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GEOG101: World Regional Geography

Unit 8: North Africa & Southwest Asia   The realm of North Africa and Southwest Asia is large and expansive in terms of physical area, but its regions share a number of common qualities.  The physical area of this realm is divided into three regions: North Africa, Southwest Asia, and the countries of Turkestan (the geographic region of Central Asia).  The countries in the North African region include those bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, from Morocco to Sudan.  The realm borders the Atlantic Ocean, the Sahara Desert, and the African Transition Zone.  Egypt has territory in both Africa and Asia through its possession of the Sinai Peninsula.  The second region, Southwest Asia, includes Turkey, Iran, the Middle East, and the Arabian Peninsula.  The land on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea is frequently referred to as the Levant and is often considered to be part of the Middle East.  Central Asia, also referred to as Turkestan, includes the “stan” countries from Kazakhstan to Afghanistan.  The suffix stan, meaning “land of,” is a common suffix for nations in Central Asia.  Afghanistan is the only country of Central Asia that was not officially a part of the former Soviet Union.

Though each unit of this course is relevant and important, few units are perhaps as important to present day global dynamics as this unit.  Unit 8 begins with the identification of the three basic physical and cultural traits the countries of the realm have in common: climate, Islam, and natural resources.  In this unit, you will take a detailed look at one of the more important “cultural hearths” of the region: the availability and control of fresh water.  You will also analyze the differences and similarities between the three most prevalent monotheistic religions in this region of the world.  Finally, you will take an in-depth look at major conflicts that have plagued the region historically and presently.

Unit 8 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 13.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 8.1: 4.5 hours ☐    Introduction: 4 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 8.1.1: 0.25 hour

☐    Sub-subunit 8.1.3: 0.25 hour
 

☐    Subunit 8.2: 1.75 hours

☐    Subunit 8.3: 1.75 hours

☐    Subunit 8.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.5: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.6: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 8.7: 1 hour

Unit8 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Identify three basic physical and cultural traits countries of the realm have in common. - Identify the two cultural hearths, and explain why they developed where they did. - Describe how the people of this realm gain access to fresh water. - Explain how the events of the 2011 Arab Spring have affected the realm. - Summarize the early life of Muhammad and the origins of Islam. - Identify, compare, and contrast the three major monotheistic religions in the realm. - Explain the process of spatial diffusion and the various forms it may represent. - List the main divisions of Islam and the approximate percentage of followers in each division. - Explain how Islamic fundamentalism influences the debate between a religious state and a secular state. - Describe the main qualities of the African Transition Zone, and explain how the dynamics of this zone are affecting the country of Sudan. - Describe the unique geographic qualities of the Maghreb, and explain how this region is connected to Europe. - Summarize the historical geography of North Africa and identify its major physical features. - Summarize how the region of Palestine has evolved into the current Jewish State of Israel. - Identify and locate the territories that have been annexed to Israel over the years. - Explain the division between the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Jewish State of Israel.  - Identify the complications of the one-state and two-state solutions to this division. - Describe the differences between the governments of Jordan and Syria. - Describe the political arrangements of the government leadership positions in Lebanon. - Identify and explain the physical features of the Arabian Peninsula. - Describe the main economic activities of each country within the Arabian Peninsula. - Describe the types of governments found in the Arabian Peninsula. - Describe women’s rights and circumstances in each country of the Arabian Peninsula. - Summarize Iraq’s role in the Persian Gulf War and the Iraq War in 2003. - Explain the ethnic divisions in Iraq, as well as divisions defined by the branches of Islam. - Explain why Turkey wants to be a member of the European Union (EU) and why it has not been accepted. - Outline Iran’s physical geography and how it has used its natural resources for economic gain. - Discuss how Central Asia has been transitioning from a Soviet-dominated region to independent states and what has been occurring in the various states to adapt to the new economic environment. - Describe how the Aral Sea has been affected by the practices of water use in the region and the environmental consequences that have resulted from water use policies. - Explain the geopolitical history of Afghanistan and why this area has been difficult to govern under a central government. - Discuss why there is continual conflict in Afghanistan between Western military forces and local Taliban insurgents.

8.1 Introducing the Realm   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.1: Introducing the Realm” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.1: Introducing the Realm” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 8.1.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 8.1.1 through 8.1.4. 
 
The reading assignment for this subunit provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the nations of North Africa and Southwest Asia.  In addition, the reading explores how the events of the 2011 Arab Spring have affected the realm.
 
Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “SW Asia and N Africa: Part 1” and “World Regional Geography:” “SW Asia and N Africa: Part 2” Link: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “SW Asia and N Africa: Part 1” (iTunes U) and “World Regional Geography:” “SW Asia and N Africa: Part 2” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the links above, locate the lectures titled “0011SW Asia and N Africa Part 1” and “0012SW Asia and N Africa Part 2,” and select “View in iTunes” to launch each lecture.  View Parts 1 and 2 in their entirety for an introduction to the physical, cultural, religious, and economic characteristics of Southwest Asia and North Africa.
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.1.1 Physical Geography   Note: This topic is also covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the first few paragraphs of the reading.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Middle East and Africa: Climate” Link: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Middle East and Africa: Climate” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lecture titled “Middle East and Africa: Climate,” and select “View in iTunes” to launch this lecture.  View this entire lecture for an introduction to the climatic variation of the region.
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.1.2 Cultural Hearths   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Cultural Hearths.”

8.1.2.1 Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent.”  Study Figure 8.3.

8.1.2.2 Nile River Civilization   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Nile River Civilization.”

8.1.3 Access to Fresh Water   Note: This topic is also covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Access to Fresh Water.”

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Middle East and Africa: Population” Link: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Middle East and Africa: Population” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lecture titled “Middle East and Africa: Population,” and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture.  View this entire lecture for a brief introduction as to reasons why people live where they live in Africa and the Middle East.
     
    Watching this lecture (several times as needed) should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.1.3.1 Underground Water in Libya   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Underground Water in Libya.”

8.1.3.2 Nile Water in Egypt   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Nile Water in Egypt.”

8.1.3.3 Water from the Tigris and Euphrates   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Water from the Tigris and Euphrates.”

8.1.3.4 Water Conservation in Israel   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Water Conservation in Israel.”

8.1.3.5 Mountain Water in Iran   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Mountain Water in Iran.”

8.1.3.6 Water Shortages in Arabia   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Water Shortages in Arabia.”

8.1.3.7 Diversion of Water in Turkestan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Diversion of Water in Turkestan.”

8.1.4 Arab Spring of 2011   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Arab Spring of 2011.”

8.2 Muhammad and Islam   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.2: Muhammad and Islam” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.2: Muhammad and Islam” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 8.2 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 8.2.1 through 8.2.5. 
 
This reading provides an introduction to the life of Muhammad and the origins of Islam. In addition, the reading will identify, compare, and contrast the three major monotheistic religions in the realm. Finally, the reading discusses how Islamic fundamentalism has influenced the debate between a religious state and a secular state.
 
Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Middle East and Africa: Religion” Link: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Middle East and Africa: Religion” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lecture titled “Middle East and Africa: Religion,” and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture.  View the entire lecture for an introduction to religion in the region, paying special attention to the distribution of Christianity, Animism, and Islam across Africa.
     
    Watching this lecture (several times as needed) should take you less than 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.2.1 The Prophet Muhammad   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Prophet Muhammad.”

8.2.2 Spatial Diffusion   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Spatial Diffusion.”

8.2.3 The Five Pillars of Islam   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Five Pillars of Islam.”

8.2.4 The Death of Muhammad   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Death of Muhammad.”

8.2.5 Secular State versus Religious State   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Secular State versus Religious State.”

8.2.5 Sudan: Slavery and Genocide   Note: This topic is also covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Sudan: Slavery and Genocide.”   

8.3 North Africa and the African Transition Zone   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.3: North Africa and the African Transition Zone” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.3: North Africa and the African Transition Zone” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 8.3 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 8.3.1 through 8.3.6. 
 
This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the nations of North Africa and the African Transition Zone.  In addition, the reading explores the unique geographic qualities of the Maghreb and explains how this region is connected to Europe.
 
Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

8.3.1 The Maghreb: “Isle of the West”   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Maghreb: ‘Isle of the West.’” 

8.3.2 Economic Geography of the Maghreb   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Economic Geography of the Maghreb.”  

8.3.2.1 Political Geography of the Maghreb   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Political Geography of the Maghreb.” 

8.3.2.2 Western Sahara and Morocco   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Western Sahara and Morocco.”   

8.3.2.3 Algeria   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Algeria.”  

8.3.2.4 Tunisia   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Tunisia.”   

8.3.2.5 Libya   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Libya.”

8.3.3 The Nile River and Egypt   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Nile River and Egypt.”   

8.3.3.1 Population Dynamics   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Population Dynamics.”   

8.3.3.2 Political Dynamics   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Political Dynamics.”  

8.3.4 The African Transition Zone   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The African Transition Zone.”

  • Web Media: National Geographic’s: “God Grew Tired of Us: From Sudan to the United States” Link: National Geographic’s: “God Grew Tired of Us: From Sudan to the United States” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Watch this engaging documentary clip that follows the path of a number of “Lost Boys” from Sudan’s civil war to the United States.  Sudan’s civil war forced over 25,000 “Lost Boys” to travel across Sub-Saharan Africa in search of safety.  This video is first in a series. Watching the rest of the videos is optional though highly encouraged.  If interested in watching the rest of the videos, note that one video will automatically progress to another video.
     
    Viewing this video and pausing to take notes should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

8.3.6 The African Union   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The African Union.”

8.4 Israel and Its Neighbors   - Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Middle East” Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Middle East” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Once at the website, click on the “Middle East” icon.  Next, underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable with your regional knowledge of the Middle East, go back to the Middle East game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions G – Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
 
Once you have successfully completed the Landscape quiz, go back to the Africa game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Seas & Bays L – Tutorial.” Complete the Tutorial.  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Middle East game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Seas & Bays G – Game.” Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
 
Once you have successfully completed the Seas & Bays quiz, go back to the Middle East game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Middle East game choices, and underneath the “Countries” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Level 1 – Beginner.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%. Good luck!
 
This activity should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.4: Israel and Its Neighbors” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.4: Israel and Its Neighbors” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 8.4 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 8.4.1 through 8.4.4. 
     
    This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Israel and its neighbors (including the West Bank, Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon).  In addition, the reading explores the history of the region and discusses how the region of Palestine has evolved into the current Jewish State of Israel.  Finally, the reading identifies the complications of the one-state and two-state solutions to the division of the region.
     
    Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

8.4.1 The State of Israel   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The State of Israel.”

8.4.1.1 The Division of Palestine   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Division of Palestine.”

8.4.1.2 The Palestinians, Israel, and Possible Solutions   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Palestinians, Israel, and Possible Solutions.”

8.4.2 Jordan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Jordan.”

8.4.3 Syria   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Syria.”

8.4.4 Lebanon   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Lebanon.”

8.4.4.1 Lebanon: Switzerland of the Middle East   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  Focus on the third paragraph below the heading, “Lebanon,” for a discussion of how Lebanon is known as the “Switzerland of the Middle East.”

8.4.4.2 Beirut: “The Paris of the Middle East”   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  Focus on the third paragraph below the heading, “Lebanon,” for a discussion of how Beirut is known as the “Paris of the Middle East.”

8.4.4.3 The Conflict between Lebanon and Israel   seventh paragraph below the heading, “Lebanon,” for discussions on the growing conflict between Lebanon and Israel.

8.4.4.3.1 Hezbollah   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Hezbollah,” under the heading, “Lebanon.”

8.4.4.3.2 The Role of Syria   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.4.  Focus on the seventh paragraph below the heading, “Lebanon,” for discussions on the role of Syria in the conflict between Lebanon and Israel.

8.5 Arabs, Islam, and Oil   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.5: Arabs, Islam, and Oil” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.5: Arabs, Islam, and Oil” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 8.5 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 8.5.1 through 8.5.8. 
 
This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the countries within the Arabian Peninsula.  In addition, the reading explores women’s rights and circumstances in each of these countries.
 
Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

8.5.1 The States of the Arabian Peninsula   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “States on the Arabian Peninsula.”

8.5.2 Saudi Arabia   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Saudi Arabia.”

8.5.2.1 Saudi Culture   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Saudi Culture.”

8.5.2.2 Role of Women   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Role of Women.”

8.5.3 Kuwait and Operation Desert Storm   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Kuwait.”  Also, pay attention to the text surrounding the bolded term, “Operation Desert Storm.”

8.5.4 Bahrain   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Bahrain.”

8.5.5 Qatar   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Qatar.”

8.5.6 United Arab Emirates (UAE)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “United Arab Emirates (UAE).”

8.5.7 The Sultanate of Oman   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Sultanate of Oman.”

8.5.8 Yemen   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Yemen.”

8.6 Iraq, Turkey, and Iran   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.6: Iraq, Turkey, and Iran” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.6: Iraq, Turkey, and Iran” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 8.6 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 8.6.1 through 8.6.3.
 
This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Iraq, Turkey, and Iran.  In addition, the reading explores the reasons behind the Persian Gulf War and the Iraq War in 2003.  The reading also seeks to describe why Turkey wants to be a member of the European Union (EU) and why it has not been accepted.
 
Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

8.6.1 Iraq   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Iraq.”

8.6.1.1 Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988).”

8.6.1.2 The Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Persian Gulf War (1990-1991).”

8.6.1.3 Ethnic and Cultural Divisions   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Ethnic and Cultural Divisions.”

8.6.1.3.1 Sunni Triangle   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Sunni Triangle,” below the subheading, “Ethnic and Cultural Divisions.”

8.6.1.3.1.1 Baghdad   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Sunni Triangle,” below the subheading, “Ethnic and Cultural Divisions.”

8.6.1.3.1.2 Tikrit   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Sunni Triangle,” below the subheading, “Ethnic and Cultural Divisions.”

8.6.1.3.1.3 Ramadi   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Sunni Triangle,” below the subheading, “Ethnic and Cultural Divisions.”

8.6.1.3.2 Karbala and Najaf   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded terms, “Karbala” and “Najaf.”

8.6.1.3.3 Kurdistan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Kurdistan.”

8.6.1.4 The Iraq War (2003-2011)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Iraq War (2003-2011).”

8.6.1.5 Resources and Globalization   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Resources and Globalization.”

8.6.1.6 Politics, Oil Companies, and the Administration of US President George W. Bush   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text in the box titled “Politics, Oil Companies, and the Administration of US President George W. Bush.”

8.6.2 Turkey   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Turkey.”

8.6.2.1 Constantinople and the Ottoman Empire   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Constantinople.”

8.6.2.2 Istanbul and Ankara   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Istanbul.”

8.6.2.3 The Kurds and Eastern Turkey   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the fourth paragraph below the heading, “Turkey.”

8.6.2.4 Cyprus   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text in the box titled, “Cyprus.”

8.6.3 Iran   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Iran.”

8.6.3.1 Persian Empire to Islamic Republic   *Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Persian Empire to Islamic Republic.”

*

8.6.3.2 Political Challenges   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Political Challenges.”

8.6.3.3 Economic Resources   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.6.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Economic Resources.”

8.7 Central Asia and Afganistan   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.7: Central Asia and Afghanistan” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 8: North Africa and Southwest Asia:” “Section 8.7: Central Asia and Afghanistan” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 8.7 as well as the end of chapter material in Section 8.8.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, read all of the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, answer these questions and keep these questions in mind as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading assignment covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 8.7.1 through 8.7.7.
 
This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of Afghanistan and the nations of Central Asia.  In particular, the reading discusses how Central Asia has been transitioning from a Soviet-dominated region to independent states and what has been occurring in the various states to adapt to the new economic environment.  In addition, the reading explores the geopolitical history of Afghanistan and why this area has been difficult to govern under a central government and why there is continual conflict in Afghanistan between Western military forces and local Taliban insurgents.
 
Reading and answering associated Discussion Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

8.7.1 Central Asia or Turkestan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Central Asia or Turkestan.”   

8.7.2 Kazakhstan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Kazakhstan

8.7.3 Uzbekistan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Uzbekistan

8.7.4 Turkmenistan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Turkmenistan.”   

8.7.5 Kyrgyzstan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Kyrgyzstan.”

8.7.6 Tajikistan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Tajikistan.”  

8.7.7 Afganistan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Afghanistan.”

8.7.7.1 The Soviet Invasion and the Taliban   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Soviet Invasion and the Taliban.”  

8.7.7.1.1 Mujahedeen   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Mujahedeen.”  

8.7.7.1.2 Osama bin Laden   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Osama bin Laden.”  

8.7.7.1.3 The Taliban   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Taliban.”   

8.7.7.1.4 The Northern Alliance   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Northern Alliance.”

8.7.7.2 Al-Qaeda and the US Invasion   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Al-Qaeda and the US Invasion

8.7.7.2.1 Al-Qaeda   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Al-Qaeda.”

8.7.7.2.2 Operation Enduring Freedom   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Operation Enduring Freedom” as well as the text in the box titled “Operation Enduring Freedom.”

8.7.7.2.3 Abottadad, Pakistan and the Compound of Osama bin Laden   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  Focus on the third paragraph below the heading, “Al-Queda and the US Invasion.”

8.7.7.2.4 Democratic Elections in Afganistan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  Focus on the fifth paragraph below the heading, “Al-Queda and the US Invasion.”

8.7.7.3 Resources and Globalization   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 8.7.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Resources and Globalization.”