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HIST202: History of Europe, 1800 to the Present

Unit 1: A Revolution in Industry   Although industrialization in Britain began in the eighteenth century, it was not until the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 that its impact became apparent in the continent; but by 1850, industrialization permeated all of Europe.  The development of steam power fueled the creation of railroads, new cities, and a new factory system.  These advancements revolutionized Europe, reconfiguring the structure of society and the nature of the economy.  Europe advanced rapidly during this period, but it did so at a cost:  the factory system cheapened the labor value of workers, factory conditions were often horrible, and a rift between the working class and factory owners began to develop.

In this unit, we will see how industrialization changed the face of Europe in the nineteenth century, noting that different countries experienced the industrial age through varying terms and to different extents.

Unit 1 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 7 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 1.1: 4.5 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3: 2 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Identify the key ideas and events in the history of the Industrial Revolution; from its origins in Britain to its expansion throughout continental Europe.
  • Evaluate the political and economic factors contributing to social change during the 19thcentury
  • Assess the political, social, and economic consequences and legacies of the industrialization.

1.1 Industrial Revolution in Great Britain   - Lecture: Yale University: Dr. John Merriman’s “Lecture 8: Industrial Revolutions” Link: Yale University: Dr. John Merriman’s “Lecture 8: Industrial Revolutions” (YouTube)
 
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Instructions:  Please watch the entire 50-minute lecture.  This video lecture will give you a sense of the complex causes and varying outcomes of the Industrial Revolution in England and on the Continent.  Dr. Merriman suggests that there were several Industrial “Revolutions” that were a direct consequence of urbanization and the “proletarianization” of rural workers. 
 
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  • Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “The Industrial Revolution in Britain”; Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 17: The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England”; Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: Joseph A. Montagna’s “The Industrial Revolution” Links: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “The Industrial Revolution in Britain” (HTML); Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 17: The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England” (HTML); Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute: Joseph A. Montagna’s “The Industrial Revolution” (HTML)
     
    Instructions:  These readings cover the entirety of subunit 1.1, but will be supplemented by additional readings below as well.  Please read Dr. Gates’ article in its entirety.  This reading will provide you with a good overview of the origins and features of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.  Then, read Dr. Kreis’s lecture on the Industrial Revolution in England, will help you to understand the causes of the industrialization of England.  Finally, read Montagna’s article “The Industrial Revolution” in its entirety.  This article will give you a sense of the many innovations and changes that characterized the Industrial Revolution.
     
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1.1.1 Eighteenth-century Origins   1.1.2 The First Factories   1.1.3 The Energy Problem and the Steam Engine   - Reading: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of William Radcliffe’s “On Power Looms, 1828” Link: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook:Paul Halsall’s version of William Radcliffe’s “On Power Looms, 1828” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage linked above.  In this 1828 treatise, the textile manufacturer William Radcliffe describes the transformation of the English textile industry after the introduction of steam power.  Radcliffe asserts that steam-powered looms had wide-ranging social and economic consequences.
 
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1.1.4 Railroads   - Web Media: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s “Spread of Railways in Europe” Link: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s “Spread of Railways in Europe” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please study these tables and graphs in order to get a sense of the rapid expansion of railways throughout Europe in the 1800s.
 
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1.1.5 Mining   - Reading: The Economic History Association’s “Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution” Link: The Economic History Association’s “Child Labor during the British Industrial Revolution” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this text in its entirety.  Pay special attention to how the British government responded to child labor.
 
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  • Reading: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of “Women Miners in the English Coal Pits” Link: Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook:Paul Halsall’s version of “Women Miners in the English Coal Pits”(HTML)
     
    Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage.  In these two selections originally from Great Britain’s Parliamentary Papers,several female miners testify before Parliament about the horrible working conditions in coal mines in the 1800s. 
     
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1.2 Industrialization in Continental Europe   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Industrialization in Continental Europe” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Industrialization in Continental Europe” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage in order to get a good overview of the process of industrialization in continental Europe.  Please note this text will cover concepts outlined in subunits 1.2.1-1.2.3.
 
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1.2.1 National Variations   1.2.2 Challenges of Industrialization   1.2.3 Agents of Industry   1.3 Capital and Labor   - Reading: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates, Jr.’s “Capitalism and the Working Class” Link: HistoryDoctor.net: Dr. Larry E. Gates Jr.’s “Capitalism and the Working Class” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  This reading also covers subunits 1.3.1-1.3.2.  Please read the entire webpage in order to understand the impact of the Industrial Revolution on social classes and labor patterns.
 
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1.3.1 Factory Owners   1.3.2 Factory Workers   1.3.3 Working Conditions   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Laura Del Col’s version of the Sadler Committee’s “The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth Century England” Link: The Victorian Web: Laura Del Col’s version of the Sadler Committee’s “The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth Century England” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entire webpage.  In 1832, the British MP (Member of Parliament), Michael Sadler, formed the Sadler Committee in the House of Commons to investigate the horrible working conditions in British textile factories.  The inquiry resulted in an 1833 law that limited the working hours of women and children in factories.
 
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1.3.4 The Early Labor Movement   - Reading: Washington State University: Professor Paul Brians’ “Introduction to 19th-Century Socialism” Link: Washington State University: Professor Paul Brians’ “Introduction to 19th-Century Socialism” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this article in its entirety.  Pay special attention to the efforts of capitalist to suppress all labor movements.
 
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