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HIST101: Ancient Civilizations of the World

Unit 6: The Roman Kingdom, Republic, and Empire   Ancient Rome was characterized by three distinct periods—the Roman Kingdom (from the eight to the sixth century B.C.E.), the Roman Republic (from the sixth to the first century B.C.E.), and the Roman Empire (from the first century B.C.E. to the fifth century A.D. for the Western Roman Empire and to the fifteenth century in the Eastern Roman Empire).  How Rome evolved from a monarchy to an oligarchic republic and then to an autocratic empire will be the subject of this unit.  During these three phases, innovative ideas about government, law, art, philosophy, and architecture became prominent facets of Roman society—and remain relevant in modern times.  However, many of these new ideas emerged during periods of political instability and continuous warfare.  In this unit, we will study the creation of republican Rome and the rise of the Roman Empire, while also paying special attention to the violent and volatile nature of this ancient polity.  We will also examine the major features of Roman society and culture.

Unit 6 Time Advisory
This unit will take you 18 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 6.1: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 6.2: 6 hours

☐    Subunit 6.3: 5 hours

☐    Subunit 6.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Unit 6 Assessment: 0.5 hours

Unit6 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Identify causes, main events, and consequences of Roman expansion in the Mediterranean. - Identify the origins of the Roman Republic and evaluate the impact of political and economic expansion on Roman society. - Assess the political, social, and economic factors that led to the fall of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. - Compare the differing modern views on and interpretations of vital concepts, such as the nature of Roman democracy and imperialism. - Identify the reasons for Rome's success in government both externally and internally as it integrated a diverse world into a stable and pragmatic empire. - Assess the political, social, and cultural legacies of Roman civilization. - Analyze the religious crisis posed by Christianity and the stages by which the Empire adjusted the new revolutionary religion into a new cultural amalgam. 

6.1 The Roman Kingdom and the Rise of the Roman Republic   - Reading: ForumRomanum’s version of William C. Morey’s Outlines of Roman History: “Chapters I-XXII” Link: ForumRomanum’s version of William C. Morey’s Outlines of Roman History: “Chapters I-XXII” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read William C. Morey’s Outlines of Roman History: “Chapters I-XXII” in order to get a sense of the Roman Kingdom as well as the subsequent rise, expansion, and fall of the Roman Republic.
 
About the link: This website, which contains texts relating to the history of ancient Rome, is maintained by David Camden of Harvard University.
 
Terms of Use: This resource is in the public domain. The original version can be found here.

6.1.1 Etruscan Culture and Early Rome   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “Early Roman Civilization, 753-509 B.C.,” Lecture 10 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Early Roman Civilization” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of the lecture in order to get a sense of the downfall of the Etruscans and the emergence of early Rome.
 
About the link: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of Colorado: History Department’s “Etruscan Civilization” Link: University of Colorado: History Department’s “Etruscan Civilization” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read this article in its entirety to get an understanding of the Etruscan civilization.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.1.2 The Roman Republic   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “Republican Rome, 509-31 B.C.,” Lecture 11 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Republican Rome” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the whole lecture in order to get a sense of the nature of the Roman Republic.
 
About the link: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Parkland College: Professor Scott Thomason History 101: History of Western Civilization: Lecture 6: The Roman Republic Link: Parkland College: Professor Scott Thomason History 101: History of Western Civilization: Lecture 6: The Roman Republic  (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please listen to Professor Scott Thomason’s entire  43 minute lecture to get a sense of the emergence of the Roman Republic.
     
    About the link: This website hosts free lectures from the nation’s top universities in a wide array of academic subjects.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.2 Roman Culture and Society   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “A Brief Social History of the Roman Empire,” Lecture 13 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: “A Brief Social History of the Roman Empire” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of the lecture in order to get a sense of Roman economy and society.
 
About the link: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate courses.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.2.1 Roman Art   6.2.2 Slavery   6.2.3 Economic Structure   6.2.4 Roman Literature   - Reading: MIT: Sir Samuel Garth, John Dryden, et. al.’s Translation of Ovid’s The Metamorphoses Link: MIT: Sir Samuel Garth, John Dryden, et. al.’s Translation of Ovid’s The Metamorphoses (HTML)
 
Also available in:
Full Text (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the hyperlink “Book the First” and read this entire text, using Professor Al Drake’s (UC-Irvine) Study Guide (HTML).  Please, feel free to read other books in The Metamorphoses.
 
About the link: The MIT Classics department maintains this website of primary-source materials relating to the classical world.
 
Note on the text: The Roman poet, Ovid, wrote The Metamorphoses during the Augustan Age of imperial Rome.  The Metamorphoses is a narrative poem consisting of fifteen books detailing the creation and history of the world.  Ovid’s tale of mythology was widely read in his own time and would later influence many medieval and Renaissance poets, including Geoffrey Chaucer and William Shakespeare.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.3 The Roman Empire   - Reading: ForumRomanum’s version of William C. Morey’s Outlines of Roman History: “Chapters XXIII-XXIX” Link: ForumRomanum’s version of William C. Morey’s Outlines of Roman History: “Chapters XXIII-XXIX” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read Chapters XXIII-XXIX in order to get a sense of the creation and demise of the Roman Empire.
 
About the link: This website, which contains texts relating to the history of ancient Rome, is maintained by David Camden of Harvard University.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “Augustus Caesar and the Pax Romana,” Lecture 12 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Augustus Caesar and the Pax Romana” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of the lecture in order to get a sense of the development of the Roman Empire, the rise of Augustus Caesar, and the crises of post-Augustan Rome.
     
    About the link: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “The Decline and Fall of Rome,” Lecture 14 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History:The Decline and Fall of Rome” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read the entirety of the lecture, which analyzes the many theories that scholars have posited to explain the collapse of ancient Rome.
     
    About the link: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.3.1 From Republic to Empire   6.3.2 Augustus Caesar and the Pax Romana   6.3.3 The Post-Augustan Age   6.3.4 The Decline and Fall of the Empire   6.4 Emergence of Christianity   6.4.1 The Rise of Christianity   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “Christianity as a Cultural Revolution,” Lecture 15 Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide:Christianity as a Cultural Revolution” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the whole lecture, which discusses the role of early Christianity in the Roman Empire.
 
About the link: This online text was developed by Dr. Steven Kreis as an open educational resource for use in undergraduate history courses.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

6.4.2 Christianity and the Roman Empire   - Reading: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History: “Lecture 15: Christianity as a Cultural Revolution” Link: Dr. Steven Kreis’s The History Guide: Lectures on Ancient and Medieval European History:Lecture 15: Christianity as a Cultural Revolution” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read this text in its entirety.  Remember to pay special attention to how Christianity “revolutionized” the Roman Empire.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Saylor Foundation’s “Christianity and the Roman Empire”  Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Christianity and the Roman Empire” (PDF).

    Instructions: Please read the entire article in order to get a sense of the reasons behind the Romans’ persecution of Christians

  • Assessment: Pearson Education’s World Civilizations: The Global Experience: “Chapter 7, Multiple Choice Quiz” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

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