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GEOG101: World Regional Geography

Unit 2: Europe   An understanding of the formation of Europe as we know it today – from the dawn of the Roman Empire to the emergence of the European Union (EU) (and beyond!) – is essential to the study of regional geography.  The powerful impact of European colonialism is still felt today, and the continent continues to struggle to confront the cultural forces that unite and divide it.  The rural-to-urban shift prompted by the Industrial Revolution first impacted Europe and continues to impact developing countries.  Understanding the geographic region of Europe is essential to understanding our world. 

Unit 2 begins with the exploration of the physical characteristics and natural resources of Europe.  You are given the opportunity to explore the historical development of Europe, beginning with the Roman Empire and the Viking Era.  Later in this unit, you learn about Europe’s division in the twentieth century, unification efforts, and how globalization has increased with the advent of the European Union.  Unit 2 ends with a detailed exploration of physical and cultural geography in specific European regions.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 11.25 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 4.75 hours ☐    Activity: 1 hour

☐    Reading: 1.5 hours

☐    Lectures: 2.25 hours
 

☐    Subunit 2.2: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 1.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.5: 1.5 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Describe the various climate types and physical landforms of the European continent. - Explain how Europe’s physical geography has supported its development. - Examine Europe’s various natural resources. - Summarize the environmental concerns that Europe faces. - Discuss how the Roman Empire and the Viking Era contributed to European development. - Describe how European colonialism changed or influenced other countries. - Explain the major developments that prompted the Industrial Revolution. - Summarize the impact of the rural-to-urban shift and its impact on urbanization. - Outline the concept of a nation-state, and explain how this applies to Europe. - Explain how cultural forces can positively or negatively influence political units. - Identify the three main language groups and the three most prevalent religions in Europe. - Outline the circumstances of Europe’s twentieth century division. - Discuss initiatives that were implemented to encourage European unification. - Explain the dynamics of supranationalism and its advantages and disadvantages. - Summarize how globalization has increased with the advent of the European Union. - Locate and describe the various traditional regions of Western Europe. - Identify and discuss the varied physical geography of Europe from region to region. - Explain each region’s challenges of retaining cultural identity and uniqueness. - Describe the industrialized economics of each region. - Describe the various aspects of transitioning from socialist systems to capitalist democracies. - List the former republics of the Soviet Union. - Describe some of the cultural dynamics that make each region unique. - Define post-industrial economics. - Discuss some activities that are used to stimulate the economies across Europe.

2.1 Introducing the Realm   - Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Europe” Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: Europe” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your geographic map skills.  Click on the “Europe” icon.  Next, under the “Landscape” heading, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions L – Tutorial.”  When you feel comfortable with your regional knowledge of Europe, go back to the Europe game choices, and underneath the “Landscape” column, click on the “Play!” button for “Georegions G – Game.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
 
Once you have successfully completed the Landscape Quiz, go back to the Europe game choices.  Under the “Countries” heading, click on “Play!” for “Level L – Tutorial.” Complete the Tutorial.  When you feel comfortable, go back to the Europe game choices, under the “Countries” column, and click “Play!” for “Level 1 – Beginner.”  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!
 
This activity should take approximately 1 hour to complete.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
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  • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.1: Introducing the Realm” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.1: Introducing the Realm” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 2.1 in its entirety.  Before starting Section 2.1, navigate to the end of the section to review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Answer these questions and keep them in mind as you work through the resources in this subunit.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 2.1.1 through 2.1.3.
     
    This reading provides an introduction to the major physical characteristics of Europe, including climate, landforms, and natural resources.  In addition, this reading explores how Europe’s physical geography has supported its overall cultural and economic development.
     
    Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe: Part 1” Link: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe: Part 1” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and locate the lecture titled “0013Europe Part 1.”  To launch the video lecture, select “View in iTunes.”  Watch this entire lecture for an introduction to the European Realm.
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe: Part 2” Link: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe: Part 2” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and locate the lecture titled “0014Europe Part 2.”  To launch this lecture, select “View in iTunes.”  Then, watch the lecture in its entirety.  This lecture is the second part of the European Realm lecture.  Note that you should disregard the last portion of the video where Professor Reisinger refers to a midterm exam for his own students.
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.1.1 Location and Climate   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Location and Climate.”

2.1.1.1 The Dominant Climate Types of Europe   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, study Figure 2.2 on “The Dominant Climate Types of Europe.”

2.1.1.2 The Gulf Stream Current   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “The Gulf Stream.”

2.1.2 Four Main European Landforms   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Four Main European Landforms.”

2.1.2.1 Alpine Region   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Alpine Region.”

2.1.2.2 Central Uplands   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Central Uplands.”

2.1.2.3 Northern Lowlands   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Northern Lowlands.”

2.1.2.4 Western Highlands   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Western Highlands.”

2.1.3 Natural Resources in Europe   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Natural Resources in Europe.”

2.2 Historical Development Patterns   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.2: Historical Development Patterns” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.2: Historical Development Patterns” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 2.2 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  As you read, keep these questions in mind, and then answer these questions once you have completed the reading.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 2.2.1 through 2.2.8.
 
This reading provides an introduction to the history of Europe, including how a variety of cultures (including the Roman Empire and Vikings) contributed to European development.  In addition, the reading explores how European colonialism changed and influenced other countries.  The reading also discusses how cultural forces can positively or negatively influence politics.
 
Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

2.2.1 Colonialism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Colonialism.”

2.2.2 The Agrarian Revolution   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Agrarian Revolution.”

2.2.3 The Industrial Revolution   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Industrial Revolution.”

2.2.4 Central Business Districts and Primate Cities   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Central Business Districts and Primate Cities.”

2.2.5 Rural-to-Urban Shift and Population Growth   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Rural-to-Urban Shift and Population Growth.”

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe and Russia: Deindustrialization Process” and “Europe and Russia: Population” Link: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe and Russia: Deindustrialization Process” (iTunes U) and “World Regional Geography:” “Europe and Russia: Population” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the links above, locate the “Europe and Russia: Deindustrialization Process” and “Europe and Russia: Population” lectures, and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lectures.  View the first video lecture about the effects of deindustrialization in Europe and Russia. Watch the second lecture, which discusses population patterns in Europe and Russia.
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.2.5.1 Declining Family Size in Europe   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the box titled “Declining Family Size in Europe.”

2.2.5.2 Main Reasons for Declining Family Size in Europe   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the box titled “Declining Family Size in Europe.”

2.2.5.3 Problems Associated with the Decline in Family Size   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the box titled “Declining Family Size in Europe.”

2.2.6 Nation-States and Devolution   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Nation-States and Devolution.”

2.2.7 Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces   *Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Centrifugal and Centripetal Forces”.
*

2.2.8 Religion and Language in Europe   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Religion and Language in Europe.”

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe and Russia: Religion” and “Europe and Russia: Language” Links: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Europe and Russia: Religion” (iTunes U) and “World Regional Geography:” “Europe and Russia: Language” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the links above, locate the lectures titled “Europe and Russia: Religion” and “Europe and Russia: Language,” and select “View in iTunes” for each to launch the lectures.  Watch the first lecture for a concise introduction to the primary religions seen across Europe and Russia. Watch the second lecture for a concise introduction to the primary languages spoken across Europe and Russia.
     
    Watching this lecture (several times as needed) and pausing to take notes should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3 The European Union and Supranationalism   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.3: The European Union and Supranationalism” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.3: The European Union and Supranationalism” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 2.3 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Answer these questions and keep them in mind as you read the text.  This reading covers the topics outlined for sub-subunits 2.3.1 through 2.3.3.
 
This reading provides an introduction to the concepts of unification and supranationalism.  In addition, the reading explores how globalization has increased (for better and for worse) with the advent of the European Union.
 
Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

2.3.1 Unification Efforts in Europe   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Unification Efforts in Europe.”

2.3.1.1 Benelux Agreement   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Benelux Agreement.”

2.3.1.2 Marshall Plan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Marshall Plan.”

2.3.1.3 Treaty of Rome   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Treaty of Rome.”

2.3.1.4 European Union (EU)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “European Union (EU)”.

2.3.2 Supranationalism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Supranationalism.”

2.3.2.1 Language   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, study Figure 2.12 and review the box titled “Special Section: Esperanto.”

2.3.2.2 Currency   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, study Figure 2.13 and the paragraphs that follow the figure.

2.3.2.3 Foreign Policy   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, study Figure 2.14 and read the paragraphs to the left of the figure.

2.3.3 About the European Union and “Member States”   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.3.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “About the European Union.”

2.4 Regions of Western Europe   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.4: Regions of Western Europe” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.4: Regions of Western Europe” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 2.4 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Answer these questions and keep them in mind as you read the text and complete your study of this resource.  This reading covers the topics outlined for sub-subunits 2.4.1 through 2.4.4.
 
This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the different regions of Western Europe.
 
Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

2.4.1 Northern Europe   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Northern Europe.”

2.4.2 Southern Europe   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

2.4.2.1 The Iberian and Balkan Peninsulas   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”  Note the text surrounding the bolded term, “Balkan Peninsula.”

2.4.2.1.1 Spain   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Spain in the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

2.4.2.1.2 Portugal   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Portugal in the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

2.4.2.2.3 Greece   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Greece in the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

2.4.2.3 The Italian Peninsula   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about the Italian Peninsula in the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

2.4.2.3.1 Italy   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Italy in the text below the heading, “Southern Europe.”  Also, review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy.”

2.4.2.3.1.1 Rome   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

2.4.2.3.1.2 Milan   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

2.4.2.3.1.3 Naples   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

2.4.2.3.1.4 Turin   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

2.4.2.3.1.5 Palermo   *Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

*

2.4.2.3.1.6 Florence   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

2.4.2.3.1.7 Venice   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  Review the text in the box titled “Special Section: The Cities of Italy,” focusing on Table 2.2.

2.4.2.3.2 Sicily   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Sicily below the heading, “Southern Europe” as well as in the box “Special Section: The Cities of Italy.”

2.4.2.3.3 Sardinia   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.   In particular, focus on the discussions about Sardinia below the heading, “Southern Europe” as well as in the box “Special Section: The Cities of Italy.”

2.4.2.4 Cyprus   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the discussions about Cyprus below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

2.4.2.5 Ministates   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

2.4.2.5.1 Malta   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4. In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe

2.4.2.5.2 Monaco   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

2.4.2.5.3 San Marino   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

2.4.2.5.4 Andorra   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

2.4.2.5.5 Vatican City   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the first paragraph below the heading, “Southern Europe.”

2.4.3 Central Europe   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Central Europe.”

2.4.3.1 The Benelux Countries   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.   In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Benelux Countries.”

2.4.3.2 France   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “France.”

2.4.3.3 Germany   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Germany.”

2.4.3.4 The Alpine Center   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Alpine Center.”

2.4.4 The British Isles   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The British Isles.”

2.4.4.1 Northern England   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Northern England.”

2.4.4.2 Southern England   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Southern England.”

2.4.4.3 Wales   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Wales

2.4.4.4 Scotland   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Scotland.”

2.4.4.5 Northern Ireland   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Northern Ireland.”

2.4.4.6 The Republic of Ireland   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Republic of Ireland.”

2.5 Eastern Europe   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.5: Eastern Europe” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 2: Europe:” “Section 2.5: Eastern Europe” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Click on the link above, and read Section 2.5 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Answer these questions and keep them in mind as you read the text and complete your study of this resource.  This reading covers topics outlined in sub-subunits 2.5.1 through 2.5.3.
 
This reading provides an introduction to the physical, cultural, and economic characteristics of the regions of Eastern Europe, including the former republics of the Soviet Union.
 
Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

2.5.1 Transitions of Eastern Europe after the Cold War   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Transitions of Eastern Europe after the Cold War.”

2.5.1.1 The Iron Curtain   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “Iron Curtain.”

2.5.1.2 Reforms in Eastern Europe in the 1990s   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, study Figure 2.30.

2.5.1.2.1 The Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the discussion of the collapse of the Soviet Union in the paragraphs below the heading, “Transitions of Eastern Europe after the Cold War.”

2.5.1.2.2 Central Planning to Open Markets   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the fourth paragraph below the heading, “Transitions of Eastern Europe after the Cold War.”

2.5.1.2.3 Government Control to More Independence   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5 In particular, focus on the fourth paragraph below the heading, “Transitions of Eastern Europe after the Cold War.”

2.5.2 Countries of Eastern Europe   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Countries of Eastern Europe.”  Note that these countries are outlined in sub-subunits 2.5.2.1 through 2.5.2.10 below

2.5.2.1 Hungary   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Hungary.”

2.5.2.2 The Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic (Slovakia)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Slovakia.”

2.5.2.3 The Baltic Republics   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “The Baltic Republics.”

2.5.2.4 Poland   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Poland.”

2.5.2.5 Moldova   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Moldova.”

2.5.2.6 Belarus   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Belarus.”

2.5.2.7 Ukraine   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Ukraine.”

2.5.2.8 Romania   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Romania.”

2.5.2.9 Albania   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Albania.”

2.5.2.10 Bulgaria   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Bulgaria.”

2.5.3 Former Yugoslavia   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Former Yugoslavia.”

2.5.3.1 A Valuable Lesson in Political and Cultural Geography   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “A Valuable Lesson in Political and Cultural Geography.”

2.5.3.2 The Breakup of Former Yugoslavia   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The Breakup of Former Yugoslavia.”

2.5.3.3 The War for Kosovo   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “The War for Kosovo.”

2.5.3.4 Conclusion of Former Yugoslavia   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 2.5.  In particular, focus on the text below the subheading, “Conclusion of Former Yugoslavia.”