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GEOG101: World Regional Geography

Unit 1: Introduction to Geography   Geography, derived from the Greek geo (“Earth”) and graphein (“to write”), examines the physical world, human world, and the spatial relationships between physical and cultural phenomena.  Geographers study the Earth’s physical characteristics, its inhabitants and cultures, phenomena such as climate, and the Earth’s place within the universe.  Geographers also look at how the earth, its climate, and its landscapes are changing due to cultural intervention. 
 
Unit 1 examines the foundational scientific principles of geography.  In this first unit, you will be introduced to the disciplines of geography and their basic components.  You will also learn about critical concepts in the discipline, such as the relationships between people and place, climate change, population increase, urbanization, and globalization.

Unit 1 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 17.75 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 1.1: 4.5 hours ☐    Introduction: 2.75 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 1.1.1: 1.75 hours
 

☐    Subunit 1.2: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3: 7.5 hours ☐    Introduction: 4.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 1.3.4: 2.25 hours

☐    Sub-subunit 1.3.6: 1 hour
 

☐    Subunit 1.4: 2.75 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to:
- Explain the two main branches of geography. - Describe and explain the tools geographers use to study Earth’s surface. - Explain the geographic grid. - Identify the basic geographic realms and their locations. - Discuss the foundational principles of physical geography, population geography, cultural geography, economic geography, and globalization. - Distinguish between the main climate types. - Explain the dynamics of tectonic plates and their relationship to earthquakes and volcanic activity. - Explain the relationship between deforestation and climate change. - Discuss and describe the rain shadow effect. - Discuss the causes and components of climate change. - Explain the demographic transition process.  - Outline the relationship between urbanization and family size. - Interpret a population pyramid to determine population fluctuation. - Distinguish between the concepts of culture and ethnicity. - Identify major world religions and language families. - Explain how the concepts of opportunity and advantage create a stronger rural-to-urban shift and fuel migration in various regions of the world. - Discuss the dynamics of the core-periphery spatial relationship. - Determine whether a country is part of the core or periphery by its respective attributes. - Determine how countries gain national income. - Compare and contrast renewable activities and value-added profit activities.

1.1 Geography Basics   - Activity: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: The World” Link: Sheppard Software’s “Geography Games: The World” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above to be taken to a website where you can test your map skills!  Once at the website, click on “The World” icon.  Next, click on the “Play!” button under “Level L – Tutorial.” 

 When you feel comfortable with your knowledge of the oceans and
continents of the world, go back to “The World” game choices, and
click on the “Play!” button under the “Level 1 – *Beginner*”
heading.  Your goal is to score at least a 70%.  Good luck!  

                                                                                             
    
 This activity should take approximately 15-20 minutes to
complete.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the link above.
  • Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:” “Section 1.1: Geography Basics” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:” “Section 1.1: Geography Basics” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the Chapter 1 introduction and “Section 1.1: Geography Basics.”  At the end of the section, you will find a series of Discussion and Study Questions.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review all of the Study and Discussion Questions and keep these questions in mind as you work through the resources in this subunit.  After reading this text, answer the Discussion and Study Questions. This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 1.1.1 through 1.1.4.
     
    The reading for this subunit provides an introduction to the foundational principles of the major branches of geography, including physical, population, cultural, and economic geography.  In addition, after completing this subunit, you will be able to explain the concept of globalization and how globalization can both positively and negatively affect societies. 
     
    Completing this reading and the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s World Regional Geography: “Course Introduction” Link: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Course Introduction” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and locate the lecture titled, “Course Introduction.”  Click on “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture, and watch the entire lecture for an introduction to the basic elements of geography and an overview of the course.
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take 1 hour to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.1 What Is Geography?   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, pay close attention to the section of text below the heading “What Is Geography” in World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization.  After reading this section, make sure that you are able to explain the two branches of geography: physical geography and human geography.

1.1.1.1 Why Should I Be Interested in Geography?   - Web Media: YouTube: David Lambert’s “Why Should I Be Interested in Geography?” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

1.1.1.2 Physical Landscape   *Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, physical landscape.

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1.1.1.3 Cultural Landscape   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, cultural landscape.

1.1.1.4 Cartography   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, cartography.

1.1.1.5 Geospatial Techniques   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, geospatial techniques.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Penn State University’s “Geospatial Revolution: Trailer” Link: YouTube: Penn State University’s “Geospatial Revolution: Trailer” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and view the short video clip for a brief and entertaining description of geospatial technology and how it is being used in “spatial” fields.
     
    Viewing this video and pausing to take notes should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: Penn State Public Broadcasting’s “Geospatial Revolution: Full Episodes” Link: Penn State Public Broadcasting’s “Geospatial Revolution: Full Episodes” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: There are four full-length “Geospatial Revolution” videos produced by Penn State University.  Please click on the link above, then select the tabs for Episodes 1–4, and view each episode.  The Geospatial Revolution Project is an integrated public media and outreach initiative that focuses on the world of digital mapping and how it changes patterns in thought, behavior, and interaction.  The mission of the Geospatial Revolution Project is to expand public knowledge about the history, applications, and privacy issues of location-based technologies.  Today, geospatial information influences so many different facets of everyday life.  Location-based technologies allow for global knowledge that can certainly enhance our abilities to solve many social and environmental problems around the world.

    Watching all four of these video clips and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.1.1.5.1 Global Positioning System (GPS)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, global positioning system (GPS).

1.1.1.5.2 Geographic Information Systems (GIS)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, geographic information science (GIS).

1.1.1.5.3 Remote Sensing   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, remote sensing.

1.1.2 The Earth and Graticule Location   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading, “The Earth and Graticule Location.”

1.1.2.1 Parallels or Lines of Latitude   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Parallels or Lines of Latitude.”  Make sure to carefully review Figures 1.3 and 1.4.

1.1.2.2 Meridians or Lines of Longitude   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Meridians or Lines of Longitude.”

1.1.2.3 Climate and Latitude   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Climate and Latitude.”

1.1.2.4 Seasons   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Carefully review Figure 1.6 for a visual representation of the seasons.

1.1.2.5 Time Zones   Note: Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Time Zones.”

1.1.3 Regions in Geography   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading “Regions in Geography.”

1.1.3.1 Formal Regions   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Under the heading, “Regions in Geography,” focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, formal regions.

1.1.3.2 Functional Regions   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Under the heading, “Regions in Geography,” focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, functional regions.

1.1.3.3 Vernacular Regions   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Under the heading, “Regions in Geography,” focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, vernacular regions.

1.1.4 World Regional Geography   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.1.  Focus on the text below the heading “World Regional Geography.”  In particular, this reading will define the term “realm” and then provide a quick introduction to all the realms that will be discussed in this class, including the European Realm (Unit 2); the Russian Realm (Unit 3); the North American Realm (Unit 4); the Realm of Middle America (Unit 5); the South American Realm (Unit 6); the Realm of Sub-Saharan Africa (Unit 7); the Realms of North Africa, Middle East, and Central Asia (Unit 8); the Southern Asian Realm (Unit 9); the Eastern Asian Realm (Unit 10); the Realm of Southeast Asia (Unit 11); and the Realms of Australia and the Pacific (Unit 12).

1.2 The Environment and Human Activity   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:” “Section 1.2: The Environment and Human Activity” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:”“Section: 1.2: The Environment and Human Activity” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 1.2.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions.  Then, read the section in its entirety and answer the Discussion and Study Questions as you complete the reading and study the other resources that follow this reading assignment.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 1.2.1 through 1.2.4.
 
The reading provides an introduction to the major concepts of physical geography, including weather and climate, earthquakes, volcanoes, and plate tectonics.  In addition, after completing this subunit, you will be able to discuss the causes and components of climate change including anthropogenic influences to this change.
 
Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Chapter 2: The Changing Global Environment” Link: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Chapter 2: The Changing Global Environment” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lecture titled “04 Chapter 2,” select “View in iTunes” to launch the video, and watch the lecture in its entirety.  This video will introduce you to the changing global environment (including weather, climate, and physical characteristics across the globe).
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to takes notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.1 Climate and Human Habitation   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Climate and Human Habitation.”

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Geography (Introduction): Climate and Vegetation” Link: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Geography (Introduction): Climate and Vegetation” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lecture titled “Geography (Introduction): Climate and Vegetation,” select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture, and watch lecture in its entirety.  This lecture gives a synopsis of climate distribution across the globe.
     
    Watching this lecture (several times as needed) will take less than 5 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.2.1.1 Type A: Tropical or Equatorial Climates   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type A climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type A: Tropical or Equatorial Climates.”

1.2.1.2 Type B: Dry or Arid Climates   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type B climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type B: Dry or Arid Climates.”

1.2.1.3 Type C: Moderate or Temperate Climates   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type C climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type C: Moderate or Temperate Climates.”

1.2.1.4 Type D: Cold or Continental Climates   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type D climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type D: Cold or Continental Climates.”

1.2.1.5 Type E: Polar or Extreme Climates   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type E climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type E: Polar or Extreme Climates.”

1.2.1.6 Type H: Highland Climates   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Study Figure 1.12 to note which geographical locations have Type H climate.  Also, review the brief section of text below the heading, “Type H: Highland Climates.”

1.2.2 Deforestation and Its Associated Problems   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  In particular, focus on the text below the headings, “Deforestation” and “What Are the Problems with Deforestation?”

1.2.2.1 Soil Degradation and Erosion: Laterization   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  In particular, focus on the first few sentences of the section of text below the heading, “What Are the Problems with Deforestation?”

1.2.2.2 Landslides   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, landslides, under the heading, “What Are the Problems with Deforestation?”

1.2.3 Climate Change   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Focus on the text below the heading “Climate Change.” Climate change will be discussed in greater detail in sub-subunits 13.2.4 and 13.2.5.

1.2.4 Tectonic Plates   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.2.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Tectonic Plates.”

1.3 Population and Culture   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:” “Section 1.3: Population and Culture” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:” “Section 1.3: Population and Culture” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 1.3 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions, which can be found at the end of the section.  Answer these questions (and keep these questions in mind) as you read through the text and watch the lectures that are assigned after this reading.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 1.3.1 through 1.3.6. 
 
The reading assignment for this subunit as well as any associated content activities provide an introduction to the major concepts and variables of population geography, including urbanization, culture, ethnicity, language, and religions.
 
Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Geography (Introduction): Population” Link: iTunes U: Indiana University Southeast: Professor Clint Franklin’s “World Regional Geography:” “Geography (Introduction): Population” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above, locate the lecture “Geography (Introduction): Population,” select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture, and watch the entire lecture.  This video introduces various population characteristics that surface across the globe.
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take less than 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Chapter 1: Part 1” Link: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Chapter 1: Part 1” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lecture “Chapter 1: Part 1,” select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture, and watch the entire video.  This lecture introduces the topics of globalization and diversity and further discusses population characteristics across the globe.
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes will take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: YouTube: University of Arizona: Dr. Vincent Del Casino, Jr.’s “Society, Geographic Change and the New Longevity” Link: YouTube: University of Arizona: Dr. Vincent Del Casino, Jr.’s “Society, Geographic Change and the New Longevity” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Click on the link above, and watch the entire video.  In this lecture, Dr. Del Casino Jr. discusses how societal and geographic changes affect life expectancy.  
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.3.1 Demographic Transition   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Demographic Transition.”

1.3.2 Urbanization and Family Size   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Urbanization and Family Size.”

1.3.3 Population Demands   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Population Demands.”

1.3.3.1 Population Pyramids   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, population pyramids.  Study Figure 1.25 for a visual of population pyramids.

1.3.3.2 General Trends in Population Growth   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” focus on the four trends listed (numbered as sub-subunits 1.3.3.2.1 through 1.3.3.2.4 below).

1.3.3.2.1 Rapidly Expanding   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” this is noted as one of the four general trends.  Study Figure 1.25 for a visual image of how this population growth trend appears.

1.3.3.2.2 Expanding   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” this is noted as one of the four general trends.  Study Figure 1.25 for a visual image of how this population growth trend appears.

1.3.3.2.3 Stationary   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” this is noted as one of the four general trends.  Study Figure 1.25 for a visual image of how this population growth trend appears.

1.3.3.2.4 Contracting   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the heading, “Population Demands,” this is noted as one of the four general trends.  Study Figure 1.25 for a visual image of how this population growth trend appears.

1.3.4 Culture and Ethnicity   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Culture and Ethnicity.”

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Chapter 1: Part 2” Link: iTunes U: Binghamton University: Professor Mark Reisinger’s “World Regional Geography:” “Chapter 1: Part 2” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, locate the lecture titled “03Chapter1 Part 2,” select “View in iTunes” to launch the lecture, and view the entire video.  This lecture introduces the topics of culture, language, religion, and economic characteristics across the globe.
     
    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: TED Talks: “Spencer Wells Builds a Family Tree for Humanity” Link: TED Talks: “Spencer Wells Builds a Family Tree for Humanity”(Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch the video.  This lecture will inform you of the ancestry, history, and distribution of human population across the globe.  

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.3.5 Languages of the World   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Languages of the World,” as well as study Figure 1.36.

  • Lecture: TED Talks: “Mark Pagel: How Language Transformed Humanity” Link: TED Talks: “Mark Pagel: How Language Transformed Humanity” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch the entire lecture.  This lecture focuses on the transformation of humanity through language.

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

1.3.5.1 The Nine Dominant Language Families   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Make sure to study the nine dominant language families in Table 1.4.

1.3.5.2 Language Characteristics   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the section titled “Language Characteristics.”

1.3.5.2.1 Accent   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “accent,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

1.3.5.2.2 Creole   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “creole,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

1.3.5.2.3 Dead Language   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “dead language,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

1.3.5.2.4 Dialect   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “dialect,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

1.3.5.2.5 Isolated Language   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “isolated language,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

1.3.5.2.6 Lingua Franca   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “lingua franca,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

1.3.5.2.7 Official Language   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “official language,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

1.3.5.2.8 Pidgin   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “pidgin,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

1.3.5.2.9 Slang   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Review the text after the bolded term, “slang,” in the “Language Characteristics” section.

1.3.6 Religions of the World   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Religions of the World.” Make sure to study Figures 1.27 and 1.28.

1.3.6.1 Universal   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “universal.”

1.3.6.1.1 Christianity   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Note that Christianity makes up 33% of the world’s religions. Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Christianity.

1.3.6.1.2 Islam   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Note that Christianity makes up 21% of the world’s religions. Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Islam.

  • Lecture: TED Talks: “Mustafa Akyol: Faith Versus Tradition in Islam” Link: TED Talks: “Mustafa Akyol: Faith Versus Tradition in Islam” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and view the entire lecture from the Ted Talks series.  In this video, journalist Mustafa Akyol discusses Islam and the connections between traditional cultural practicesand the articles of faith.  Mr. Akyol discusses issues with focusing too much on tradition in Islam and not enough on core beliefs.

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

1.3.6.1.3 Various Forms of Buddhism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Note that approximately 6% of the world population follows a form of Buddhism.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Buddhism

  • Lecture: TED Talks: “Bob Thurman Says We Can Be Buddhas” Link: TED Talks: “Bob Thurman Says We Can Be Buddhas” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch the entire video.  In this lecture, Bob Thurman, who is a Tibetan Monk from the US, talks about some of the basic principles of Buddhism and mass enlightenment.

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.3.6.2 Ethnic   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “ethnic.”

1.3.6.2.1 Judaism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Judaism.

1.3.6.2.2 Shintoism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Shintoism.

1.3.6.2.3 Hinduism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Note that approximately 14% of the world’s population practice Hinduism.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Hinduism.

1.3.6.2.4 Chinese Religions   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Note that Chinese religions, such as Confucianism and Taoism, fall under the category of ethnic religions.

1.3.6.2.4.1 Confucianism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Confucianism.

1.3.6.2.4.2 Taoism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the bulleted point about Taoism.

1.3.6.3 Tribal: Animism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.3.  Under the “Religions of the World” heading, focus on the text surrounding the bolded terms, “tribal” and “animism.”

1.4 Globalization and Development   - Reading: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:” “Section 1.4: Globalization and Development” Link: World Regional Geography: People, Places, and Globalization: “Chapter 1: Introduction to the World:” “Section 1.4: Globalization and Development” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read Section 1.4 in its entirety.  Before you begin the reading and lecture assignments for this subunit, review the Study and Discussion Questions at the end of this reading.  Answer these questions (and keep these questions in mind) as you read through the text and watch the lectures.  This reading covers the topics outlined in sub-subunits 1.4.1 through 1.4.9.
 
This reading provides an introduction to the major concepts of globalization.  Globalization can provide opportunities and advantages for various regions of the world, including increases in national income and value-added profit activities.  However, globalization can also be detrimental to cultural independence.  This subunit explores these concepts, and in future units and subunits, globalization will be a major theme for us to continually reflect upon.
 
Reading and answering the associated Discussion and Study Questions should take you approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes to complete.
 
Terms of Use: This text was adapted by The Saylor Foundation under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License without attribution as requested by the work’s original creator or licensee.

1.4.1 Globalization   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  In particular, focus on the text below the heading, “Globalization.”  Make sure that you can define globalization in your own words.

1.4.1.1 European Colonialism   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  In particular, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “colonialism.”  Make sure to also study Figure 1.30.

  • Reading: The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History: Alfred Crosby’s “The Columbian Exchange” Link: The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History: Alfred Crosby’s “The Columbian Exchange” (HTML)
      
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and read the essay in its entirety.  This reading discusses colonialism’s affect on the development and population patterns of the New World.
     
    This reading should take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.4.1.2 The Rise of Exploration   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the heading “Globalization,” focus on the fourth paragraph that discusses European exploration.

1.4.2 Modern Globalization   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the heading “Globalization,” focus on the fifth paragraph.

1.4.2.1 The Information Age   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the heading “Globalization,” focus on the fifth paragraph and the text surrounding the bolded term, “information age.”

1.4.2.2 Neocolonialism (or Corporate Colonialism)   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the heading “Globalization,” focus on the fifth paragraph and the text surrounding the bolded term, “neocolonialism.”

1.4.3 Opportunity and Advantage   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Opportunity and Advantage.”

1.4.3.1 Rural-to-Urban Shift   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the “Opportunity and Advantage” heading, focus on the paragraph dedicated to rural-to-urban shift.

1.4.3.2 Core-Periphery Spatial Relationship   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the “Opportunity and Advantage” heading, study Figure 1.32 and focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “core-periphery spatial relationship.”

1.4.4 National Income Methods   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading “National Income Methods.”

1.4.4.1 Sustainable Income Models   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the second paragraph below the heading “National Income Methods,” and study Figure 1.34.

1.4.4.2 Value-Added Principles   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the second paragraph below the heading “National Income Methods.”

1.4.4.3 Postindustrial Services   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the fifth paragraph below the heading “National Income Methods.”

1.4.5 National Debt   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading, “National Debt.”  Make sure that you are able to define national debt.

1.4.6 Development and Demographics   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Development and Demographics.”  Study Figure 1.36.

1.4.6.1 Fertility Rate   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the “Development and Demographics” heading, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “fertility rate.”

1.4.6.2 Index of Economic Development   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Under the “Development and Demographics” heading, focus on the text surrounding the bolded term, “index of economic development.”

1.4.7 The Geography of Opportunity   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading, “The Geography of Opportunity.”

  • Lecture: TED Talks: “Parag Khanna Maps the Future of Countries” Link: TED Talks: “Parag Khanna Maps the Future of Countries” (Adobe Flash)
     
    Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch this entire TED Talks lecture regarding the border of countries (past, present, and future) and globalization.

    Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes to complete.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.4.8 Why Societies Collapse   - Lecture: TED Talks: “Jared Diamond on Why Societies Collapse” Link: TED Talks: “Jared Diamond on Why Societies Collapse” (Adobe Flash)
 
Instructions: Please click on the link above, and watch this TED Talk lecture regarding Jared Diamond’s Pulitzer Prize winning theories of why societies collapse.

 Watching this lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 30 minutes to complete.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.4.9 Opportunities in Geography   Note: This topic is covered by the reading assigned below subunit 1.4.  Focus on the text below the heading, “Opportunities in Geography.”