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HIST202: History of Europe, 1800 to the Present

Unit 2: An Emerging Urban Society   The industrial age resulted in a profound population shift from rural areas to cities.  Millions of people relocated to burgeoning industrial towns to take up work in large factories that manufactured textiles imported from America, Africa, or India.  The transition from an agricultural lifestyle to an urban one resulted in widespread social change throughout Europe.  Women and children began working in factories, affecting marriage patterns and family structure.  The rise of the new factory system created a stark divide between the middle and working classes.  Explosive population growth in cities led to unsanitary conditions and prevalent disease.  As a result of this population shift, the 19th century witnessed a rapid expansion of scientific knowledge and an increasing emphasis on realism—the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation—in literature.

In this unit, we will study the urbanization of the industrial age as a crucible for social change and identify various literary and scientific advancements.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 8 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 3 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Describe the relationship between industrialization, rural-urban migration, and urbanization.
  • Analyze the new social balance created by the industrial revolution.
  • Reflect on working and living conditions, discuss child labor, and analyze how the Industrial Revolution changed gender roles.
  • Trace the development of “Realism” and understand the relation between the literary movement and its historical and cultural context.

2.1 Challenges of Urbanization   - Lecture: Yale University: Dr. John Merriman’s “Lecture 12: Nineteenth-Century Cities” Link: Yale University: Dr. John Merriman’s “Lecture 12: Nineteenth-Century Cities” (YouTube)
 
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Instructions:  Please watch the entire 50-minute lecture in its entirety.  Please note this lecture covers material outlined in the sub-subunits 2.1.1-2.1.3.  In this video lecture, Dr. Merriman discusses why and how nineteenth-century European cities represented the intersection of urban development, capitalism, and the state.
 
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  • Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Urban Life on the Eve of the Twentieth Century” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Urban Life on the Eve of the Twentieth Century” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entire webpage linked here to get a sense of the challenges and problems faced by an increasingly urban European society.  Please note that this reading covers material outlined in the sub-subunits 2.1.1-2.1.3.
     
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2.1.1 Industry and the Growth of Cities   - Reading: The University of North Carolina at Pembroke: Robert Brown’s “London in the Nineteenth Century” Link: The University of North Carolina at Pembroke: Robert Brown’s “London in the Nineteenth Century” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire lecture to get a sense of the “world city” of industrial London.
 
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2.1.2 Public Health and the Bacterial Revolution   - Reading: Fordham University: Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of Louis Pasteur’s “Extension of the Germ Theory” Link:  Fordham University: Modern History Sourcebook:Paul Halsall’s version of Louis Pasteur’s “Extension of the Germ Theory” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage.  In this 1880 text, the French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur links his “Germ Theory” to the development of certain diseases.  Pasteur successfully proved that the growth of bacteria was due to biogenesis, not “spontaneous generation,” as Aristotle had theorized.  Pasteur then linked the growth of bacteria to a number of human diseases, such as puerperal fever.
 
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2.1.3 Urban Planning   2.2 Social Classes   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Rich, Poor, and Middle Class Life” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Rich, Poor, and Middle Class Life” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage for an overview of the various social classes that comprised European cities.  Please note that this reading covers material outlined in subunits 2.2.1-2.2.3.
 
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2.2.1 Structure   2.2.2 The Middle Classes   - Reading: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of Charles W. Colby’s (ed.) “The Peterloo Massacre, 1819” Link:  Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook:Paul Halsall’s version of Charles W. Colby’s (ed.) “The Peterloo Massacre, 1819” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage.  In this text, an observer describes the violence unleashed between the Lancashire militia and Manchester radicals who had come to listen to a speech given by the reformer Henry Hunt.  The deadly event, known as Peterloo, was one of the defining moments of England’s reform era—with aristocratic and conservative Tories pitted against middle-class radicals.
 
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2.2.3 The Working Classes   2.3 Family   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “The Changing European Family” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “The Changing European Family” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage in order to get a sense of the rapidly evolving nature of marriage, sex, the family, and child rearing in nineteenth century Europe.  Please note that this reading covers topics outlined in subunits 2.3.1-2.3.3.
 
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2.3.1 Marriage and Sex   2.3.2 Gender Roles and Family Life   2.3.3 Child Rearing   2.4 Science and Thought   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Late Nineteenth Century Changes in Science and Thought” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Late Nineteenth Century Changes in Science and Thought” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage in order to get a sense of the innovations in the fields of science, social science, and literature during the Victorian era.  Please note that this reading covers material for all of the sections under subunit 2.4.
 
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2.4.1 Expansion of Scientific Knowledge   2.4.2 Social Science and Evolution   - Reading: TalkOrigins Archive’s version of Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species Link: TalkOrigins Archive’s version of Charles Darwin’s The Origin of Species (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage.  Darwin’s 1859 treatise, a seminal work of scientific literature, laid the foundation for the field of evolutionary biology.  Darwin theorizes that species evolve over generations through the process of natural selection.  This was a radical idea in a time when most scientists believed that species were unchanging parts of a hierarchy designed by God.
 
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2.4.3 Realism in Literature   - Reading: University of Virginia: The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities’ “Realism and the Realist Novel” Link: University of Virginia: The Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities’ “Realism and the Realist Novel” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this webpage in its entirety and all embedded links in order to gain an insight into the realism that characterized the late nineteenth century literary landscape.
 
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