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ENGL403: The Gothic Novel

Unit 3: The Monstrous Other   Frankenstein may be the most famous of the Gothic novels; it has been adapted and reincarnated innumerable times since its initial publication in 1818.  Part of the novel’s popularity relates to its figuration of the monster, an archetype that appears in a number of Gothic novels and has become something of a cultural icon in its various iterations, particularly in recent years, with the fantastic commercial success of vampire-related fiction.  In this unit you will explore the representation of the monster or the “Other” in the Gothic novel, relating it to matters of gender, race, the unknown, and more.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit should take approximately 43 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 21.25 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 21.75 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, the student will be able to: - Identify the origin of and define the term “uncanny” as it relates to Gothic fiction. - Explain the representation of the monster in Shelley’s Frankenstein as “other” in terms of historical developments contemporaneous to the novel’s publication. - Identify and explain the references to the Garden of Eden and the Prometheus myth in Frankenstein. - Outline the origins of the vampire myth in order to determine the implications of its recurrence in popular culture and the Gothic novel in particular. - Discuss the contemporary cultural fears that inform Stoker’s Dracula.

3.1 Frankenstein   - Reading: Project Gutenberg: Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein and University of Pennsylvania: Stuart Curran’s “Major Themes in Frankenstein” Link: Project Gutenberg: Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (HTML) and University of Pennsylvania: Stuart Curran’s “Major Themes in Frankenstein (HTML)

 Also available in:  

[PDF](http://www.idph.com.br/conteudos/ebooks/frankenstein.pdf) (Shelley’s
*Frankenstein*)  

 Instructions: Please read *Frankenstein* over the course of the
unit.  Also, please look over Curran’s “Major Themes in
*Frankenstein.*”  Over the course of the unit, you will want to
return to look more closely at these passages as they relate to the
specific topics.  *Frankenstein* relates the story of a scientist
who learns to create new life, fashioning an individual intended to
be stronger and greater than man.  It has been adapted and
reproduced innumerable times and is often considered the first
science fiction novel.  It may help to review “Reading Questions:
*Frankenstein*” in subunit 3.1.8, and keep them in mind as you read
the novel.  

 Reading these resources should take approximately 10 hours.  

 Terms of Use: *Frankenstein* is available in the public domain. 
Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the
webpage above.

3.1.1 The Uncanny   - Reading: San Diego State University: Dr. Laurel Amtower: Sigmund Freud’s “The Uncanny” and University of Virginia: David Morris’ “Gothic Sublimity” Link: San Diego State University: Dr. Laurel Amtower: Sigmund Freud’s “The Uncanny” (HTML) and University of Virginia: David Morris’ “Gothic Sublimity” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read Sigmund Freud’s “The Uncanny” and then the
excerpt from Morris’s “Gothic Sublimity” for a more explicit
discussion on the connection between the “uncanny” and Gothic
literature.  

 Reading these articles should take approximately 3 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

3.1.2 Body Horror   - Reading: PopMatters: Mikita Brottman’s “Review of The Gothic by Gilda Williams” and Georgia Southern University: Dr. Douglass H. Thomson’s “A Glossary of Literary Gothic Terms” Link: PopMatters: Mikita Brottman’s “Review of The Gothic by Gilda Williams” (HTML) and Georgia Southern University: Dr. Douglass H. Thomson’s “A Glossary of Literary Gothic Terms” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please read this review of Williams’ *The Gothic,*
which touches on the enduring characteristics of the Gothic novel.
 Also read Dr. Thomson’s definitions of “transformation,”
“body-snatching,” and “possession” for a review of different types
of body horror.  

 Reading these articles should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.  The “Glossary of Literary Gothic
Terms” has been reposted by the kind permission of Douglass H.
Thomson from Georgia Southern University and can be viewed in its
original
form [here](http://personal.georgiasouthern.edu/~dougt/goth.html#hau). 
Please note that the material is under copyright and cannot be
reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the
copyright holder.

3.1.3 The Terror of Technology, Simulation, and Doubles   - Reading: University of Virginia: Aija Ozolins’ “Dreams and Doctrines: Dual Strands in Frankenstein” and University of Pennsylvania: Stuart Curran’s “Themes – Doubling” and “Themes – Knowledge” Link: University of Virginia: Aija Ozolins’ “Dreams and Doctrines: Dual Strands in Frankenstein” (HTML) and University of Pennsylvania: Stuart Curran’s “Themes – Doubling” (HTML) and “Themes – Knowledge” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the short excerpt from Ozolins’ “Dreams and
Doctrines,” which discusses the function of the psychological motif
on the double in the novel.  Also, please look at Curran’s article
on the theme of doubling and knowledge, both of which also include
important textual moments about science.  

 Studying these resources should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

3.1.4 Madness and Mental Instability in the Novel   - Reading: University of Virginia: Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar’s The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination and University of Pennsylvania: Stuart Curran’s “Themes – Madness” Link: University of Virginia: Sandra Gilbert and Susan Gubar’s The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination (HTML) and University of Pennsylvania: Stuart Curran’s “Themes – Madness” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the excerpt from *The Madwoman in the Attic* for
a critical discussion of madness in *Frankenstein*.  Also look over
Curran’s site on madness in *Frankenstein*, which includes an index
of useful passages in the novel.  

 Studying these resources should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

3.1.5 Representation of the Monstrous   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Devon Anderson’s “Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein: Creation, Frustration, Fragmentation, Abomination” Link: The Victorian Web: Devon Anderson’s “Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein: Creation, Frustration, Fragmentation, Abomination” (PDF)

 Instructions: Please read this essay for an introduction to the
idea of monstrosity in *Frankenstein*, especially as it pertains to
Gothic body horror.  

 Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Devon Anderson’s piece was published on [The
Victorian Web](http://www.victorianweb.org/), and permission is
granted for use of the materials for scholarly or educational
purposes.  The original version can be found
[here](http://www.victorianweb.org/previctorian/mshelley/anderson.html).

3.1.6 Race and Otherness   - Reading: Mt. Holyoke College’s Questioning Authority: “Elizabeth Young on Frankenstein” and University of Pennsylvania: Stuart Curran’s “Themes – Alienation” and “Themes – Solitude” Link: Mt. Holyoke College’s Questioning Authority: “Elizabeth Young on Frankenstein (HTML) and University of Pennsylvania: Stuart Curran’s “Themes – Alienation” (HTML) and “Themes – Solitude” (HTML)

 Instructions: First, read the interview with Elizabeth Young, in
which she discusses her critical text *Black Frankenstein*.  Also
refer to Curran’s sections on alienation and solitude to understand
the concept of otherness in the novel.  

 Studying these resources should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.
  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Race and Otherness” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Race and Otherness” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please read this article.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

3.1.7 The Figure of Prometheus – Classical Roots and Its Gothic Iteration   - Reading: University of Pennsylvania: Theodore Ziolkowski’s “Science, Frankenstein, and Myth” and Rutgers University: Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Preface to Prometheus Unbound” Link: University of Pennsylvania: Theodore Ziolkowski’s “Science, Frankenstein, and Myth” (HTML) and Rutgers University: Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Preface to Prometheus Unbound (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 [Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=Y8B-ASznbikC&dq=Prometheus+Unbound&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=kek0TMvIDcWblgeL2MzSBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false) (*Prometheus
Unbound*)  

 Instructions: First, read Ziolkowski’s short critical commentary,
which succinctly reviews the implications of the Prometheus myth in
the novel and discusses some other instances of classicism in the
text.  Also read the preface to Shelley’s lyrical drama *Prometheus
Unbound*, which offers his analysis of the importance of the
Prometheus myths in the novel.  

 Reading these resources should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

3.1.8 The Novel in Context: The Influence of the Industrial Revolution   - Reading: University of Pennsylvania: Stuart Curran’s “The Scientific Grounding of Frankenstein” and McGill University: Monique R. Morgan’s “Frankenstein’s Singular Events: Inductive Reasoning, Narrative Technique, and Generic Classification” Link: University of Pennsylvania: Stuart Curran’s “The Scientific Grounding of Frankenstein” (HTML) and McGill University: Monique R. Morgan’s “Frankenstein’s Singular Events: Inductive Reasoning, Narrative Technique, and Generic Classification” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read Curran’s “The Scientific Grounding of
*Frankenstein*,” which discusses science at the time of Shelley’s
writing of *Frankenstein*.  Then read Morgan’s “*Frankenstein’s*
Singular Events” for an in-depth discussion of science and industry
in the novel.  

 Reading these articles and taking notes should take approximately 2
hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.
  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Reading Questions: Frankenstein” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Reading Questions: Frankenstein (PDF)

    Instructions: Please complete this assessment, which is designed to help you think through some of the major themes present in Frankenstein.  When you are done, check your work against The Saylor Foundation’s “Reading Questions: Frankenstein – Guide to Responding” (PDF).

    Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour.

3.2 Dracula   The Victorian Age refers first to the period of time in which Queen Victoria ruled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1837-1901) and second to a set of values associated with her reign.  “Victorian” connotes strict personal morality, particularly in relation to women’s sexual activity and to heterosexuality; the ethical value of hard work; an allegiance to the Church of England as superior to the medieval heritage of the Catholic Church and to the alien and mysterious customs of Judaism; the strict maintenance of the British class system; and the perceived superiority of the Anglo-Saxon race and of Great Britain in particular.  The latter three preceded Victoria’s reign and have already figured in the themes and motivations at work in the first wave of English Gothic novels.  Dracula represents a late-Victorian novel; it plays into England’s fear of cultural and political change – from foreign invasion to the rise of women in the public sphere.

  • Reading: Project Gutenberg: Bram Stoker’s Dracula Link: Project Gutenberg: Bram Stoker’s Dracula (HTML)

    Also available in:
    Google Books

    Instructions: Please read Dracula.  Since the novel is long, please feel free to break up the reading as follows: read Chapters 1-4 during subunit 3.2.1; read Chapters 5-7 during subunit 3.2.2; read Chapters 8-12 during subunit 3.3.3; read Chapters 13-17 during subunit 3.3.4; read Chapters 18-22 during subunit 3.3.5; read Chapters 22-27 during subunit 3.3.6.

    Though Dracula was written well after the period most commonly associated with “The Gothic” (1897 versus 1760s-1820), it is frequently categorized as such, as it includes elements of the unknown, horror-inducing incidents, and the monstrous Other in disguise.

    Reading this novel over the course of this unit should take approximately 10 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Reading Questions: Dracula” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Reading Questions: Dracula (PDF)

    Instructions: Please click on the link above and complete the linked assessment, which is designed to help you think through some of the major themes in Bram Stoker’s Dracula and this unit’s critical readings.  When you are finished, check your work against The Saylor Foundation’s “Reading Questions: Dracula – Guide to Responding” (PDF)

    Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour.

3.2.1 Outside of England: The Exotic and the Foreign in Dracula   - Reading: Romanticism on the Net: Elizabeth Miller’s “Coitus Interruptus: Sex, Bram Stoker, and Dracula” and University of Virginia’s Sublime Anxiety: The Gothic Family and the Outsider: “The Vampire” Link: Romanticism on the Net: Elizabeth Miller’s “Coitus Interruptus: Sex, Bram Stoker, and Dracula” (HTML) and University of Virginia’s Sublime Anxiety: The Gothic Family and the Outsider: “The Vampire” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read Miller’s article for an overview of
critical opinion on *Dracula*, including information on the
historical context of the novel.  Then, look over the University of
Virginia’s exhibit on “The Vampire,” which provides a review of the
vampire myth in numerous cultures.  

 Studying these resources should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.
  • Lecture: University of Virginia: Dr. Stephen Arata and Susan Tyler Hitchcock’s “Frankenstein and Dracula: Separated at Birth – and Not Dead Yet” Link: University of Virginia: Dr. Stephen Arata and Susan Tyler Hitchcock’s “Frankenstein and Dracula: Separated at Birth – and Not Dead Yet” (Flash)

    Instructions: Please listen to this lecture for an overview of the historical context of Dracula and the vampire myth.  The lecture is also an excellent transition from the previous unit on Frankenstein, as it discusses the common theme of monstrosity in both novels.

    Listening to this lecture should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.2 The Figure of the Vampire in 18th-Century England   - Reading: Sheridan Le Fanu’s Carmilla and All Things Dracula: J. Gordon Melton’s “Introduction: Dracula the Text” Link: Sheridan Le Fanu’s Carmilla (PDF) and All Things Dracula: J. Gordon Melton’s “Introduction: Dracula the Text” (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 [The
Gutenberg](http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10007/10007-h/10007-h.htm)[Project](http://www.gutenberg.org/files/10007/10007-h/10007-h.htm)
(HTML)  

 Instructions: First, read Chapters 1-3 of *Carmilla*.  Then, in
Melton’s “Introduction: *Dracula* the Text,” read the information
under the header “Dracula’s Antecedents,” which explicitly connects
Stoker’s novel to other contemporary vampire novels.  On a broader
level, note the connections to other pieces of Gothic fiction
including *Carmilla, The Castle of Otranto,* and *Frankenstein*.  

 Reading these resources should take approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: *Carmilla* is available in the public domain.  Please
respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages
above.

3.2.3 Race, Miscegenation, and Otherness   - Reading: Romanticism on the Net: Diane Long Hoeveler’s “Objectifying Anxieties: Scientific Ideologies in Bram Stoker’s Dracula and The Lair of the White Worm” and Trevor Holmes’ “Becoming-Other: (Dis)Embodiments of Race in Anne Rice’s Tale of the Body Thief” Link: Romanticism on the Net: Diane Long Hoeveler’s “Objectifying Anxieties: Scientific Ideologies in Bram Stoker’s Dracula and The Lair of the White Worm” (HTML) and Trevor Holmes’ “Becoming-Other: (Dis)Embodiments of Race in Anne Rice’s Tale of the Body Thief” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read Hoeveler’s article, focusing on her
invocation of the theme of “otherness” in *Dracula*, especially as
it applies to racial and foreign outsiders.  In Holmes’
“Becoming-Other,” please focus on the idea of Dracula as the
prototype of the vampire as a racial, ethnic “other.”  You may also
want to consult the article later in the unit as you consider
*Dracula*’s legacy in contemporary culture.  

 Reading these articles should take approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

3.2.4 Travel and Movement in the Novel   - Reading: The Norton Anthology of English Literature: “Victorian Imperialism” and Connotations: A Journal for Critical Debate: Eleni Coundouriotis’ “Dracula and the Idea of Europe” Link: The Norton Anthology of English Literature: “Victorian Imperialism” (HTML) and Connotations: A Journal for Critical Debate: Eleni Coundouriotis’ Dracula and the Idea of Europe” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read the short piece on “Victorian Imperialism” for
historical context on movement, travel, and imperialism in Stoker’s
time.  Also, read “*Dracula* and the Idea of Europe” for a more
focused discussion of travel in *Dracula*.  In order to access this
article, please follow the link that reads “Download the PDF of
Volume 3.2.”  The article can be found on pages 143-159.  

 Reading these articles should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

3.2.5 Journaling, Epistolary, Inscription, and Documentation in Dracula   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Dr. Terry Scarborough’s “Science or Séance?: Late-Victorian Science and Dracula’s Epistolary Structure” and All Things Dracula: J. Gordon Melton’s “Introduction: Dracula the Text” Link: The Victorian Web: Dr. Terry Scarborough’s “Science or Séance?: Late-Victorian Science and Dracula’s Epistolary Structure” (HTML) and All Things Dracula: J. Gordon Melton’s “Introduction: Dracula the Text” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the article from The Victorian Web on the
novel’s epistolary structure.  As you read, pay attention to the
construction of an epistolary space in the novel.  Then, read the
section titled “Veiling the Storyteller: Stoker’s ‘Documentary’
Form” on Melton’s page for more information about the narrative
structure in *Dracula*.  

 Reading these articles should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

3.2.6 Issues of Temporality and Time   - Reading: Connotations: A Journal for Critical Debate: Jason Dittmer’s “Dracula and the Cultural Construction of Europe”

Link: *Connotations: A Journal for Critical Debate: *Jason Dittmer’s
[“*Dracula* and the Cultural Construction of
Europe”](http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/nec/dittmer1223.htm)
(HTML)  

 Instructions: Please read Dittmer’s “*Dracula* and the Cultural
Construction of Europe” for a discussion of the creation of a
“timeless” Europe in the novel.  Also, pay attention to the
discussion of Stoker’s concept of backwards and progressive cultural
differences.  As you read, note the mention of other themes in the
novel, including travel, documentary style, and empire.  

 Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.7 The Unknown and the Unrepresentable   - Reading: All Things Dracula: J. Gordon Melton’s “Introduction: Dracula the Text” Link: All Things Dracula: J. Gordon Melton’s “Introduction: Dracula the Text” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the section titled “Ancient Evil vs.
Modern Technology,” which discusses vampires as unfathomable
creatures that contrasted with modern attempts to understand
reality.  Also, please read the section under the header “Appendix:
Christie’s Description of the *Dracula* Manuscript” for a discussion
of Dracula, himself, as a concealed and unknowable character.  

 Reading this section should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.8 The Legacy of the Vampire in Contemporary Culture   - Reading: VampireChronicles.net: Excerpts from Anne Rice’s The Vampire Chronicles Link: VampireChronicles.net: Excerpts from Anne Rice’s The Vampire Chronicles (HTML)

 Instructions: Once on the Vampire Chronicles website, click on
“Books and Quotes” under “Vampires” on the left side of the
webpage.  Then select the link to each book, and review the
quotations from Anne Rice’s novels, which provide a more
contemporary outlook on the vampire myth in modern culture.  

 Reading this excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Web Media: YouTube: VisoTrailers’ “Twilight – Official Trailer” and Hulu: Buffy the Vampire Slayer Link: YouTube: VisoTrailers’ Twilight – Official Trailer” (YouTube) and Hulu: Buffy the Vampire Slayer (Flash)

    Instructions: Please watch the trailer for Twilight, paying attention to the prevalence of Gothic themes in the film.  Also watch a few clips from Buffy the Vampire Slayer.  These will give you a sense of the persistence of the Gothic in today’s culture.

    Watching these clips should take less than 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.