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HIST202: History of Europe, 1800 to the Present

Unit 4: Age of Nationalism, 1850-1914   Despite the widespread violence and chaos unleashed by the Revolutions of 1848, European nations implemented few reforms.  As a result, the revolutions were largely deemed failures.  However, the revolutionary moment did succeed in motivating many European leaders (most famously Bismarck of Prussia and Cavour of Italy) to create unified and bureaucratic nation-states.  The Concert of Europe—the balance of power among European countries that had been created in 1815—dissolved into independent states that were buttressed by fierce nationalistic sentiment and emerged in competition with one another.  By the 1870s, the European great power system had been transformed from a network of royalist states to a set of independent countries energized by a common commitment to liberal reform and a national identity.

In this unit, we will see how nationalism fueled the development of bureaucratic nation-states that emphasized homogeneity, unity, and distinctiveness.

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 4.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 4.4: 1.5 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Trace the development of the German and Italian Unifications, and evaluate the major political, social, and cultural consequences of these unification movements.
  • Discuss the process of industrialization of Russia and assess its social, political, and economic consequences.
  • Discuss critically the significance of the terms “nation,” “state,” and “nation-state.”

4.1 France and Italy   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “France under Napoleon III and Nation Building in Italy” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “France under Napoleon III and Nation Building in Italy” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage in order to get a good sense of the emergence of two powerful nation-states: France and Italy.  Please note that this reading covers topics outlined in subunits 4.1.1-4.1.5.
 
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4.1.1 Nationalism: Liberal or Authoritarian?   4.1.2 The Second Republic and Louis Napoleon   4.1.3 Napoleon III’s Second Empire   4.1.4 A Divided Italy   4.1.5 Garibaldi and Cavour   - Reading: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of Giuseppe Mazzini’s “On Nationality, 1852” Link: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook:Paul Halsall’s version of Giuseppe Mazzini’s “On Nationality, 1852” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage.  Giuseppe Mazzini was one of the leading figures of liberal nationalism in Italy.  In this 1852 text, he argues that the creation of a democratic Italian state is crucial to Italy’s development and preservation within the competitive European system.
 
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4.2 German Unification   - Reading: Colby College: Raffael Scheck’s “The Road to National Unification” and “The Second Empire until 1914;” and Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of “Documents of German Unification” Links: Colby College: Raffael Scheck’s “The Road to National Unification” and “The Second Empire until 1914” (HTML); and Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of “Documents of German Unification” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read each article linked above in its entirety.  Please note that these readings cover material in sections 4.2.1-4.2.4.  The first two readings by Prof. Scheck will provide a good overview of Bismarck’s plan to unify disparate German states.  The last reading, which is a collection of excerpted speeches and letters, will give you a sense of the growing push for German unification between 1848 and 1871.
 
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4.2.1 Germany before Bismarck   4.2.2 The Austro-Prussian War of 1866   4.2.3 Bismarck and Parliament   4.2.4 The Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871   4.3 The Modernization of Russia   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “The Modernization of Russia” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “The Modernization of Russia” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  This reading covers subunits 4.3.1-4.3.2.  Please read the entire webpage in order to get a good overview of Russia’s social reforms, industrialization, and Revolution of 1905.
 
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4.3.1 The “Great Reforms”   4.3.2 Industrialization of Russia   4.3.3 The Revolution of 1905   - Reading: Library of Congress Country Studies: “Revolution and Counterrevolution, 1905-07” Link: Library of Congress Country Studies: “Revolution and Counterrevolution, 1905-07” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire article to get a good overview of the various facets of the Russian Revolution of 1905.
 
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4.4 Nation-States, 1871-1914   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “The Modern Nation State” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “The Modern Nation State” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage linked above.  Please note that this reading discusses many specific modern nation-states as outlined in subunits 4.4.2-4.4.5.
 
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4.4.1 Characteristics   - Reading: Towson University: Mike Lauletta’s “What Is a Nation-State?” Link:  Towson University: Mike Lauletta’s “What Is a Nation-State?” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this short selection in order5 to better understand the definitions of “nation,” “state,” and “nation-state.”
 
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4.4.2 The German Empire   4.4.3 Republican France   4.4.4 Great Britain and Ireland   4.4.5 The Austro-Hungarian Empire   4.4.6 The Jewish State   - Reading: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of Theodore Herzl’s “On the Jewish State, 1896” Link:  Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook:Paul Halsall’s version of Theodore Herzl’s “On the Jewish State, 1896” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage linked above.  In this 1896 pamphlet, Zionist leader Theodore Herzl calls for the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine.  At a time when Germany, France, and Britain were becoming powerful nation-states, Herzl and other Zionists advocated for a separate nation-state for European Jews.
 
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