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HIST102: Early Globalizations - East Meets West (1200s-1600s)

Unit 2: Europe: East and West   In the wake of the collapse of the Roman Empire, two major civilizations emerged in Europe during the early medieval period.  The Byzantine Empire, which encompassed territory in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the eastern Mediterranean, maintained a highly advanced political, cultural, and economical system between 500 and 1450 C.E.   Orthodox Christianity defined characteristics of Byzantium and helped expand the empire’s influence in eastern Europe, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia.  Meanwhile, another form of Christianity that had no imperial center, Catholicism, developed in western and central Europe.  Although areas of small kingdoms diffused in the early Middle Ages, the fiefdoms of western Europe had shared some common ground—Latin as lingua franca, the Catholic Church, and feudal society.

In this unit, we will first study a broad overview of Byzantine civilization before looking at its more specific components—Orthodox Christianity, imperial law and government, and Byzantine society.  We will then turn our attention to an examination of medieval western Europe, beginning with the historical context of the medieval era and the definition of the term “Middle Ages.”  We will then study the emergence of the powerful Carolingian Empire, the expanding scope and power of the medieval Catholic Church, the significance of feudalism and manorialism in medieval society, and the devastating impact of the Black Death.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 6.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 3.5 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Identify the major events and milestones in the history of the Byzantine Empire and its interactions with the larger world.
  • Discuss key ecclesiastical, social, and political features of European life and history during the ‘Middle Ages.

2.1 The Byzantine Empire   2.1.1 The Division of the Roman Empire and Collapse in the West   - Reading: Boise State University: Professor E.L.S. Knox’s “The Fall of Rome” Link: Boise State University Professor: E.L.S. Knox’s “The Fall of Rome” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read links 1-7 on the left hand-side of the page.  These texts describe the events surrounding the division of the Roman Empire, the eastern half of which later became known as the Byzantine Empire, and the collapse of Roman power in the west.  In addition to providing an overview of the major events of the era, Professor Knox describes some of the ongoing debates between historians concerning the factors most responsible for the fall of the Roman Empire.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.1.2 Byzantine Society and Civilization   - Lecture: Yale Open Courses: HIST 210: The Early Middle Ages, 284 -1000: Professor Paul Freedman’s “Lecture 18 – The Splendor of Byzantium” Link: Yale Open Courses: HIST 210: The Early Middle Ages, 284 -1000: Professor Paul Freedman’s “Lecture 18 – The Splendor of Byzantium” (YouTube)

 Instructions: Listen to this lecture (48 minutes) which concerns
the history and culture of Byzantium from the seventh through the
eleventh century. In the last section (chapter 5), Professor
Freedman discusses the spread of Orthodox Christianity to the Slavs
which you will learn more about in section 2.1.3 below.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 United States
license](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/). It
is attributed to Yale University and the original version can be
found [here](http://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-210/lecture-18). 
  • Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “Byzantine Civilization” Lecture 17 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History:  “Byzantine Civilization” Lecture 17 (HTML)
              
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of the webpage in order to get a good overview and the historical context of the Byzantine Empire.

    Note on the Text: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses. Dr. Steven Kreis teaches history at American Public University.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.1.3 Orthodox Christianity in Eastern Europe   - Reading: University of Oregon: Professor Robert Kimball’s “Olga, Anna and the Christianization of the Rus” Link: University of Oregon: Professor Robert Kimball’s “Olga, Anna and the Christianization of the Rus” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read all of this text, which describes the key roles played by the Russian princess Olga and the Byzantine Princess Anna in the spread of Orthodox Christianity among the Rus.  In addition to providing an introduction to the lives and experiences of these interesting figures and the “nuptial diplomacy” of the day, the author describes the larger geo-political context in which this important episode of cultural transfer took place.  Finally, please give some thought to the manner in which the events described here reflect the processes or patterns of globalization described in the resources from Unit 1.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Subunit 2.1 Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation's "Reading Questions for Subunit 2.1" Link: The Saylor Foundation's "Reading Questions for Subunit 2.1" (PDF)

 Instructions: Please complete the assessment linked above.  When
you are finished, compare your response to The Saylor Foundation's
"[Guide to Responding to Subunit 2.1's Reading
Questions](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/HIST102-Guide-to-Responding-to-Subunit-2.1-FINAL.pdf)."
(PDF)

2.2 Western Europe: The Middle Ages   - Reading: California Institute of Technology: Professor Warren C. Brown’s “What’s ‘Middle’ About the Middle Ages?” Link: California Institute of Technology: Professor Warren C. Brown’s “What’s ‘Middle’ about the Middle Ages?” (PDF)
 
Instructions: We turn now from Byzantium to Western Europe and consider developments in that part of the continent during the so-called “middle ages.”  Please use the pdf link to the article at the center of the page and read all of this text.  As you will find, the author provides an engaging introduction to medieval European history, as well as the manner in which our perceptions of the era often conflict with what scholars have learned through careful research and analysis of the surviving sources. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2.1 Charlemagne I and the Carolingians   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “Charlemagne and the Carolingian Renaissance” Lecture 20 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Charlemagne and the Carolingian Renaissance” Lecture 20 (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of the webpage in order to get a sense of Charlemagne’s rule and the period known as the “Carolingian Renaissance.”
 
Note on the Text: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.  Dr. Steven Kreis teaches history at American Public University.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2.2 Charlemagne, Chivalry and the Medieval Imagination   - Reading: Virginia Tech: Joseph J. Duggan’s “The Hero Roland and the Question of Intentionality” Link: Virginia Tech: Joseph J. Duggan’s “The Hero Roland and the Question of Intentionality” (PDF)

 Instructions: Charlemagne’s efforts to expand his power into the
Iberian Peninsula were the inspiration for The Song of Roland, one
of the most famous works of literature from the medieval era. In
this article, Joseph Duggan provides some valuable context for the
events portrayed in the poem, as well as the manner in which
Charlemagne’s actions and campaigns were “remembered” or heralded by
succeeding generations of Europeans.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 United States
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/). It
is attributed to Joseph J. Duggan and the original version can be
found
[here](http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/ElAnt/V14N1/duggan.html). 

2.2.3 The Medieval Catholic Church   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures in Ancient and Medieval European History: “Heretics, Heresies, and the Church” Lecture 27 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Heretics, Heresies, and the Church” Lecture 27 (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of the webpage in order to get a sense of how the medieval Church defined “heretic” and why heresy was such an important feature of early European Catholicism.
 
Note on the Text: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.  Dr. Steven Kreis teaches history at American Public University.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “Early Medieval Monasticism” Lecture 19 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Early Medieval Monasticism” Lecture 19 (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of the webpage in order to get a sense of the central role that monasticism played in shaping early European civilization.
     
    Note on the Text: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.  Dr. Steven Kreis teaches history at American Public University.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “The Holy Crusades” Lecture 25 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:The Holy Crusades” Lecture 25 (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of the webpage in order to get a sense of the intended and unintended consequences of the Crusades—rescuing the Holy Land from Islamic encroachment and coming into contact with Islamic technologies, goods, and commerce.
     
    Note on the Text: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.  Dr. Steven Kreis teaches history at American Public University.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2.4 Feudalism and Manorialism   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “Feudalism and the Feudal Relationship” Lecture 21 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Feudalism and the Feudal Relationship” Lecture 21 (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of the webpage in order to get a sense of how and why feudalism developed in western Europe.
 
Note on the Text: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.  Dr. Steven Kreis teaches history at American Public University.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and European History: “European Agrarian Society: Manorialism” Lecture 22 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:European Agrarian Society: Manorialism” Lecture 22 (HTML).
     
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of the lecture in order to better understand the importance of system of manorialism, also known as serfdom, to the economy and society of western Europe.
     
    Note on the Text: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.  Dr. Steven Kreis teaches history at American Public University.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2.5 The Black Death   - Assessment: Pearson Education’s World Civilizations: AP Edition: “Chapter 10, Multiple Choice Quiz” Link: Pearson Education’s World Civilizations: AP Edition: “Chapter 10, Multiple Choice Quiz” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please take the assigned multiple choice quiz on this webpage in order to assess your understanding of the early medieval period in western Europe.  Click the “Submit Answer for Grading” button at the bottom of the page to obtain your grade and see the answer key for the quiz.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “Satan Triumphant: The Black Death” Lecture 29 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Satan Triumphant: The Black Death” Lecture 29 (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of the lecture in order to get a sense of the devastation unleashed in Europe as a result of the onset of the Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague.
     
    Note on the Text: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.  Dr. Steven Kreis teaches history at American Public University.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Subunit 2.2 Assessment   - Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Essay: Christianity” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Unit 2 Essay: Christianity” (HTML)

 Instructions: This is an ungraded activity. If you choose to
complete the activity, you may record your answer anywhere you like.
You do have the option to use the link above to save your answers on
Saylor.org, though you will need to create a free account in order
to do so --  this will only take a minute, and you may do
so [here](http://eportfolio.saylor.org/users/sign_up).  

-   The resources in Unit 2 describe the political and cultural
    history of the Byzantine Empire and Western Europe during the
    early middle ages. Although Christianity played an important
    role in both of these worlds, was it practiced in the same way
    and subject to the same authorities?  

     Tips for getting started: In this assignment we are using the
    subject of religion as a vehicle for exploring the political and
    cultural boundaries and relations between Byzantium and Western
    Europe. It may in fact be helpful to introduce your response in
    this manner. In preparing your answer, closely review the
    resources for references to the ideas and customs shared by
    Christians of these two worlds as well as the points that
    separated them