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ENGL204: Cultural and Literary Expression in Modernity

Unit 2: The Outbreak of War   In this unit, we will acquaint ourselves with the historical and social contexts of World War I and then explore the ways in which literary forms developed to make sense of the unanticipated violence and destruction of the first mass war of the 20th century as well as the seeming loss of the old European order.  We will compare and contrast the varied poems of this period, identifying their affiliations with certain traditions and their experimentation with new styles and themes, paying particular attention to the ways in which poets used the genre to process the violence of war.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit will take you approximately 16 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 2.4: 4 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, students will be able to:

  • Explain and identify the major tenets, preoccupations, and defining characteristics of a number of sub-movements within modern art and literature including Imagism, Vorticism, the Avant-Garde, Futurism, Cubism, and Dadaism.
  • Account for and explain the significance of the effect of the Great War on modern consciousness, subjectivity, and aesthetics.
  • Compare and contrast Edwardian and Georgian England and account for the similarities and differences between the early and late War poets.

2.1 “On Or about December 1910, the World Changed”: Historical Contexts   2.1.1 Edwardian England (1901-1910)   - Reading: PBS: “Introduction: The Edwardian Era (1901-1919),” “Edwardian Life: Royalty and Empire,” “Edwardian Life: Politics,” “Edwardian Life: The Suffragettes,” and “Edwardian Life: Timeline 1905-1914” Links:  PBS: “Introduction:  The Edwardian Era (1901-1919)” (HTML), “Edwardian Life:  Royalty and Empire” (HTML), “Edwardian Life:  Politics” (HTML), “Edwardian Life:  The Suffragettes” (HTML), and “Edwardian Life:  Timeline 1905-1914” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on each link above, and read the entirety of each webpage describing and/or detailing different aspects of Edwardian England.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyrights and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

2.1.2 Georgian England (1910-1914)   - Reading: The Royal Household’s “George V” Link: The Royal Household’s "George V" (HTML)

 Instructions: Please read the entirety of each webpage describing
and/or detailing different aspects of Georgian England.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyrights and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.1.3 World War I (1914-1918)   - Reading: BBC: Dr. Gary Sheffield’s “The Origins of World War One,” Dr. Stephen Badsey’s “The Western Front and the Birth of Total War,” Dr. Joanna Bourke’s “Shell Shock During World War One,” and Dr. Ruth Henig’s “Versailles and Peacemaking” Links:  BBC:  Dr. Gary Sheffield’s“The Origins of World War One” (HTML), Dr. Stephen Badsey’s “The Western Front and the Birth of Total War” (HTML), Dr. Joanna Bourke’s“Shell Shock During World War One” (HTML), and Dr. Ruth Henig’s “Versailles and Peacemaking”(HTML)
 
Instructions: Please click on each link above, and read the entirety of each respective piece concerning a different aspect of the Great War.  Consider how World War I undermines the previous political organization of Edwardian and Georgian England.  Also, investigate how technological advances contributed to the unique devastation of “The War to End All Wars.”
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyrights and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

2.2 Experimental Poetics in the Early 20th Century   2.2.1 Imagism and Challenges to Conventional Modes of Representation   - Reading: University of Pennsylvania: Dr. Al Filreis’ “Imagism” and Bartleby.com: Ezra Pound’s “In a Station of the Metro” Links: University of Pennsylvania: Dr. Al Filreis' “Imagism” (HTML) and Bartleby.com: Ezra Pound's "In a Station of the Metro" (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 [eText format on the
Kindle](http://www.amazon.com/Station-Metro-Shmoop-Poetry-ebook/dp/B002VIAC2K/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&m=AG56TWVU5XWC2&s=digital-text&qid=1278948747&sr=1-1)
(Available for Purchase for $1.56)  
    
 Instructions: Please read the entirety of Dr. Filreis’ introduction
to “imagism” and Bartleby’s version of Pound’s imagist poem.  
    
 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyrights and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

2.2.2 Introduction to Erich Auerbach’s Mimesis and Changing Conceptualizations of Reality   - Reading: Princeton University Press: Edward Said’s “Introduction to the Fiftieth Anniversary Edition [of Erich Auerbach’s Mimesis]” Link: Princeton University Press: Edward Said's “Introduction to the Fiftieth-Anniversary Edition [of Erich Auerbach’s Mimesis]” (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 [PDF](http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/i50.html)  

 Instructions: Please read the entirety of Said’s introduction to
Auerbach’s famous text.  To view this document in PDF format, please
select the link just above the text of the introduction.  As you
read Said’s introduction to Auerbach’s text, consider the ways in
which Auerbach’s work illuminates our course’s primary texts.  

 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

2.2.3 Ezra Pound and the Luminous Detail—Pound’s Imagist Poems   - Reading: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Modern American Poetry—Clive Wilmer’s “Pound’s Life and Career” and Bartleby.com: Ezra Pound’s “Greek” Links: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Modern American Poetry—Clive Wilmer’s "Pound's Life and Career"(HTML) and Bartleby.com: Ezra Pound's “Greek”(HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of both Modern American Poetry’s version of Wilmer’s piece on Pound as well as Pound’s imagist poem.  Consider how Pound offers an example of imagist poetry.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyrights and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

2.2.4 Comparison of Imagism to Georgian Poetic Traditions (Review of Poems by Walter de la Mare)   - Reading: Grand Valley State University: Dr. Michael Webster’s “Poetic Modes in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century” and Poetry X.com: Walter de la Mare’s “The Truants” Links: Grand Valley State University: Dr. Michael Webster's “Poetic Modes in the Late 19th and Early 20th Century” (HTML) and PoetryX.com: Walter de la Mare's “The Truants” (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of Dr. Webster’s piece on poetic modes as well as the entirety of de la Mare’s poem for an example of the Georgian poetic tradition.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyrights and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

2.2.5 Wyndham Lewis and Vorticism   - Reading: Vorticism.co.uk: “Before Vorticism,” “About Vorticism: Introduction,” and “The Rebel Art Centre”; Universidad de la Rioja: “Introduction: Wyndham Lewis, The Listener, and the Institutions”; and The Nasher Museum of Art: “The Vorticists: Rebel Artists in London and New York, 1914-18” Link: Vorticism.co.uk: "Before Vorticism" (HTML), "About Vorticism: Introduction" (HTML), "The Rebel Art Centre" (HTML); Universidad de la Rioja: “Introduction: Wyndham Lewis, The Listener, and the Institutions” (HTML); and The Nasher Museum of Art: “The Vorticists: Rebel Artists in London and New York, 1914-18” (HTML)

 Instructions:  Please click on each link above, and read the
entirety of each respective webpage.   
    
 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyrights and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

2.3 The Experience of War: Violence, Memory, and Art   2.3.1 The Horrors of Modern Trench Warfare   - Reading: 1914-1918.net’s “In the Trenches” Link:  1914-1918.net’s “In the Trenches” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please scroll down and read the entirety of this explication of trench warfare during the Great War.
 
About the Link:  1914-1918.net is a website dedicated to the history of World War I. 
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.3.2 Modern Poetry and Its Relationship to Traditional Poetry   - Lecture: Yale University: Dr. Langdon Hammer’s “Introduction to Modern Poetry" Link: Yale University: Dr. Langdon Hammer’s “Introduction to Modern Poetry" (YouTube)

 Also available in:  
 [HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or
QuickTime](http://oyc.yale.edu/english/engl-310/lecture-1)  
    
 Instructions: Please watch the entirety of Dr. Hammer’s lecture
online (about 47 minutes) by clicking on the hyperlink to the video
lecture and then clicking on the play tool to begin the lecture.    
    
 Terms of Use: Langdon Hammer, Modern Poetry (Yale University: Open
Yale Courses), <http://oyc.yale.edu> (Accessed February 22, 2011). 
License: [Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/).  The
original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/english/engl-310/lecture-1).

2.3.3 Early WWI Poetry and the Jingoist’s Spirit: Poems of John McCrae and Rupert Brooke   - Reading: Bartleby.com John McCrae’s “In Flanders Fields” and Rupert Brooke’s “Peace,” “The Dead,” and “The Soldier” Links:  Bartleby.com John McCrae's "In Flanders Fields" (HTML) and Rupert Brooke’s “Peace” (HTML), “The Dead” (HTML), and “The Soldier” (HTML)

 Also available in:  

 (McCrae)  
 [PDF](http://www.pinkmonkey.com/dl/library1/digi156.pdf)   
 [eText format for Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=Hgk1AAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=John+McCrae+In+Flanders+Fields&hl=en&ei=4Tk7TIOEJcH98AaerJWnBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false)
(Available for Free)  
 [eText format on the
Kindle](http://www.amazon.com/Flanders-Fields-Other-McCrae-ebook/dp/B001FWZ2N2/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&m=AG56TWVU5XWC2&s=digital-text&qid=1278949942&sr=1-1)
(Available for Purchase for $0.99)  

 (Brooke)  
 "Peace"  
 [eText Format for Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=ZAVHAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA12&dq=rupert+brooke+peace&hl=en&ei=jTs7TMzpHcOB8gaonKymBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false)
(Available for Free)  
 "The Dead"  
 [eText Format for Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=ZAVHAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA12&dq=rupert+brooke+peace&hl=en&ei=jTs7TMzpHcOB8gaonKymBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false)
(Available for Free)  
 "The Soldier"  
 [PDF](http://www.pinkmonkey.com/dl/library1/bu1.pdf)  
 [eText Format for Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=ZAVHAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA12&dq=rupert+brooke+peace&hl=en&ei=jTs7TMzpHcOB8gaonKymBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false)
(Available for Free)  

 Instructions: Please click on each link above, and read the
entirety of McCrae’s poem and Brooke’s selected poems.  

 Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyrights and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

2.3.4 Late WWI Poetry and the Loss of Faith in the Empire: Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen   - Reading: Bartleby.com Siegfried Sassoon’s “To Victory,” “A Mystic as Soldier,” “To His Dead Body,” “Arms and the Man,” and “Before the Battle” as well as Wilfred Owen’s “Arms and the Boy,” “Anthem for Doomed Youth,” and “Dulce et Decorum est” Links:  Bartleby’s version of Siegfried Sassoon’s “To Victory” (HTML), “A Mystic as Soldier”(HTML), “To His Dead Body” (HTML), “Arms and the Man” (HTML), and “Before the Battle” (HTML)

 All links also available in:  
 [PDF](http://www.poemhunter.com/siegfried-sassoon/)  
 [eText Format on Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=s1RbAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA17&dq=Siegfried+Sassoon+%E2%80%9CTo+Victory,%E2%80%9D&hl=en&ei=bEw7TOfxHJDqnQeRzIzvBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false)
(Available for Free)  

 as well as Wilfred Owen’s [“Arms and the
Boy”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Arms-and-the-Boy.pdf) (PDF),
[“Anthem for Doomed
Youth”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Anthem-for-Doomed-Youth.pdf) (PDF),
and [“Dulce et Decorum
est”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Dulce-et-Decorum-est.pdf) (PDF)  

 All Links also available on:  

[PDF](http://www2.hn.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/owen/Wilfred-Owen-Poems.pdf)  

 Instructions: Please click on the title of each poem above, and
read each respective poem in its entirety.  Please take note of the
change in tone that you recognize in these poems when compared to
the poems from the previous section’s readings.  To access the PDF
e-book of Sassoon's poems, follow the link above; to the right of
the poet's name, next the PDF icon, select the link "146 poems of
Siegfried Sassoon."  To access the PDF e-book of Owen's poems,
follow the link above; select one of the links following the
disclaimer.  

 Terms of Use:  The articles above "Arms and the Boy", "Anthem for
the Doomed Youth", and "Dulce et Decorum est" are available for
viewing in the Public Domain.  Please respect the copyright and
terms of use on the webpage above.

2.3.5 Theory Capsule: Lecture on the Relationship between Poetry, War, and Memory   - Lecture: Yale University: Dr. Langdon Hammer’s Lecture on “World War I Poetry in England” Link: Yale University: Dr. Langdon Hammer’s Lecture on “World War I Poetry in England” (YouTube)

 Available in:  
 [HTML, Adobe Flash, Mp3 or
QuickTime](http://oyc.yale.edu/english/engl-310/lecture-7)  

 Instructions:  Please watch the entirety of Dr. Hammer’s lecture
online (about 52 minutes) by clicking on the hyperlink to the video
lecture and then clicking on the play tool to begin the lecture.    
    
 Terms of Use: Langdon Hammer, Modern Poetry (Yale University: Open
Yale Courses), <http://oyc.yale.edu> (Accessed February 22, 2011). 
License: [Creative Commons BY-NC-SA
3.0](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/us/).  The
original version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/english/engl-310/lecture-7).

2.3.6 Explorative Lecture on Wilfred Owen   - Web Media: YouTube: Voices Education Project’s Excerpts from Voices in Wartime Link: YouTube: Voices Education Project’s Excerpts from Voices in Wartime  (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Please watch the entirety of this excerpt on the life and work of Wilfred Owen from the documentary film Voices in Wartime (about 7 minutes).
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above. 

2.4 The Birth of the Avant-Garde   2.4.1 What Is the Avant-Garde?   - Reading: Presbyterian College’s Introduction to “The Avant-Garde Movement” The Saylor Foundation does not yet have materials for this portion of the course. If you are interested in contributing your content to fill this gap or aware of a resource that could be used here, please submit it here.

[Submit Materials](/contribute/)

2.4.2 BLAST and the Vorticist Legacy   - Reading: Vorticism.co.uk: “BLAST” (HTML) and Brown University and the University of Tulsa: The Modernist Journals Project’s version of BLAST (No. 1) Link: Vorticism.co.uk: "BLAST" (HTML) and Brown University and the University of Tulsa: The Modernist Journals Project’s version of BLAST (No. 1) (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the Vorticism.co.uk article on “BLAST.”  Then, using the scrolling tool that is embedded within the webpage, please explore the Modernist Journals Project’s electronic copy of Lewis’ BLAST, the journal of the Vorticist movement. Click on the thumbnails that you find to go to a specific page of BLAST.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

2.4.3 Filippo Marinetti and Futurism: The Intersection of Art and Politics   - Reading: University of Pennsylvania: Dr. Jim English’s version of Filippo Marinetti’s “The Joy of Mechanical Force” and “Futuristic Manifesto” Link: University of Pennsylvania: Dr. Jim English's version of Filippo Marinetti's“The Joy of Mechanical Force”and“Futuristic Manifesto”(HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entirety of Dr. English’s version of both of Marinetti’s works. 
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4.4 Dadaism and Its Politics   - Reading: University of Pennsylvania: Dr. Jim English’s version of Tristan Tzara’s “Dadaism” Link: University of Pennsylvania: Dr. Jim English’s version of Tristan Tzara’s“Dadaism” (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read the entirety of Dr. English’s version of the famous manifesto of the Dadaist movement by Romanian artist Tristan Tzara.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

2.4.5 Cubism in the Visual Arts: Images by Pablo Picasso   - Reading: Robinurton.com: Robin Urton’s “Cubism” Link: Robinurton.com: Robin Urton’s “Cubism" (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read the entirety of Robin Urton’s introduction to Picasso and view Picasso’s various artworks embedded in the webpage.
 
Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: YouTube: Philadelphia Museum of Art: Michael Taylor’s “Picasso and the Avant-Garde in Paris” Link: YouTube: Philadelphia Museum of Art: Michael Taylor’s “Picasso and the Avant-Garde in Paris” (YouTube)
     
    Instructions: Please view the entirety of Michael Taylor’s lecture on “Picasso and the Avant-Garde in Paris” (2:39 minutes).
     
    Terms of Use:  Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.