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HIST202: History of Europe, 1800 to the Present

Unit 3: War, Ideologies, and Upheavals, 1800-1856   The nineteenth century saw drastic political changes that had been initiated by the Napoleonic Wars and the subsequent reorganization of the political map of Europe via the Congress of Vienna in 1815.  Interestingly, the Vienna Settlement was intended to restore stability to the European state system; however, the first half of the nineteenth century was characterized by widespread social and political unrest. The era later became known as the “Age of Revolutions.”  Still, different nation-states reacted in different ways to the revolutionary fervor that pervaded Europe.  Britain, Austria, and ultra-royalist France responded with conservative nationalism.  In Greece and Serbia, radical independence movements emerged.  In 1848, a revolution in France quickly spread throughout most of Europe, resulting in a bloody contest between nobles and the discontented middle and working classes. This unit ends with an analysis of the Crimean War and why it is considered to be the first “modern” war in history.

In this unit, we will see how Europe’s rejection of the eighteenth-century world and its Enlightenment ideals resulted in the rise of liberal nationalism, social unrest, and the emergence of Romanticism.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 21 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 3.5: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 3.6: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 3.7: 1.5 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Assess the causes and consequences of the general social and political unrest in post-Napoleonic Europe.
  • Identify the origins and early development of socialism and nationalism in Europe.
  • Explain Romanticism and its historical socio-political context, and especially in relation to revolutionary Europe.
  • Identify the origins, major events, figures, ideas, and consequences of the 1848 Revolutions.

3.1 The Napoleonic Wars   - Lecture: Yale University: Professor John Merriman’s “Lecture 7: Napoleon” Link: Yale University: Professor John Merriman’s “Lecture 7: Napoleon” (YouTube)
 
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Instructions: Please watch the entire 45-minute video lecture linked above.  The lecture will give you a sense of the reign of Napoleon as well as his impact upon France and Europe as a whole.
 
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  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the Wars of the First and Second Coalitions” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the Wars of the First and Second Coalitions” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 13 minutes), which discusses Napoleon’s early military campaigns.  The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon’s French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815.  As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution, they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly owing to the application of modern mass conscription.
     
    This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Third Coalition” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Third Coalition” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 22 minutes).  The War of the Third Coalition spanned from 1803 to 1806.  Under Napoleon I, it saw the defeat of an alliance of Austria, Portugal, Russia, and others by France and its client states.
     
    This web media and note-taking should take 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Fourth Coalition” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Fourth Coalition” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 16 minutes).  The Fourth Coalition against Napoleon’s French Empire was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807.  Coalition partners included Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

    This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon’s Peninsular Campaigns” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon’s Peninsular Campaigns” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 20 minutes).  The Peninsular War occurred between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula.
     
    This web media and note-taking should take 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “French Invasion of Russia” Link: Khan Academy’s “French Invasion of Russia” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 17 minutes).  The French invasion of Russia in 1812 was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars.  It reduced the French invasion forces to a tiny fraction of their initial strength and triggered a major shift in European politics as it dramatically weakened French hegemony in Europe.  As a result, the reputation of Napoleon as an undefeated military genius was severely shaken.
     
    This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon Forced to Abdicate” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon Forced to Abdicate” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 16 minutes).  In the War of the Sixth Coalition (1812–1814), a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain, and a number of German States finally defeated France and drove Napoleon Bonaparte into exile, thereby restoring the French monarchy under Louis XVIII.
     
    This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

3.2 Post-Napoleonic Europe   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Post-Napoleonic Europe” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Post-Napoleonic Europe” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  This reading covers subunits 3.2.1-3.2.2.  Please read the entire webpage in order to get a sense of the political landscape of Europe in the wake of Napoleon’s defeat.
 
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3.2.1 European Balance of Power   3.2.2 Intervention and Repression   3.2.3 Metternich and Conservatism   - Reading: St. Mary’s University: Professor Wallace Mills’s “Conservatism” Link: St. Mary’s University: Professor Wallace Mills’s “Conservatism” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read all of the lecture notes on Professor Mills’s webpage for an introduction to Count Metternich and the birth of modern conservatism.
 
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3.3 Radical Ideas and Early Socialism   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Liberalism, Nationalism, and Socialism” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Liberalism, Nationalism, and Socialism” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  This reading also covers subunit 3.3.1.  Please read the entire webpage linked above to gain an understanding of liberalism, nationalism, and the beginnings of socialism.
 
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3.3.1 A Rejection of Old Ideas   3.3.2 Liberalism   - Reading: John Stuart Mill’s “On Liberty” Link: John Stuart Mill’s “On Liberty” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage, including the other chapters.  This pamphlet, published in 1859, is one of Mill’s most famous expositions on liberalism in the nineteenth century.  Mill believes that conservatism threatens the liberties of individuals—only liberalism can safeguard against tyranny.
 
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3.3.3 Nationalism   - Lecture: Yale University: Dr. John Merriman’s “Lecture 13: Nationalism” Link: Yale University’s Dr. John Merriman, “Lecture 13: Nationalism” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
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Instructions:  Please watch the entire 50-minute lecture linked above.  Dr. Merriman’s video lecture will give you a sense of the virulent nationalism (based on ethnicity and common language) that took hold across nineteenth century Europe.  
 
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  • Reading: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of Voltaire’s Patrie Link: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook:Paul Halsall’s version of Voltaire’s Patrie (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage linked above.  This entry, from Voltaire’s The Philosophical Dictionary,published in 1752, is an incisive attack on the provinciality of nationalism.  Through this anecdote, Voltaire shows the actual and intellectual limits of nationalism and instead advocates for cosmopolitanism.
     
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3.3.4 Socialism   - Lecture: Yale University: Dr. John Merriman’s “Lecture 14: Radicals” Link: Yale University: Dr. John Merriman’s “Lecture 14: Radicals” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
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Instructions:  Please watch the entire 50-minute lecture in order to get a sense of the two camps of socialists: reformists and revolutionaries.
 
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  • Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 21: The Utopian Socialists: Charles Fourier” and “Lecture 22: The Utopian Socialists: Robert Owen and Saint-Simon” Links: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 21: The Utopian Socialists: Charles Fourier” (HTML) and “Lecture 22: The Utopian Socialists: Robert Owen and Saint-Simon” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Please read both of Dr. Kreis’s lectures 21 and 22 linked above.  The first lecture will give you a sense of the advent of utopian socialism, particularly through the eyes of Charles Fourier.  The second lecture provides information on the socialist ideas of Robert Owen and Claude-Henri de Saint-Simon. 
     
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3.3.5 The Birth of Marxism   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 24: The Age of Ideologies: Reflections on Karl Marx” Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 24: The Age of Ideologies: Reflections on Karl Marx” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage to get a sense of Karl Marx and the birth of Marxism.
 
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3.4 The Romantic Movement   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 16: The Romantic Era” and HistoryDoctor.net: Dr Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Romanticism” Links: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 16: The Romantic Era” (HTML) and HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Romanticism” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the both webpages in their entirety for an overview of Romanticism.  Gates’s article includes an interesting discussion of Romanticism’s influence on literature, art, and music, which is also covered in sections 3.4.2 and 3.4.3.
 
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3.4.1 Romanticism Defined   - Reading: CUNY-Brooklyn’s “Introduction to Romanticism” Link: CUNY-Brooklyn’s “Introduction to Romanticism” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage.
 
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3.4.2 Romanticism in Literature   - Reading: Schaffer Library of Drug Policy’s version of Thomas de Quincey, Confessions of an English Opium Eater Link: Schaffer Library of Drug Policy’s version of Thomas de Quincey, Confessions of an English Opium Eater (HTML)
 
Also available in:
ePub format on Google Books
iBooks (free)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire webpage linked above.  First published in 1821, this autobiography chronicles the laudanum (opium and alcohol) addiction of the British writer Thomas de Quincy.  The text is representative of the new Romantic Movement taking shape in Britain and elsewhere in Europe in the 1800s; de Quincey uses strong emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience.
 
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3.4.3 Romanticism in Art and Music   - Reading: Connexions: Catherine Schmidt-Jones’s “The Music of the Romantic Era” Link: Connexions: Catherine Schmidt-Jones’s “The Music of the Romantic Era” (HTML)
 
Also available in:

[PDF](http://cnx.org/content/m11606/1.9/content_info#cnx_downloads_header)  
    
 Instructions: Please read this article in its entirety for
information on the historical development of Romanticism in music
during this era, stemming from influences of classical music.  
    
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displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: Hanover College: Professor Frank Luttmer’s “Images of Romantic Art” Link:  Hanover College: Professor Frank Luttmer’s “Images of Romantic Art” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Please click on the hyperlinks on the webpage to view all four paintings, which will give you a sense of the aesthetics of Romantic era art.
     
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3.5 Reforms and Revolutions   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Reform and Revolution” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry Gates, Jr.’s “Reform and Revolution” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage in order to get a sense of the reform movement in Great Britain and the revolutions in Greece and France during the 1820s and 1830s.
 
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3.5.1 Liberation in Greece   - Reading: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of “The Treaty of London for Greek Independence” Link: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook:Paul Halsall’s version of “The Treaty of London for Greek Independence” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage.  In this treaty, Britain, France, and Russia agree to assist Greece in declaring independence from the Ottoman Turks.  When the treaty was enacted in 1827, Greece was faltering in a war against a powerful Ottoman-Egyptian alliance.
 
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3.5.2 Reform in Britain   - Reading: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of Thomas Babington Macaulay’s “Speech on the Reform Bill of 1832” Link: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook:Paul Halsall’s version of Thomas Babington Macaulay’s “Speech on the Reform Bill of 1832” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the excerpt of Macualay’s speech linked above.  In this speech, the Whig reformer Thomas Babington Macaulay lauds the recent passage of the Reform Bill in England, which extended the franchise to the middle class.  Prior to the introduction of this new legislation in 1832, most members of Parliament were elected undemocratically in what were commonly known as “rotten boroughs.”
 
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3.5.3 The Great Famine in Ireland   - Reading: Web.archive.org: Liz Szabo’s “Interpreting the Irish Famine, 1846-1850” Link: Web.archive.org: Liz Szabo’s “Interpreting the Irish Famine, 1846-1850” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the introductory paragraphs.  Then, click on the hyperlinks titled “Photographs” and “Drawings and Prints” listed under “Resources.”  Finally, click on each hyperlink listed under “Reporting and Commentary on the Famine”: “Voices from Ireland,” “American and Irish-American Commentary,” and “English Views of the Famine.”  Please read each of these selections.
 
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3.5.4 Revolution of 1830 in France   - Reading: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of François Guizot’s “Condition of the July Monarchy, 1830-1848” Link: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook:Paul Halsall’s version of François Guizot’s “Condition of the July Monarchy” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read all of the short excerpts of Guizot’s speeches on Fordham University’s webpage linked above.  These excerpts illustrate how the reinstated Bourbon monarchy opposed the liberalism of the French Revolution.  Guizot, who served as the king’s minister of public instruction, was an avid supporter of the aristocracy and the constitutional monarchy.
 
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3.6 The Revolutions of 1848   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “The Revolutions of 1848” and Eastern Michigan University: Jonathan Richard Hill’s “The Revolutions of 1848 in Germany, Italy, and France” Links: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “The Revolutions of 1848” (HTML) and Eastern Michigan University: Jonathan Richard Hill’s “The Revolutions of 1848 in Germany, Italy, and France” (PDF)
 
Instructions: These readings cover subunits 3.6.1-3.6.3.  Please read the entire webpage on HistoryDoctor.net in order to get a good overview of the Revolutions of 1848—in France, the Austrian Empire, and Prussia.  Then, read the entire PDF to understand the different outcomes of the “liberal” revolutions of 1848 in each country.
 
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3.6.1 French Democratic Republic   3.6.2 Austrian Empire in 1848   3.6.3 Prussia and the Frankfurt Assembly   3.6.4 Britain and 1848   - Lecture: Yale University: Dr. John Merriman’s “Lecture 11: Why No Revolution in 1848 in Britain” Link: Yale University: Dr. John Merriman’s “Lecture 11: Why No Revolution in 1848 in Britain” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
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Instructions: Please watch the entire 50-minute lecture.  In it, Dr. Merriman discusses why Britain, despite social tensions, did not see revolution in 1848, while many other European nations did.
 
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3.6.5 Italy, 1848-1849   - Reading: Ohio State University’s “Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions”: “Peasant Agitation in Italy,” “Popular Participation, Italy, 1848-1849,” “War in Northern Italy,” and “Constitutions and Parliaments, Italy 1848-1849” Link: Ohio State University’s “Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions”: “Peasant Agitation in Italy,” (HTML) “Popular Participation, Italy, 1848-1849,” (HTML) “War in Northern Italy,” (HTML) and “Constitutions and Parliaments, Italy 1848-1849” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these pages in their entirety.  Pay special attention to how the 1848 revolutions helped to create a unified Italy. 
 
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3.7 The Emergence of “Realpolitik” after 1848   3.7.1 Realpolitik   - Reading: Beyond Books: "2b. German Unification: The Age of Bismarck" The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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3.7.2 The Crimean War   - Reading: Air University: Professor Richard A. Gabriel and Karen S. Metz’s “A Short History of Wars”: “Chapter 5 – The Emergence of Modern War” Link: Air University: Professor Richard A. Gabriel and Karen S. Metz’s “A Short History of Wars”: “Chapter 5 – The Emergence of Modern War” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the section on the Crimean War.  Pay attention to the reasons for which the Crimean War is considered one of the first modern wars in history. 
 
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  • Reading: The National Archives’ Project “British Battles”: “The Crimean War,” “Before Balaklava,’” “The Battle of Balaklava,” “The Charge of the Light Brigade,” and “After Balaklava” Link: The National Archives’ Project “British Battles”: “The Crimean War,” “Before Balaklava,’” “The Battle of Balaklava,” “The Charge of the Light Brigade,” and “After Balaklava” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these texts in their entirety.  Remember that the Crimean War was just an episode of the long-running contest between European powers for the control of the territories the declining Ottoman Empire (1828-1908).
     
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