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HIST201: History of Europe, 1000 to 1800

Unit 10: The Age of Revolutions, 1775-1815   The Enlightenment’s emphasis on political legitimacy and authority—as well as the perceived corruption of absolute monarchs—inspired several revolutions in the latter eighteenth century.  In France and in America, many citizens began to question why the majority of a nation’s people were denied equal rights or liberty.  In 1776 and 1789, respectively, the Americans and French revolted against the tyrannical and illegitimate authority of aristocrats in order to protect the sovereign rule of the people.  In America, patriots replaced the British monarchy with a confederated republic.  In France, revolutionaries abolished the constitutional monarchy in favor of a new republic.  However, the French republic was short-lived—Napoleon proclaimed himself dictator of France in 1799.
   
In this unit, we will examine the emerging contest between the rule of the people and the rule of a few in the Euro-American world.  This contest manifested itself in two different but related revolutions that had a lasting impact upon Europe.

Unit 10 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 11.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 10.1: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 10.2: 2.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.3: 3.5 hours

☐    Subunit 10.4: 4.75 hours

Unit10 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:

  • Identify the major intellectual trends that supported revolutionary ideas.
  • Describe the causes of the French Revolution.
  • Compare and contrast the ideals of the French Revolution with the reality.
  • Describe the origins and effects of the Napoleonic Regime.

10.1 Origins of the French Revolution   10.1.1 Atlantic Revolutions   - Reading: Western New England College: Professor Gerhard Rempel’s “Revolution in America and France” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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10.1.2 The Demise of the Ancient Regime   - Reading: Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s “Structure of Everyday Life in the Ancien Regime” and Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 11: The Origins of the French Revolution” Links: Fordham University:  Paul Halsall’s  “Structure of Everyday Life in the Ancien Regime” (HTML) and Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 11: The Origins of the French Revolution” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entire article "Structure of Everyday Life in the Ancien Regime” linked above.  Then, read Dr. Kreis’s lecture 11 in its entirety.  The first reading, “Structure of Everyday Life in the Ancien Regime,” offers an overview of the conditions of life in the Ancien Regime and the reasons for the outbreak of revolution in 1789.  Lecture 11 will give you a sense of the origins of the revolution in France.  
 
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10.2 The Revolution of 1789   10.2.1 Breakdown of the Old Order   - Web Media: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part I)” Link: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part I)” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 17 minutes).
 The French Revolution began in May 1789 with the meeting of the
Estates-General—a general assembly representing the three French
estates of the realm: the nobility, the church, and the common
people.  Summoned by King Louis XVI to propose solutions to his
government’s financial problems, the Estates-General sat for several
weeks in May and June 1789 but came to an impasse as the three
estates clashed over their respective powers.  It was brought to an
end when many members of the Third Estate formed themselves into a
National Assembly, signaling the outbreak of the Revolution.  On
July 14 of that same year, the Bastille—amedieval fortress and
prison which represented royal authority in the center of Paris—was
stormed by a mob that demanded the arms and ammunition stored
there.  

 This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.  

 Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).  It is
attributed to the Khan Academy.  

 *Note: This topic is covered by the resources below sub-subunit
10.2.4.*

10.2.2 Fall of the Bastille   Note: This topic is covered by the web media below sub-subunit 10.2.1.
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below sub-subunit 10.2.4.

10.2.3 Formation of the National Assembly   Note: This topic is covered by the web media below sub-subunit 10.2.1.
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below sub-subunit 10.2.4.

10.2.4 Reforms   - Lecture: Academic Earth: University of California at Los Angeles: Professor Lynn Hunt’s “The French Revolution” Link: Academic Earth: University of California at Los Angeles: Professor Lynn Hunt’s “The French Revolution” (Adobe Flash)
 
Also available in:
 
YouTube
 
Instructions: Please listen to the entire video lecture (1:01:12 minutes).  This video lecture provides a good overview of the origins and major phases of the French Revolution.  This video lecture covers topics outlined in sub-subunits 10.2.1-10.2.4.
 
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  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part 2)” Link: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part 2)” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 15 minutes), which discusses the second stage of the French Revolution.  After Louis XV and his wife tried to escape Paris in 1791, the French revolutionary wars began soon thereafter; however, fighting soon went badly and prices rose sky-high.  In August 1792, a mob assaulted the Royal Palace in Paris and arrested the King.  In September, the Assembly abolished the monarchy and declared a republic.

    This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 12: The French Revolution: The Moderate Stage: 1789-1792” and Yale Law School: The Avalon Project’s version of Marquis de Lafayette’s “Declaration of the Rights of Man, 1789” Links: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 12: The French Revolution: The Moderate Stage: 1789-1792” (HTML) and Yale Law School: The Avalon Project’s version of Marquis de Lafayette’s “Declaration of the Rights of Man, 1789” (HTML)
     
    Also available in: (de Lafayette)
     
    eText format on the Kindle ($1.29)
     
    Instructions: These readings cover the topics outlined in sub-subunits 10.2.1-10.2.4.  Please read Dr. Kreis’s entire lecture linked above.  Then, read Marquis de Lafayette’s “Declaration of the Rights of Man” from 1789 in its entirety.
     
    Lecture 12 discusses the reasons for the collapse of the aristocracy and monarchy and the outbreak of revolution.  Presented before the French National Assembly in 1789, the Declaration of the Rights of Man was prepared and proposed by the Marquis de Lafayette, a French statesman and friend of Thomas Jefferson.  The document, inspired by Enlightenment ideals, defines a single set of individual and collective rights for all men.  In advocating universal equality and freedom, this treatise also calls for the destruction of the aristocracy in France.
     
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10.3 The Terror   10.3.1 Killing the King  

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part 3)—Reign of Terror” Link: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part 3)—Reign of Terror” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 23 minutes) on the “Reign of Terror,” a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, and marked by mass executions of “enemies of the revolution.”  The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine and another 25,000 in summary executions across France.

    This web media should take 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

10.3.2 The National Convention   Note: This topic is covered by the web media below sub-subunit 10.3.1.
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below sub-subunit 10.3.4.

10.3.3 The Rise of the Jacobins   Note: This topic is covered by the web media below sub-subunit 10.3.1.
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below sub-subunit 10.3.4.

10.3.4 The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory   - Lecture: Yale University: Professor John Merriman’s “Lecture 6: Maximilien Robespierre and the French Revolution” Link: Yale University: Professor John Merriman’s “Lecture 6: Maximilien Robespierre and the French Revolution” (YouTube)
 
Also available in:
HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime 
iTunes U                     
 
Instructions: Please watch the entire 45-minute video lecture linked above.  In this video lecture, Merriman talks about the French revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre, who instituted the Reign of Terror in France in 1793.  Please note that this video covers topics outlined in sub-subunits 10.3.1-10.3.4.
 
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  • Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 13: The French Revolution: The Radical Stage: 1792-1794” and Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s “The Radical Revolution” Links: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 13: The French Revolution: The Radical Stage: 1792-1794” (HTML) and Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s “The Radical Revolution” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please note that these readings cover topics outlined in sub-subunits 10.3.1-10.3.4.  Please read Dr. Kreis’s entire lecture linked above.  Then, please read “The Radical Revolution” article linked above. Lecture 13 describes the outbreak of the radical phase of the French Revolution, which included the Terror.  “The Radical Revolution” will provide you with a sense of the second, more violent phase of the French Revolution.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

    Note: This topic is covered by the web media below sub-subunit 10.3.1.

10.3.5 England’s Reaction to the Revolution   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 14: The Language of Politics: England and the French Revolution” and Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France, 1791 Links: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 14: The Language of Politics: England and the French Revolution” (HTML) and Fordham University’s Modern History Sourcebook: Paul Halsall’s version of Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (HTML), 1791

 Also available in: (Edmund Burke)  

 [eText format on the
Kindle](http://www.amazon.com/Reflections-Revolution-France-ebook/dp/B002RI92XO/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&m=AG56TWVU5XWC2&s=digital-text&qid=1284406307&sr=1-3)
($8.89)  

 [ePub format on Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=kFpaAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Edmund+Burke,+Reflections+on+the+Revolution+in+France&hl=en&ei=-nuOTMD2BcOAlAe2rrnJAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false)  

 [PDF](http://www.pinkmonkey.com/dl/r.asp) (Scroll down alphabetical
title list)  

 Instructions: Please read the entire lecture 14 linked above.
 Then, read the entire *Modern History Sourcebook* webpage, which is
an excerpt of Burke’s *Reflections*.  

 Dr. Kreis’s lecture talks about England’s reaction to the French
Revolution—which ranged from Edmund Burke’s conservatism to Thomas
Paine’s radicalism.    

 The second reading linked here, *Reflections,* written by the
British conservative MP Edmund Burke, is one of the most famous
political treatises in European history.  Burke offers a sharp
critique of the French Revolution—for its violence and its abolition
of the monarchy and aristocratic institutions.  Burke fears that the
radicalism of the French conflict constitutes a withdrawal from the
European state system and a rejection of history.  In contrast,
Burke supports the American Revolution, because it does not involve
the execution of a king, senseless bloodshed, or the destruction of
long-standing political institutions.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

10.4 The Rise of Napoleon   10.4.1 The 18th Brumaire   - Web Media: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part 4)—The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte” Link: Khan Academy’s “French Revolution (Part 4)—The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 17 minutes), which discusses the last stages of the French Revolution and how Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the French Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate.  Napoleon rose to power under the French First Republic, which formed at the end of the French Revolution, proclaimed himself dictator, and eventually, emperor, under the First French Empire in 1804.

 This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.  

 Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).  It is
attributed to the Khan Academy.  

 *Note: This topic is covered by the resources below sub-subunit
10.4.3.*

10.4.2 Emperor Napoleon   Note: This topic is covered by the web media below sub-subunit 10.4.1.
Note: This topic is covered by the resources below sub-subunit 10.4.3.

10.4.3 Wars and the Continental System   - Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the Wars of the First and Second Coalitions” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the Wars of the First and Second Coalitions” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 13 minutes), which discusses Napoleon’s early military campaigns.  The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon’s French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815.  As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution, they revolutionized European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly owing to the application of modern mass conscription.

 This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.  

 Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).  It is
attributed to the Khan Academy.
  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Third Coalition” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Third Coalition” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 22 minutes).  The War of the Third Coalition spanned from 1803 to 1806.  Under Napoleon I, it saw the defeat of an alliance of Austria, Portugal, Russia, and others by France and its client states.

    This web media should take 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Fourth Coalition” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon and the War of the Fourth Coalition” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 16 minutes).  The Fourth Coalition against Napoleon’s French Empire was defeated in a war spanning 1806–1807.  Coalition partners included Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.

    This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon’s Peninsular Campaigns” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon’s Peninsular Campaigns” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 20 minutes).  The Peninsular War occurred between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula.

    This web media and note-taking should take 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “French Invasion of Russia” Link: Khan Academy’s “French Invasion of Russia” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 17 minutes).  The French invasion of Russia in 1812 was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars.  It reduced the French invasion forces to a tiny fraction of their initial strength and triggered a major shift in European politics as it dramatically weakened French hegemony in Europe.  As a result, the reputation of Napoleon as an undefeated military genius was severely shaken.

    This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Web Media: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon Forced to Abdicate” Link: Khan Academy’s “Napoleon Forced to Abdicate” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please watch the above video (approx. 16 minutes).  In the War of the Sixth Coalition (1812–1814), a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain, and a number of German States finally defeated France and drove Napoleon Bonaparte into exile, thereby restoring the French monarchy under Louis XVIII.

    This web media should take 15 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: This video is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.  It is attributed to the Khan Academy.

  • Lecture: Yale University: Professor John Merriman’s “Lecture 7: Napoleon” Link: Yale University: Professor John Merriman’s “Lecture 7: Napoleon” (YouTube)
     
    Also available in:
    HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or QuickTime 
    iTunes U
     
    Instructions: Please watch the entire 45-minute video lecture linked above.  This video lecture will help to give you a sense of reign of Napoleon—his impact upon France and Europe as a whole.  This video lecture covers the topics in sub-subunits 10.3.1-10.3.3.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 15: Europe and the Superior Being: Napoleon” and Fordham University: Paul Halsall’s “Napoleon and Romanticism” Links: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Early Modern European Intellectual History: “Lecture 15: Europe and the Superior Being: Napoleon” (HTML) and Fordham University:  Paul Halsall’s “Napoleon and Romanticism” (HTML)

    Instructions:  These readings cover the topics outlined in sub-subunits 10.3.1-10.3.3.  Please read the entire lecture 15 linked above.  Then, read “Napoleon and Romanticism” in its entirety.  Lecture 15 will discuss the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte, who established himself as dictator of France in 1799.  The second reading, “Napoleon and Romanticism” will give you a sense of Napoleon’s reign and his conquest of Europe.
     
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  • Web Media: University of Washington: University Libraries Digital Collections’ “Napoleonic Period Collection” Link: University of Washington: University Libraries Digital Collections’ “Napoleonic Period Collection” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please browse through the five webpages of digital images of political cartoons from the Napoleonic era.  Click on the image in order to enlarge it.  These cartoons offer an excellent window into French and English perceptions of Napoleon.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.