for each topic and read each page. Then click on the links under “Explore” and read the accompanying text.

    This resource provides an overview of the New England colonies. After reading the primary texts and Puritan artifacts in the links under “Explore,” please consider the questions that are posed to obtain insights into Puritan culture of the New England colonies.

    Watching these presentations and reading the accompanying text should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.3 The Middle Colonies   - Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The Middle & Southern Colonies” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The Middle & Southern Colonies” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read “The Middle & Southern Colonies” section. Click
on any in-text links to read associated content. This resource
offers an overview of the foundation and early history of the Middle
colonies of New York, Delaware, and Pennsylvania and the Southern,
or Lower, colonies of Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, and
Georgia. Please note that this resource covers the topics discussed
under subunit 1.2.4.  

 Reading this section and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0
Unported](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).
  • Web Media: University of California College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 6: The Middle, Chesapeake, and Southern Colonies – Pennsylvania and Delaware; Maryland, Carolina, and Georgia” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 6: The Middle, Chesapeake, and Southern Colonies – Pennsylvania and Delaware; Maryland, Carolina, and Georgia” (Flash)

    Instructions: Click on the link above, select the “Start Lesson” button, and watch the presentations for the second topic, “Pennsylvania and Delaware,” and the third topic, “Maryland, Carolina, and Georgia.” Click on the “Text” tab and read the associated pages for each topic. Then click on the links under “Explore” and read the accompanying text. Please note that this resource also covers the topics discussed in subunit 1.2.4.

    This resource concerns the foundation of the Middle colonies of Pennsylvania and Delaware and the Southern, or Lower, colonies of Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia. The links under “Explore” provide primary documents associated with the founding of these colonies. Please watch the video for “Colonial American Agriculture” and answer the questions posed, which concern the development of slavery in the Southern Colonies.

    Watching these presentations and reading the accompanying text should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.4 The Lower Colonies   - Reading: University of Michigan’s MLibrarty Digital Collections: Marcius Willson’s American History: “Chapter 8 and Chapters 10-12” Link: University of Michigan’s MLibrarty Digital Collections: Marcius Willson’s American History: “Chapter 8 and Chapters 10-12” (HTML)

 Instructions: Click on the link above and read Chapters 8 and 10
through 12 on pages 240–246 and 250–266. These chapters provide a
narrative history of the foundation and early history of the
colonies of Maryland, South Carolina, and Georgia. Please note that
in these colonies the colonists faced conflicts with Proprietors,
Native American tribes, and the Spanish.  

 Reading these chapters and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour and 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.5 Geography and Population of the Original Thirteen Colonies   - Reading: Wikipedia: “Thirteen Colonies” Link: Wikipedia: “Thirteen Colonies” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this article. While studying the resources in
this subunit as well as subunits 1.2.2, 1.2.3, and 1.2.4 above,
please compare and contrast the economic, cultural, political, and
social conditions of the regions of 1) New England, 2) the Middle
Colonies, and 3) the Lower Colonies. What are the differences
between these three different sections of the colonies?  

 Reading this article and takeing notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The article above is licensed by a [Creative Commons
Attribution-Share-Alike License
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/). You can find
the original Wikipedia version of this article
[here](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteen_Colonies).

1.3 Britain’s America   1.3.1 The British Empire and Provincial Government   - Reading: Henry William Elson’s History of the United States of America: “Chapter 10: Colonial Government” Link: Henry William Elson’s History of the United States of America: “Chapter 10: Colonial Government” (PDF)

 Available in:  
 [eText Format for Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=beZAAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=History+of+the+United+States+of+America&hl=en&ei=VVg_TNmjH4L78Ab4xs3ECg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=colonial&f=false). Start
on page 293.  

 Instructions: Click on the link above and read Chapter 10 on pages
293–300 to get a good historical overview of the system of
provincial government in British America. Please note that colonial
governments largely imitated the system in place in Great Britain
with the colonial governors serving in the same capacity as the
British monarch.  

 Transcribed by Kathy Leigh, this document is an electronic version
of Elson’s original 1904 text (Macmillan).  

 Reading this chapter and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This material is in the public domain.
  • Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “America and the British Empire” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “America and the British Empire” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this webpage. Click on each of the in-text links to read the associated content. This reading focuses on the ways in which the British government governed the colonies and regulated colonial trade in this period. Please note that changes in these policies after 1763 would lead to colonial unrest, as we will see in subunit 2.1.1.

    Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Common Attribution-NonCommerical-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

1.3.2 Labor Systems   - Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “Colonial Life: Work, Family, Faith” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “Colonial Life: Work, Family, Faith” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this webpage. Click on each of the in-text links
to read the associated content. This webpage concerns slavery in the
colonies, but also includes a discussion on women in colonial
society. Please note how the status and conditions for European
women changed when they migrated to America as a result of the
economic and social environment in the American colonies. Also
please observe that the development of slavery over time in the
Southern Colonies resulted from economic and social conditions
unique to this region. These conditions favored the rapid expansion
of slavery in the South, unlike the New England and Middle
Colonies.  

 Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 1
hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).
  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation: David Toye’s “Slavery and Indentured Servitude in the American Colonies” Link: The Saylor Foundation: David Toye’s “Slavery and Indentured Servitude in the American Colonies” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this article, which describes the employment of indentured servants and slaves in the different regions of the American colonies.

    Reading the article and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • Reading: Virtual Jamestown: John Hammond’s First Hand Accounts of Virginia, 1575–1705: “Leah and Rachel” Link: Virtual Jamestown: John Hammond’s First Hand Accounts of Virginia, 1575–1705: “Leah and Rachel” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this 1656 pamphlet published in London, in which author John Hammond described for his readers the colonies of Maryland and Virginia where he had resided.

    After reading this text, please consider the following questions: What were the attractions, according to Hammond, of these two colonies that could lead men and women to leave England and settle in these colonies as indentured servants? Based on Hammond’s testimony what were the factors discouraging immigration to these colonies from England? How could this primary document help explain why slavery eventually replaced indentured servitude by the early 18th century in the Lower Colonies?

    Reading this text and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain.

1.3.3 The African Slave Trade   - Reading: Anti-Slavery International’s Breaking the Silence: “Africa before the Transatlantic Slave Trade” and “Participants and Profitability” Link: Anti-Slavery International’s Breaking the Silence: “Africa before the Transatlantic Slave Trade” (HTML) and “Participants and Profitability” (HTML)

 Instructions: On each of these webpages, read the introductory text
and then click on the link “Download full briefing for this subject”
and read the Word document. Next, use the links on the left sidebar
to explore additional websites.  
    
 These resources offer an introduction to the history of Africa and
an overview of the origins and early history of the African slave
trade.  
    
 Please note that Anti-Slavery International’s website is a work in
progress, so some of these links may be dead or the pages may have
moved.  

 Exploring this resource should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Anti-Slavery International’s Breaking the Silence: “Economics and Organization” and “The Middle Passage” Link: Anti-Slavery International’s Breaking the Silence: “Economics and Organization” (HTML) and “The Middle Passage” (HTML)

    Instructions: On each of these webpages, read the introductory text and then click on the “Download full briefing for this subject” link and read the Word document. Next, use the links on the left sidebar to explore additional websites.

    These resources offera discussionof the organization and workings of the African slave trade and the experiences of Africans as they were transported across the Atlantic to the Americas through the so-called Middle Passage.

    Exploring this resource should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Society for U.S. Intellectual History: Lauren Kientz Anderson’s “Intellectual Origins of Racism” Link: Society for U.S. Intellectual History: Lauren Kientz Anderson’s “Intellectual Origins of Racism” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article, which discusses the scholarly debate concerning the origins of African slavery in the American colonies. The author asks the contemporary question, “Did slavery cause racism or did racism cause slavery?” and goes on to assessthe role that racism played in the development of African slavery as the preferred source of labor in the American colonies by the end of the 17th century.

    Reading this article and taking notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

1.3.4 Colonial Society   - Lecture: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “Being a British Colonist” and “Being a British American” Link: iTunes U: Open Yale Courses: Joanne B. Freeman’s HIST-116 The American Revolution: “Being a British Colonist” (iTunes U) and “Being a British American” (iTunes U)

 Instructions: Watch these lectures, in which Professor Freeman
discusses the typical life and outlook of the American colonists as
part of the British Empire in the mid-18<sup>th</sup> century.  

 Watching these lectures and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.4 War and Social Change   1.4.1 The Enlightenment: Europe and British America   - Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The Enlightenment in America” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The Enlightenment in America” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this webpage to learn about how the
Enlightenment in Europe extended its influence to America. The ideas
of the Enlightenment in the mid-18<sup>th</sup> century would
inspire the future leaders of the American Revolution.  

 Reading this webpage should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).
  • Web Media: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 8: Scientific and Religious Transformations” Link: University of California: UC College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 8: Scientific and Religious Transformations” (Flash)

    Instructions: Click on the link above, click the “Start Lesson” button, and watch the presentations for “The Enlightenment” and “The Great Awakening.” Click on the “Text” tabs for each topic and read each. Then click on the links under “Explore” and read the accompanying text.

    This resource examines the two intellectual movements of 18th-century Colonial America, the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening, which together shaped the views and values of the colonists in the period leading up to the American Revolution. Make sure to consider the questions posed after the primary documents presented.

    Watching these presentations and reading the accompanying text should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.4.2 The Seven Years’ War   - Reading: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The Second Hundred Years’ War” Link: Henry J. Sage’s Sage American History: “The Second Hundred Years’ War” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this webpage for an overview of the Second
Hundred Years’ War. Click on any in-text links and read
theassociated content. The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) was the
culmination of nearly a century of conflict between France and Great
Britain for the control of territory in North America. This reading
surveys the series of wars between these two imperial powers leading
to the Seven Years’ War, which resulted in a British victory.  

 Reading this webpage and taking notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).
  • Web Media: University of California College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 9: The French and Indian War” Link: University of California College Prep’s U.S. History: “Lesson 9: The French and Indian War” (Flash)

    Instructions: Click on the link above, click the “Start Lesson” button, and watch the presentations for both topics: “North American Alliances” and “Proclamation of 1763.” Click on the “Text” tabs and read each page. Then click on the links under “Explore” and read the accompanying text.

    This resource discusses the Seven Years’ War and how the actions taken by the British government during and immediately after this war fueled American resentment toward the British government by

    1. This resentment would continue to mount in the following decade. Please answer the questions posed after reading the primary documents.

    Watching these presentations and reading the accompanying text should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.