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ENGL204: Cultural and Literary Expression in Modernity

Unit 3: Post-War Disillusion and "The Lost Generation"   In the post-war years, nothing seemed certain:  the old stabilities of empire, religion, and shared social mores seem to have been swept away by the war.  In this unit, we will trace the emergence of new literary forms and styles as authors attempted to come to terms with the seeming chaos and disorder of the 1920s, from the disorienting juxtaposition and dense allusiveness of poetry by T.S. Eliot and Ezra Pound to the intense stream-of-consciousness and temporal complexity of Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse.  Along the way, we will take a look at the era’s culture of excess and exile, typified by the famous expatriate circle that settled in Paris in the 1920s and included such prominent figures as Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Gertrude Stein.  

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit will take you about 26 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 3.5: 2 hours

☐    Subunit 3.6: 8 hours

☐    Subunit 3.6.1: 3 hours

☐    Subunit 3.6.2: 1 hour

☐    Subunit 3.6.3: 4 hours

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Identify and explain the stylistic, thematic, and conceptual features of the poetry of T.S. Eliot, W.B. Yeats, and W. H. Auden.
  • Provide an account of the emergence and development of jazz during the modern era.
  • Explain the phenomenon of American literary ex-patriotism and identify the elements of this literary moment in the work of, among other writers, Ernest Hemingway.
  • Identify the differences and similarities between a number of women writers from this period, including Gertrude Stein and Virginia Woolf.

3.1 Spiritual Wasteland and the Death of Religion   3.1.1 Religion in the Post-War World   - Reading: Aftermathwww1.com: Mike Roden’s “Introduction” Link: Aftermathwww1.com: Mike Roden’s “Introduction” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of this webpage introducing the aftermath of World War I.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

3.1.2 The Decay of Culture and Aspects of Religious Doubt in T.S. Eliot’s “The Waste Land”   - Reading: T.S. Eliot’s “The Waste Land” Link:  T.S. Eliot’s “The Waste Land” (PDF)

 Also available in:  
 [PDF](http://www2.hn.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/tseliot.htm)  
 [eText Format for the
Kindle](http://www.amazon.com/Works-T-S-Eliot-Writings-ebook/dp/B002ZCXTM2/ref=sr_1_4?ie=UTF8&m=AG56TWVU5XWC2&s=digital-text&qid=1278955320&sr=1-4)
(Available for Free)  

 Instructions: Please read the entirety of Eliot’s poem.  To view
the poem in another PDF format, please follow the "PDF" link above;
select the link "The Waste Land" below the disclaimer.  As you read
this poem, consider the ways in which it creates a sense of the
post-WWI mentality.  What features of the poem contribute to that
mentality?  

 Terms of Use:  The material above is available for viewing in the
Public Domain. 

3.1.3 Stylistic Features of T.S. Eliot’s “The Waste Land”: Juxtaposition, Allusion, and Collage   - Reading: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Modern American Poetry’s “On The Waste Land” (Readings of the poem by Cleanth Brooks, Joseph Frank, Grover Smith, Stephen Spender, Eloise Knapp Hay, Michael H. Levinson, Calvin Bedient, John Xiros Cooper, Louis Menand, Carol Christ, Michael North, Margot Norris, and Tim Dean) Link: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Modern American Poetry's “On The Waste Land” (Readings of the poem by Cleanth Brooks, Joseph Frank, Grover Smith, Stephen Spender, Eloise Knapp Hay, Michael H. Levinson, Calvin Bedient, John Xiros Cooper, Louis Menand, Carol Christ, Michael North, Margot Norris, and Tim Dean)(HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entirety of Modern American Poetry’s collection of essays “On The Waste Land.”
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.1.4 Representations of the Modern Metropolis in T.S. Eliot’s “The Waste Land”   - Reading: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Modern American Poetry’s excerpt from Jean-Michel Rabaté’s The Ghosts of Modernity in “On the Composition of The Waste Land” Link: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Modern American Poetry’s excerpt from Jean-Michel Rabaté’s The Ghosts of Modernity in “On the Composition of The Waste Land (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read only the excerpt from Rabaté’s The Ghosts of Modernity in Modern American Poetry’s “On the Composition of The Waste Land.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2 Marxism, Fascism, and the Political Realities of the Interwar Years   3.2.1 The Frankfurt School on Aesthetics and Politics   - Reading: Marxists.org: Theodor Adorno’s and Max Horkheimer’s “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception” and Soundscapes: Theodor Adorno’s “Culture Industry Reconsidered” Links: Marxists.org: Theodor Adorno’s and Max Horkheimer’s “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception” (HTML) and Soundscapes: Theodor Adorno’s “Culture Industry Reconsidered” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of Adorno’s and Horkheimer’s famous essay.  Please use Adorno’s “Culture Industry Reconsidered” to make sense of and understand better Adoro’s and Horkheimer’s essay on “The Culture Industry.”
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyrights and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

3.2.2 W.B. Yeats’ “The Second Coming” and the Sense of the End of an Era   - Reading: Yeatsvision.com: W.B. Yeats’ “The Second Coming” Link: Yeatsvision.com: W.B. Yeats' “The Second Coming” (HTML)

 Instructions:  Please read the entirety of Yeats’ poem as well as
the accompanying introductory reading of the text provided by
yeatsvision.com.  To view the poem in PDF format, please follow the
"PDF" link above; after the introductory notes, click on the green
box "Sample Reading" to open a brief biography of Yeats and the text
of "The Second Coming."  

 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.3 W.H. Auden: Elements of Post-War Anxiety and Guilt   - Reading: University of Toronto: W. H. Auden’s “Paysage Moralise” Link: University of Toronto: W.H. Auden's "Paysage Moralise"  (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of Auden’s sestina “Paysage Moralise”—among other things, a meditation on the traumas associated with the Second World War.  
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.3 “The Lost Generation”   3.3.1 An Introduction to Jazz   - Web Media: YouTube: Dr. Gordon Vernick of Georgia State University: Jazz Insights--"What is Jazz?" Links: YouTube: Dr. Gordon Vernick of Georgia State University: Jazz Insights--"What is Jazz?" (YouTube)

 Instructions: Please listen to What is Jazz? by Dr. Gordon Vernick
of Georgia State Unversity. He speaks briefly of the history of
Jazz, attempts to define the genre and discusses "improvisation" and
the ever-changing landscape of Jazz since its inception (5 minutes).
As you listen to the selections of jazz provided within the podcast,
consider the ways in which modern jazz music resembles some of the
modern poetry that you have read thus far in the course. You may
wish to visit other podcasts within this same series, Jazz Insights,
to learn more about specific Jazz musicians.  
    
 Terms of Use: This material is reposted by permission from Dr.
Gordon Vernick, and it was produced by WMLB 1690 Atlanta "Voice of
the Arts."  The original version can be found
[here](http://itunes.apple.com/us/itunes-u/jazz-insights-media/id405935692).

3.3.2 The American Expatriates: A Culture of Exile and Excess   - Reading: British Library: “Lost Generation” Link: British Library: "Lost Generation" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of the British Library’s piece on the “Lost Generation.”
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

3.4 Ernest Hemingway   3.4.1 The Loss of Optimism and Innocence in Ernest Hemingway’s Farewell to Arms   - Reading: Poetry Foundation: “Ernest M. Hemingway 1899-1961” Link: Poetry Foundation: “Ernest M. Hemingway 1899-1961” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of the Poetry Foundations Biography of Ernest Hemingway.  Pay particular attention to the mention of A Farewell to Arms.  You may also wish to click on the “Poems, Articles and More” tab after you have read this biography.  The tab “Poems, Articles and More” can be found at the top center of the page, to the right of the “Biography” tab.  This optional additional material includes selections of Hemingway’s poems.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 
  • Web Media: Internet Archives: A Farewell to Arms (1932) Link: Internet Archives: A Farewell to Arms (Adobe Flash or mp4)

    Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this 1932 classical cinematic rendition of Ernest Hemingway’s Farewell to Arms (1 hour 18 minutes), which was directed by Frank Borzage.  Make certain to note the disillusionment that Frederick feels in the movie.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

3.4.2 Ernest Hemingway on the Role of the Writer: Nobel Prize for Literature Acceptance Speech   - Web Media: John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum’s Hemingway Archive: Ernest Hemingway’s Acceptance Speech for the Nobel Prize Banquet Link:  John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum’s Hemingway Archive:  Ernest Hemingway’s Acceptance Speech for the Nobel Prize Banquet (Media Viewer)
 
Instructions: Please click on the hyperlink above, and listen to the entirety of Hemingway’s acceptance speech written for the Nobel Prize Banquet (2:10 minutes).  Hemingway won the Nobel Prize for Literature for The Old Man and the Sea.  He did not attend the banquet.  His remarks were read at the banquet by Ambassador John Cabot.  This file is a recording of Hemingway himself reading the acceptance speech.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.4.3 The Great Depression and Conditions of Economic Crisis   - Reading: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Modern American Poetry’s “About the Great Depression” Link: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Modern American Poetry's “About the Great Depression” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entirety of Modern American Poetry’s introduction to the Great Depression.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.5 New Frontiers in Form   3.5.1 Gertrude Stein’s Experimental Form in Tender Buttons   - Reading: Bartleby.com: Gertrude Stein’s “Objects” Link: Bartleby.com: Gertrude Stein's “Objects” (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the entirety of Bartleby’s version of
Stein’s “Objects” from her *Tender Buttons. *  
    
 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.5.2 The Relationship between Visual and Literary Arts: Stein’s Poetry and Cubist Art   - Reading: Poetry Foundation: “Gertrude Stein 1874-1946” Link: Poetry Foundation “Gertrude Stein 1874-1946” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of the Poetry Foundations Biography of Gertrude Stein.  Please note the parallels between cubist art and Stein’s poetic output.  For instance, W.G. Rogers comments on one of her poems by writing: "Tender Buttons is to writing . . . exactly, what cubism is to art."  You may also wish to click on the “Poems, Articles and More” tab after you have read this biography.  The tab “Poems, Articles and More” can be found at the top center of the page, to the right of the “Biography” tab.  This optional additional material includes selections of her poems, articles about her and her poetry as well as streaming videos and podcasts that relate to Gertrude Stein and her importance as a modernist poet.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above. 
  • Reading: The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: “Gertrude Stein, 1905-6” Link: The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History: “Gertrude Stein, 1905-6” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please look at the oil on canvas painting of Gertrude Stein by Pablo Picasso.  Then read the article that accompanies the painting.  Picasso completed this painting as he made his artistic transition to cubism, as you will read about in the short article.  Ponder the similarities between the aesthetic vision of Stein and Picasso.  Also, make sure you note Picasso’s famous reply to someone’s criticism of the painting that Stein did not look like her portrait.  Picasso replied, "She will."

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

3.5.3 Excerpts from David Jones’ In Parenthesis: The Blurring of Genre and the Impact of Form   - Reading: Brigham Young University: Excerpts from David Jones’s "In Parenthesis" Link: Brigham Young University: Excerpts from David Jones’s In Parenthesis (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of the introduction to and selection from Jones’s work.  In Parenthesis is David Jones’s modernist adaptation of the epic.  Written in poetic prose, its narrative centers upon ordinary infantrymen in the British army during WWI.
 
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3.6 Virginia Woolf   3.6.1 Woolf’s “A Room of One’s Own” and Women in the Early 20th Century   - Reading: Virginia Woolf’s essay “A Room of One’s Own” Link: Virginia Woolf's essay “A Room of One’s Own” (PDF)

 Instructions:  Please read the entirety of Woolf’s essay (70
pages).  
    
 Terms of Use:  The material above is available for viewing in the
Public Domain. 

3.6.2 The Bloomsbury Group and Elitist Literary Culture   - Reading: The Tate Museum: “Archive Journeys: Bloomsbury” Link:  The Tate Museum: “Archive Journeys: Bloomsbury” (HTML)

 Instructions:  Please explore the website, and read the entirety of
the tabs “Timeline,” “Biographies,” “Bloomsbury Group,” “Art” and
“Further Information.”  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

3.6.3 Stream of Consciousness and Stylistic Innovation in Virginia Woolf’s To the Lighthouse   - Reading: University of Adelaide: Virginia Woolf’s "To the Lighthouse" Link: University of Adelaide: Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse (HTML)

 Instructions: Please click on the links “The Window,” “Time
Passes,” and “The Lighthouse” under the Table of Contents, and read
each section of The University of Adelaide’s version of Woolf’s
novel.  

 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.