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ENGL203: Cultural and Literary Expression in the 18th and 19th Centuries

Unit 4: The Victorian Period   We will begin by tracing the chronological arc of the Victorian Period - from early socio-economic unrest to the height of the British Empire and on to the erosion of Victorian values at the end of the century. We will then turn to literature from the period, situating major texts within the dynamic range of attitudes that accompanied the period’s historical developments, while attempting to define some of the period’s principal characteristics. In reading authors such as Charles Dickens, Charlotte Brontë, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, and Alfred Lord Tennyson, we will explore the socio-economic transformations brought about by the rise of industrial capitalism, shifting ideas about gender, the influence of Britain’s expanding empire, and the formal innovations and challenges these and other authors produced in responding to their age.**

Unit 4 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 30.75 hours.

☐    Subunit 4.1: 9.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 4.1.1: 4 hours

      ☐    Subunit 4.1.2: 2 hours

      ☐    Subunit 4.1.3: 0.75 hours

      ☐    Subunit 4.1.4: 2.75 hours

☐    Subunit 4.2: 11.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 4.2.1: 5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 4.2.2: 6.5 hours

☐    Subunit 4.3: 9.75 hours

      ☐    Subunit 4.3.1: 3.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 4.3.2: 3 hours

      ☐    Subunit 4.3.3: 2 hours

      ☐    Subunit 4.3.4: 1.25 hours

Unit4 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - identify the radical historical changes that occurred during the Victorian period;
  - explain how the title character in Brontë’s Jane Eyre reflects the problems that working class Victorian women faced;
  - describe the effects of changes in the publishing industry on the structure of the Victorian novel;
  - compare the treatment of female characters in Gothic novels with that of female characters in Victorian novels and poetry;
  - compare the themes of the picturesque and the imagination in Victorian poetry with the use of these same themes in Romantic poetry;
  - define and apply the term dramatic monologue; and
  - explain the use of sound as a poetic device in Hopkins’s poetry.

4.1 Victorian Society   4.1.1 Victorianism: The Middle Class, Chartism, and Political and Social Change   - Lecture: Yale University: John Merriman’s “Lecture 9: Middle Classes,” “Lecture 11: Why No Revolution in 1848 in Britain,” and “Lecture 12: Nineteenth-Century Cities” Link: Yale University: John Merriman’s “Lecture 9: Middle Classes” (HTML) (Mp3) (QuickTime) (Flash), “Lecture 11: Why No Revolution in 1848 in Britain” (HTML) (Mp3) (QuickTime) (Flash), and “Lecture 12: Nineteenth-Century Cities” (HTML) (Mp3) (QuickTime) (Flash)
 
Instructions: Watch these three lectures from John Merriman’s “European Civilization, 1648 - 1945” course at Yale University for an overview of the social and political changes that marked the 19th century in Britain and Europe.

 Watching these video lectures and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 3 hours.  

 Terms of Use: These resources are licensed under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). These
resources are attributed to Yale University and John Merriman, and
the original versions can be
found [here](http://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-202/lecture-9), [here](http://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-202/lecture-11),
and [here](http://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-202/lecture-12),
respectively.
  • Reading: The Victorian Web: George P. Landow’s “Victorian and Victorianism” Link: The Victorian Web: George P. Landow’s “Victorian and Victorianism” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this article for an introduction to some of the features of the culture of Victorian society.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The Victorian Web article above has been reposted by the kind permission of George P. Landow from Brown University, and it can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • Reading: Masterworks of British Literature’s “Victorian Era, 1830-1901” Link: Masterworks of British Literature’s “Victorian Era, 1830-1901 (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read this short overview of the literature of the Victorian era for a  further introduction to the period.
     
    Reading this webpage should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Thomas Carlyle’s Excerpt from *Past and Present* Link: Thomas Carlyle’s Excerpt from Past and Present (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this excerpt from Thomas Carlyle’s book, Past and Present. Carlyle was a central literary figure of the 19th century, bridging the Romantic and Victorian periods. In Past and Present, he reflects on the transformation of British society brought about through capitalism, industrialization, urbanization, and the expansion of democracy, changes he largely sees in a negative light.

    Reading this excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  

4.1.2 The Expansion of the Empire and British Missionaries   - Reading: Yale University: John Merriman’s “Imperialists and Boy Scouts” Link: Yale University: John Merriman’s “Imperialists and Boy Scouts” (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 [Mp3, QuickTime,
Flash](http://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-202/lecture-15)  

 Instructions: Watch this video lecture for an overview of
development and culture of imperialism in 19<sup>th</sup>-century
Britain and Europe  

 Watching this video lecture and pausing to take notes should take
approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to Yale University and John Merriman, and the original
version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-202/lecture-15).
  • Reading: The Victorian Web: David Cody’s “The British Empire” Link: The Victorian Web: David Cody’s “The British Empire” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article for a brief overview of the increase in imperial thought in the 19th century.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Thomas Macaulay’s Excerpt from *Minute on Indian Education* Link: Thomas Macaulay’s Excerpt from Minute on Indian Education (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Macaulay’s famous argument for a kind of cultural colonization.

    Reading this excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read Kipling’s famous poem, which articulates the imperial project in terms of the white man’s burden.

    Studying this poem should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: “The White Man’s Burden” is in the public domain.

4.1.3 Religious Debate at Home: Divisions in the Church and the Rise of Science   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Aileen Fyfe’s “Victorian Science and Religion,” John van Wyhe’s “Evolution, Progress, and Natural Laws,” Josef L. Altholz’s “The Warfare of Conscience with Theology,” and George P. Landow’s “Introduction to Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species Link: The Victorian Web: Aileen Fyfe’s “Victorian Science and Religion” (HTML), John van Wyhe’s “Evolution, Progress, and Natural Laws” (HTML) Josef L. Altholz’s “The Warfare of Conscience with Theology” (HTML), and George P. Landow’s “Introduction to Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species (HTML)

 Instructions: First, read “Victorian Science and Religion.”  Then,
read “Evolution, Progress, and Natural Laws.” Finally, read “The
Warfare of Conscience with Theology” and “Introduction to Darwin’s
*On the Origin of Species*” for more specific context, including an
overview of the religious state of affairs in the Victorian era
anddivisions between different churches and new concepts on religion
itself.  

 Reading these articles should take approximately 45 minutes.  
    
 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.

4.1.4 The Role of Women in Victorian Society   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Elizabeth Lee’s “Women in Literature - A Literary Overview” Link: The Victorian Web: Elizabeth Lee’s “Women in Literature - A Literary Overview” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this article for an overview of women in
literature during the 19<sup>th</sup> century.  

 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Helen Taylor’s “The Claim of Englishwomen to the Suffrage Constitutionally Considered” Link: Helen Taylor’s “The Claim of Englishwomen to the Suffrage Constitutionally Considered” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read Helen Taylor’s “The Claim of Englishwomen to the Suffrage Constitutionally Considered” for an example of contemporary thought of women’s rights in the 19th century.

    Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: “The Claim of Englishwomen to the Suffrage Constitutionally Considered” is in the public domain.

  • Reading: Barbara Bodichon’s “A Brief Summary in Plain Language of the Most Important Laws Concerning Women” Link: Barbara Bodichon’s “A Brief Summary in Plain Language of the Most Important Laws Concerning Women” (HTML)

    Instructions: Barbara Bodichon’s “A Brief Summary in Plain Language of the Most Important Laws Concerning Women” for an example of contemporary thought of women’s rights in the 19th century.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use:“A Brief Summary in Plain Language of the Most Important Laws Concerning Women” is in the public domain.

  • Reading: Eliza Lynn Linton’s Excerpt from *The Girl of the Period* Link: Eliza Lynn Linton’s Excerpt from The Girl of the Period (PDF)

    Also available in:
    Google Books

    Instructions: Read this excerpt from Linton’s The Girl of the Period, a seminal 19th-century text that attacked modern women, including new women for their behavior.

    Reading this excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The Girl of the Period is in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Woman Question in Victorian England” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Woman Question in Victorian England” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this essay for an overview of debates about and developments in ideas about women during the Victorian period as a complement to the other readings in this subunit.

    Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • Lecture: Gresham College: Professor Sir Richard Evans’s “The Victorians: Gender and Sexuality” Link: Gresham College: Professor Sir Richard Evans’s “The Victorians: Gender and Sexuality” (Flash)

    Instructions: Listen to Professor Evans’s lecture on gender and sexuality in the Victorian era.

    Listening to this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Sir Richard Evans, and the original version can be found here

4.2 The Victorian Novel   4.2.1 The Serialized Novel, the “Three-Decker,” and Other Publication Contexts   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Philip V. Allingham’s “Why Read the Serialized Versions of Victorian Novels?” “Introduction to Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations,” “The Genres of Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations - Positioning the Novel” and “Chapter-by-Chapter Discussion Questions for Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations Link: The Victorian Web: Philip V. Allingham’s “Why Read the Serialized Versions of Victorian Novels?” (PDF), “Introduction to Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations (HTML), “The Genres of Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations - Positioning the Novel” (HTML) and “Chapter-by-Chapter Discussion Questions for Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations (HTML)

 Instructions: Read Professor Allingham’s essay “Why Read the
Serialized Versions of Victorian Novels?” Then, read his
introduction to *Great Expectations* and his discussion of the
novel’s genres. Finally, review the list of discussion questions for
*Great Expectations*,and consider these questions as you read
excerpts of Dickens’s novel.  

 Reading these articles should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Charles Dickens’s *Great Expectations* Link: Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations

    Instructions: Using Professor Allingham’s discussion questions in this subunit as a guide, read the following chapters from Great Expectations: 1 - 3, 8 - 10, 18, 39, 40, 56, and 59.

    Reading these chapters should take approximately 4 hours.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.  

4.2.2 Depictions of Victorian Society: Class Stratification and Material Conditions   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Philip V. Allingham’s “Leading Questions for Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre (1847),” George P. Landow’s “Genre, Plot, and Theme in Jane Eyre,” Nicholas Johnson’s “The Tension between Reason and Passion in Jane Eyre,” and Debra G. Waller’s “Angel or Vampire - The Portrayal of Women’s Morality and Sensuality in Jane Eyre” as well as “Avoiding Dang Link: The Victorian Web: Philip V. Allingham’s “Leading Questions for Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre (1847)” (HTML), George P. Landow’s “Genre, Plot, and Theme in Jane Eyre (HTML), Nicholas Johnson’s “The Tension between Reason and Passion in Jane Eyre (HTML), and Debra G. Waller’s “Angel or Vampire - The Portrayal of Women’s Morality and Sensuality in Jane Eyre (HTML) as well as “Avoiding Dangerous Sexuality in Jane Eyre (HTML)

 Instructions: Use Professor Allingham’s questions to help you as
you read the selections from *Jane Eyre*. Then, study Landow’s
introduction to genre, plot, and theme in the novel, selecting the
links for his summary of other comments on *Jane Eyre* by R. B.
Martin. Read Johnson’s “The Tensions between Reason and Passion in
*Jane Eyre.*” Finally, read Waller’s “Angel or Vampire - The
Portrayal of Women’s Morality and Sensuality in *Jane Eyre*” and
“Avoiding Dangerous Sexuality in *Jane Eyre*” for commentary on the
treatment of gender and sexuality in the novel.  

 Reading these articles should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.
  • Reading: Charlotte Brontë’s *Jane Eyre* Link: Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre (HTML)

    Also available in:

    PDF
    Google Books
    Kindle ($0.95)
    iBooks (free)

    Instructions: Read Chapters 1, 11 - 16, 23, 26, 27, and 34 - 38 of Jane Eyre, paying particular attention to Jane’s analysis of his own social position in relation to her class standing.  

    Reading these chapters should take approximately 5 hours.

    Terms of Use: Jane Eyre is in the public domain.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “Depictions of Victorian Society: Class Stratification and Material Conditions” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Depictions of Victorian Society: Class Stratification and Material Conditions” (PDF)

    Instructions: Complete the discussion questions relating to this subunit, and post your responses to the ENGL203 discussion forum. Review and respond to at least one or two other students’ posts. After you answer the discussion questions, or if you need guidance while answering the questions, check The Saylor Foundation’s “Guide to Responding” (PDF).

    Completing this activity should take approximately 30 minutes.

4.3 Poetry in the Victorian Period   4.3.1 Relationship between Romantic Poetry and Victorian Poetry: Tennyson   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “Alfred, Lord Tennyson: A Brief Biography” Link: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “Alfred, Lord Tennyson: A Brief Biography (HTML)
 
Instructions:  Please read this short biography of Tennyson as an introduction to his work.
 
Reading this article should take approximately 10 minutes. 
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Arthur Henry Hallum’s Excerpt from *On Some of the Characteristics of Modern Poetry, and on the Lyrical Poems of Alfred Tennyson* Link: Arthur Henry Hallum’s Excerpt from On Some of the Characteristics of Modern Poetry, and on the Lyrical Poems of Alfred Tennyson (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this excerpt from Arthur Henry Hallum’s 1831 review of Tennyson’s poetry, focusing on the connections between Wordsworth and Tennyson.

    Reading this excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Tennyson’s Excerpt from In Memoriam: A.H.H., “Ulysses,” “Break, Break, Break,” “Maud,” and “The Charge of the Light Brigade” Link: Tennyson’s Excerpt from In Memoriam: A.H.H. (PDF), “Ulysses” (PDF), “Break, Break, Break” (PDF), “Maud” (PDF), and “The Charge of the Light Brigade” (PDF)

    Also available in:
    Google Books

    Kindle ($0.95)
    iBooks ($0.99)

    Instructions: Read the prelude to Tennyson’s poem written in memory of his friend Hallum, In Memoriam: A.H.H. Hallum’s sudden death at the age of 22 left Tennyson shattered. Then, read Tennyson’s poems “Ulysses,” “Break, Break, Break,” “Maud,” and “The Charge of the Light Brigade.”

    Studying these poems should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: The poems above are in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Victorian Web: George P. Landow’s “Victorianism as a Fusion of Neoclassical and Romantic Ideas and Attitudes”; James R. Kincaid’s “Maud”, “Break, break, break” and “Ulysses”; and Philip V. Allingham’s “Discussion Questions for Alfred Lord Tennyson’s ‘Ulysses’” Link: The Victorian Web: George P. Landow’s “Victorianism as a Fusion of Neoclassical and Romantic Ideas and Attitudes” (HTML) and James R. Kincaid’s “Maud” (HTML), “Break, break, break (HTML) and “Ulysses (HTML); and Philip V. Allingham’s “Discussion Questions for Alfred Lord Tennyson’s ‘Ulysses’ (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read the brief essay by Landow on the connections between Victorianism and Romanticism and Neoclassicism. Then, read Professor Kincaid’s short commentaries on “Maud,” “Break, break, break,” and “Ulysses.”  Refer to Professor Allingham’s discussion questions in thinking through “Ulysses.”
     
    Studying these reading should take approximately 45 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Web Media: University of Glasgow: Dr. Kirstie Blair and Dr. Rhian Williams’s “Alfred Tennyson’s ‘Ulysses’” Link: University of Glasgow: Dr. Kirstie Blair and Dr. Rhian Williams’s “Alfred Tennyson’s ‘Ulysses’” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Listen to this podcast on Dr. Blair and Dr. Williams’s dialogue about Tennyson’s poem. Refer back to the poem as you listen to this podcast.

    Listening to this podcast, referring to the poem, and taking notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

4.3.2 The Brownings’s Experiments in Form and Style: New Directions in Dramatic Monologues and the Sonnet   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett and Jason B. Isaacs’s “The Life of Elizabeth Barrett Browning” and Glenn Everett’s “Robert Browning: A Brief Biography” Links: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett and Jason B. Isaacs’s “The Life of Elizabeth Barrett Browning (HTML) and Glenn Everett’s “Robert Browning: A Brief Biography (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read these short biographies of Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Robert Browning as introductions to their lives and works.
 
Reading these pieces should take approximately 15 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s “Sonnet 21 (Say over again),” “Sonnet 22 (When our two souls),” and “Sonnet 43 (How do I love thee)” and The Victorian Web: Philip V. Allingham’s “Reading and Discussion Questions for Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s ‘Sonnet 43’” Link: Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s “Sonnet 21 (Say over again)” (HTML), “Sonnet 22 (When our two souls)” (HTML), and “Sonnet 43 (How do I love thee)” (HTML) and The Victorian Web: Philip V. Allingham’s “Reading and Discussion Questions for Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s ‘Sonnet 43’ (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these poems for examples of Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s development of the sonnet form.  Draw on Professor Allingham’s reading and discussion questions for thinking through Sonnet 43.
     
    Reading these poems should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: These poems are in the public domain. Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on teh webpage above.

  • Reading: Robert Browning’s “My Last Duchess,” “Porphyria’s Lover,” and “Fra Lippo Lippi” and The Victorian Web: Philip V. Allingham’s “Reading and Discussion Questions on Robert Browning’s ‘My Last Duchess’” Link: Robert Browning’s “My Last Duchess” (HTML), “Porphyria’s Lover” (HTML), and “Fra Lippo Lippi” (HTML) and The Victorian Web: Philip V. Allingham’s “Reading and Discussion Questions on Robert Browning’s ‘My Last Duchess’ (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Please read these poems for examples of Robert Browning’s development of the dramatic monologue. Use Professor Allingham’s reading and discussion questions to help you think through “My Last Duchess.”
     
    Reading these poems should take approximately 1 hour

    Terms of Use: These poems are in the public domain. Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • Reading: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “Three Defining Characteristics of Browning’s Dramatic Monologues” Link: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “Three Defining Characteristics of Browning’s Dramatic Monologues” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Everett’s article on the characteristics of Robert Browning’s dramatic monologues.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lecture Notes on the Dramatic Monologues of Robert Browning” Link: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lecture Notes on the Dramatic Monologues of Robert Browning” (HTML)

    Instructions: Study these lecture notes on Robert Browning’s dramatic monologues.

    Studying these lecture notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Professor Richard L.W. Clarke, and the original version can be found here.

  • Web Media: University of Glasgow: Dr. Kirstie Blair and Dr. Rhian Williams’s “Robert Browning’s ‘Porphyria’s Lover’” Link: University of Glasgow: Dr. Kirstie Blair and Dr. Rhian Williams’s “Robert Browning’s ‘Porphyria’s Lover’” (YouTube)

    Instructions: Listen to this podcast on Dr. Blair and Dr. Williams’s dialogue about Browning’s poem. Make sure to refer to the poem as you listen to this lecture.

    Listening to this podcast, referring to the poem, and pausing to take notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the other webpage above.

4.3.3 Pre-Raphaelite Circle: Algernon Charles Swinburne and Christina Rossetti   - Reading: The Victorian Web: George P. Landow’s “Pre-Raphaelites: An Introduction” Link: The Victorian Web: George P. Landow’s “Pre-Raphaelites: An Introduction” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read Landow’s brief introduction to the
Pre-Raphaelites. Swinburne and Rossetti were members of the
Pre-Raphaelite Circle, a group of mid-century English artists and
poets best known for their often sensual subject matter and their
challenge to conventional rules of Victorian art.  

 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: The Victorian Web article above has been reposted by
the kind permission of George P. Landow from Brown University and
can be viewed in its original form
[here](http://www.victorianweb.org/painting/prb/1.html).
  • Reading: Algernon Charles Swinburne’s “Hymn to Proserpine,” “Hermaphroditus,” and “Ave atque Vale” Link: Algernon Charles Swinburne’s “Hymn to Proserpine” (HTML), “Hermaphroditus” (HTML), and “Ave atque Vale” (HTML)  

    Instructions: Read these poems by Swinburne.

    Studying these poems should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: These poems are in the public domain.

  • Reading: Swinburne Project: John A. Walsh’s “An Introduction to Algernon Charles Swinburne” Link: The Swinburne Project: John A. Walsh’s “An Introduction to Algernon Charles Swinburne” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Walsh’s article for an introduction to Swinburne’s life and career.

    Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to John A. Walsh, and the original version can be found here

  • Reading: The Victorian Web: Christina Rossetti’s “Goblin Market” Link: The Victorian Web: Christina Rossetti’s “Goblin Market” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Rossetti’s narrative poem about two sisters.

    Studying this poem should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use on the webpage displayed above.

  • Reading: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “The Poetry of Christina Rossetti” Link: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “The Poetry of Christina Rossetti” (HTML)

    Instructions: Study these lecture notes on Christina Rossetti’s poetry and the accompanying discussion questions.

    Studying these lecture notes should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Richard L.W. Clarke, and the original version can be found here

4.3.4 Questioning and Reviving Christian Faith: Matthew Arnold and Gerard Manley Hopkins   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Stanley Kunitz, “Matthew Arnold: A Biography”; George P. Landow, “Arnold’s Religious Beliefs”; and Julia Touche, “Arnold’s ‘Dover Beach’: A Commentary”; and Matthew Arnold’s “Dover Beach” Links: The Victorian Web: Stanley Kunitz, “Matthew Arnold: A Biography (HTML); George P. Landow, “Arnold’s Religious Beliefs (HTML); and Julia Touche, “Arnold’s ‘Dover Beach’: A Commentary (HTML); and Matthew Arnold’s “Dover Beach (HTML)
 
Instructions: Please read Kunitz’s biography for an introduction to Arnold.  Then read Arnold’s most famous poem, “Dover Beach.”  Refer to Touche’s commentary on the poem and Landow’s comments on Arnold’s religious beliefs for more insights into the poem and its philosophical considerations.
 
Reading these materials should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Gerard Manley Hopkins’s “The Windhover” and “Spring and Fall” Link: Gerard Manley Hopkins’s “The Windhover” (PDF) and “Spring and Fall” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read Hopkins’s poems, “The Windhover” and “Spring and Fall.”

    Studying these poems should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: These poems are in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Victorian Web: George P. Landow’s “A Reading of Gerard Manley Hopkins’s ‘The Windhover,’” Daniel Block’s “Hopkins’s ‘Spring and Fall,’” George P. Landow’s “Gerard Manley Hopkins and the Difficulty of Victorian Poetry,” and Laurann de Verteuil’s “Reviving God: A Study of Matthew Arnold and Gerard Manley Hopkins” Link: The Victorian Web: George P. Landow’s “A Reading of Gerard Manley Hopkins’s ‘The Windover’” (HTML), Daniel Block’s “Hopkins’s ‘Spring and Fall’” (HTML), George P. Landow’s “Gerard Manley Hopkins and the Difficulty of Victorian Poetry” (PDF) and Laurann de Verteuil’s “Reviving God: A Study of Matthew Arnold and Gerard Manley Hopkins” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read these four essays for information on Hopkins’s poetry as well as a study of both Arnold and Hopkins.

    Reading these essays should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above. 

Final Exam   - Final Exam: The Saylor Foundation’s “ENGL203 Final Exam” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “ENGL203 Final Exam”

 Instructions: You must be logged into your Saylor Foundation School
account in order to access this exam. If you do not yet have an
account, you will be able to create one, free of charge, after
clicking on the link above.