Loading...

ENGL203: Cultural and Literary Expression in the 18th and 19th Centuries

Unit 3: Romanticism   Like authors of the sentimental novel, Romantic poets and authors built on and moved beyond the Enlightenment’s emphasis on rational inquiry and critique by emphasizing the intuitive and the emotional. Romanticism emerged in late 18th-century England as well as France and Germany. Over the past century and a half, literary historians have offered various accounts of why Romanticism emerged during this period, what similarities join different strains of Romanticism together and how to understand the distinct differences - political as well as aesthetic - among Romantics. One of the most lasting and influential definitions that joins various Romantics together comes from the mid-20th century literary critic René Wellek: “imagination for the view of poetry, nature for the view of the world, and symbol and myth for poetic style.” From this perspective, what the Romantics share is an emphasis on the creative power of the individual imagination and a reliance on nature as a guide for philosophical, social, and literary truths as opposed to a neoclassical emphasis on tradition.

In this unit, we will build on these ideas in an attempt to define the movement in terms of themes, styles, and tropes. We will also examine various social and economic contexts that fostered Romanticism. Some of the keys authors we will investigate include the most canonical poets of the era - William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Lord Byron, and John Keats - as well as important women authors such as Anna Letitia Barbauld, Felicia Hemans, and Mary Shelley.

Unit 3 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 52.5 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 3.1: 10.25 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.1.1: 3.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.1.2: 3.75 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.1.3: 2.25 hours

☐    Subunit 3.2: 15 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.2.1: 3.75 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.2.2: 5.25 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.2.3: 5.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.2.4: 1.25 hours

☐    Subunit 3.3: 8.75 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.3.1: 3 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.3.2: 4 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.3.3: 1.75 hours

☐    Subunit 3.4: 18.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.4.1: 3.25 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.4.2: 3.75 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.4.3: 10.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 3.4.4: 1 hour

Unit3 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to:
- explain the evolution in thought between the Enlightenment and Romantic periods;
  - describe the influence of the French Revolution on Romantic poets, particularly Wordsworth, Blake, Shelley, Byron, and Keats;
  - describe the relationship between the Industrial Revolution and the Romantic interest in the natural world;
  - identify and describe the characteristics of the lyric poem;
  - compare and contrast as well as discuss the use of language in Enlightenment and Romantic poetry;
  - identify the key tropes in Wordsworth’s Lyrics Ballads; and
  - explain the concept of the poet as chosen son in Wordsworth’s poetry.

3.1 Social and Intellectual Contexts   3.1.1 Defining Romanticism   - Reading: The Open University: “The Enlightenment” Link: The Open University: “The Enlightenment” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read “Section 8.1: The Forces of Change: Towards
Romanticism” and “Section 8.3: Enlightenment, Humanity, and
Revolution” for information on the movement from the Enlightenment
to Romanticism. While the introductions to Romanticism in this
subunit overlap, they offer slightly different perspectives on
central, often contested ideas of Romanticism; together they offer
an overview of this famous literary era and provide a foundation for
the exploration that follows in this unit.    

 Reading these sections should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Washington State University: Paul Brians’s “Romanticism” Link: Washington State University: Paul Brians’s “Romanticism” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read Brians’s article for an introduction to Romanticism.

    Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: “Romanticism” has been reposted by the kind permission of Dr. Paul Brians and can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • Reading: Vancouver Island University: Professor Ian Johnston’s “Introduction to the Romantic Period in English Poetry” Link: Vancouver Island University: Professor Ian Johnston’s “Introduction to the Romantic Period in English Poetry” (HTML)

    Instructions: Study Professor Johnston’s lecture notes for an introduction to the Romantic period in English poetry.

    Studying these lecture notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

  • Reading: CUNY-Brooklyn: Dr. Lilia Melani’s “Introduction to Romanticism” Link: CUNY-Brooklyn: Dr. Lilia Melani’s “Introduction to Romanticism” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Read Dr. Melani’s article for an introduction to Romanticism.

    Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Dr. Melani’s “Introduction to Romanticism” has been reposted by her kind permission, and it can be viewed in its original form here. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “Defining Romanticism, Part 1” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Defining Romanticism, Part 1” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: In two paragraphs of approximately five to six sentences each, construct a working definition of romanticism, drawing on the introductory materials to this unit. In developing your definition, you will want to consider romanticism’s relationship to other philosophical and literary movements as well as define thematic and formal characteristics of the movement and its relationship to key political and social developments.
     
    Once you have completed your working definition, or if you need assistance, check The Saylor Foundation’s “Guide to Responding to Defining Romanticism, Part 1”
     
    Completing this activity should take approximately 30 minutes.

3.1.2 Reactions and Reflections on the French Revolution   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Professor David Cody’s “Introduction to the French Revolution” Link: The Victorian Web: Professor David Cody’s “Introduction to the French Revolution” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read Professor Cody’s article for a brief
introduction to the French Revolution.  

 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Edmund Burke’s Excerpts from *Reflections on the Revolution in France* Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Edmund Burke’s Excerpts from Reflections on the Revolution in France (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the excerpts from Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France.

    Reading these excerpts should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

  • Reading: Richard Price’s Excerpts from *A Discourse on the Love of Our Country* Link: Richard Price’s Excerpts from A Discourse on the Love of Our Country

    Instructions: Read the excerpts from Price’s A Discourse on the Love of Our Country for reflections on the Revolution.

    Reading these excerpts should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

  • Reading: Bartleby: William Wordsworth’s The Prelude: “Book 9” and “Book 10” Link: Bartleby: William Wordsworth’s The Prelude: “Book 9” (HTML) and “Book 10” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Book 9 and Book 10 of Wordsworth’s The Prelude, where he narrates his excitement and support and then disappointment in the French Revolution. The French Revolution would become central to the lives and worldviews of most of the British romantics. Where the older Wordsworth ardently supported the cause in his youth, he became increasingly conservative as he grew older and renounced his earlier hopes of revolutionary change. Conversely, the younger Percy Shelley and Lord Byron would see their turn away as apostasy and would continue to envision the French Revolution, despite its problems, as epitomizing the possibility of radical political and social change. 

    Reading the two sections should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “British Reactions to the French Revolution” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “British Reactions to the French Revolution” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this essay for a brief overview of British reactions to the French Revolution. This essay offers detailed accounts of Price’s, Burke’s, and Wordsworth’s texts. Refer back to those works as you read through this piece to add to your understanding of them.

    Reading this essay should take approximately 45 minutes.

3.1.3 The Industrial Revolution and the Emergence of the Bourgeoisie   - Lecture: Yale University: John Merriman’s “Industrial Revolutions” Link: Yale University: John Merriman’s “Industrial Revolutions” (HTML)

 Also available in:  
 [Mp3, QuickTime,
Flash](http://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-202/lecture-8)  
    
 Instructions: Watch this video lecture on the Industrial
Revolution.  

 Watching this video lecture and taking notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/). It is
attributed to Yale University and John Merriman, and the original
version can be found
[here](http://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-202/lecture-8). 
  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Industrial Revolution and the Romantic Spirit” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Industrial Revolution and the Romantic Spirit” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this essay for an overview of Romanticism as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution. Romanticism is often seen as a reaction against industrialization in the form of a retreat into nature or a summoning up of nature as an antidote to industrialization and rationalization. While Romanticism’s relationship with the emerging industrial order is more complex - for example, its emphasis on the individual and his or her feelings can be read as parallel to a modern capitalist and consumerist focus on individual satisfaction and accomplishment - The Romantics, on the whole, offered some of the most trenchant commentaries of the cost of industrial growth. 

    Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • Reading: William Wordsworth’s “The World is Too Much with Us” and “Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802” Link: William Wordsworth’s “The World Is Too Much with Us” (HTML) and “Composed upon Westminster Bridge, September 3, 1802” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read these two poems by Wordsworth. They will provide you with a small sample of poetic reactions to the Industrial Revolution’s emphasis on materiality and technology, its mechanization of thinking, and its willingness to sacrifice the youngest and most vulnerable.

    Studying these poems should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: These poems are in the public domain.

  • Reading: William Blake’s “London” and “The Chimney-Sweeper” Link: William Blake’s “London” (HTML) and “The Chimney-Sweeper” (HTML)

    Instructions:Read these two poems by William Blake: “London” and “The Chimney-Sweeper.” These poems will provide you with a small sample of poetic reactions to the Industrial Revolution’s emphasis on materiality and technology, its mechanization of thinking, and its willingness to sacrifice the youngest and most vulnerable.

    Studying these poems should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: These poems are in the public domain.

3.2 Romantic Poetics   - Reading: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lecture Notes on Wordsworth’s Preface to Lyrical Ballads Link: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lecture Notes on Wordsworth’s Preface to Lyrical Ballads (HTML)

 Instructions: Study Clarke’s lecture notes on Wordsworth’s
preface - his most famous statement about poetry.  

 Studying these lecture notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a[Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). It is
attributed to Richard L.W. Clarke, and the original version can be
found
[here](http://www.rlwclarke.net/Courses/LITS2002/2001-2002/LN05WordsworthPrefacetoLyricalBallads.htm).

3.2.1 The Poem as a “Spontaneous Overflow of Powerful Feelings”: Wordsworth’s Preface to *The Lyrical Ballads*   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “William Wordsworth (1770 - 1850)” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “William Wordsworth (1770 - 1850)” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this essay for a brief biography of Wordsworth
and an introduction to the life and works of the poet.  

 Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.
  • Reading: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lecture Notes on Wordsworth’s Preface to Lyrical Ballads Link: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lecture Notes on Wordsworth’s Preface to Lyrical Ballads (HTML)

    Instructions: Study Clarke’s lecture notes on Wordsworth’s preface - his most famous statement about poetry.

    Studying these lecture notes should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Richard L.W. Clarke, and the original version can be found here.

  • Reading: William Wordsworth’s “Observations Prefixed to Lyrical Ballads” and *Lyrical Ballads* Link: William Wordsworth’s “Observations Prefixed to Lyrical Ballads (PDF) and Lyrical Ballads (PDF)

    Instructions: Read the preface, titled “Observations Prefixed to Lyrical Ballads.” Then, read the following poems from Lyrical Ballads:“Goody Blake and Harry Gill,” “We Are Seven,” “Lines Written in Early Spring,” “The Thorn,” and “The Idiot Boy.”

    Lyrical Ballads contains poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel T. Coleridge. Using everyday language and representing humble and rustic life, the poems were a radical departure from canonical poetry at the time, which tended to be more formal and elevated in tone and subject. Wordsworth’s preface is one of a number of important re-definitions of poetry offered by the major Romantic poets. In particular, the preface breaks from neoclassical conventions by emphasizing the origins of poetry in emotion and by calling for the eschewal of heightened poetic diction in favor of everyday language.   

    Studying the preface and these poems should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “William Wordsworth: Radical Poetics” Link: iTunes U: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “William Wordsworth: Radical Poetics” (iTunes U)

    Instructions: Locate the lecture titled “William Wordsworth: Radical Poetics,” and select “View in iTunes” to access the lecture. Listen to this lecture to learn about William Wordsworth as a radical poet for his time.

    Listening to the lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.2.2 Imagination v. Fancy: Coleridge’s *Biographia Literaria*   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772 - 1834)” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772 - 1834)” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this essay for a brief biography on Coleridge.  

 Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.
  • Reading: Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s Excerpts from *Biographia Literaria* Link: Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s Excerpts from Biographia Literaria (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this excerpt from Coleridge’s famous account of his literary growth. In this excerpt, he discusses the publication of the Lyrical Ballads with William Wordsworth, distinguishing their different approaches and how they saw them intersecting in the volume. He continues on to offer his influential definition of poetry in terms of the imagination, an imagination he sees as bringing the whole of the poet’s soul to bear on his subject matter as it allows him to unify opposites.

    Reading this excerpt should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Biographia Literaria is in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “Rime of the Ancient Mariner”; Bartleby: Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s Lyrical Ballads: “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”; Poetry Foundation: Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s “The Eolian Harp” and “This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison” Links: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “Rime of the Ancient Mariner (HTML); Bartleby: Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s Lyrical Ballads: “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” (HTML); Poetry Foundation: Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s “The Eolian Harp (HTML) and “This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison (HTML)
     
    Instructions: First please review Professor Everett’s introduction to and reading questions for Coleridge’s “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.”  Then read Coleridge’s poem, “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.”  And finally read two other famous poems by Coleridge: “The Eolian Harp” and “This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison.”
     
    Reading these articles should take approximately 3 hours.

    Terms of Use: Lyrical Ballads is in the public domain. Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • Lecture: Internet Archive: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “Coleridge” Link: Internet Archive: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “Coleridge” (Mp3) (Flash)

    Instructions: Listen to this lecture on Coleridge.

    Listening to this lecture and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Dr. Timothy Morton, and the archived version can be found here.

3.2.3 The Poet as Unacknowledged Legislator: Shelley’s “Defence of Poetry”   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Percy Bysshe Shelley” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Percy Bysshe Shelley” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this essay to learn about Percy Bysshe Shelley’s
life and works. One of the most famous of the second generation of
British Romantic poets, Shelley, like his good friend Byron, fled
the repressive climate of Britain for continental Europe in the
1810s due to personal and political reasons. Unlike Coleridge and
Wordsworth, who turned increasingly conservative, Shelley continued
to espouse radical philosophy, poetics, and politics until his early
death.   

 Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.
  • Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “A Defence of Poetry” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “A Defence of Poetry” (HTML)

    Instructions: After reading the introduction to Shelley, please read his most famous statement on poetry in his essay, “A Defence of Poetry.” In this piece, Shelley - like Coleridge and Wordsworth - celebrates the creative power of the poet, linking that power to nature and to the poet’s connection with a transcendent wisdom or spirit. At the same time, in concluding, he emphasizes the poet’s connection to his or her social context, the fact that poets manifest “less their spirit than the spirit of the age,” and to the poet’s role in fomenting political and social change: “Poets are the unacknowledged legislators of the world.” Critics have spent much time debating exactly how to read Shelley’s statements here, and his most famous poems on politics, poetic inspiration, and historical transformation can offer some further glimpses into his thinking. 

    Reading this essay should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: “A Defence of Poetry” is in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “ ‘Mont Blanc’: Reading Questions” and “Shelley and Religion”; Bartleby: Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Mont Blanc” Links: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “‘Mont Blanc’: Reading Questions (HTML) and “Shelley and Religion (HTML); Bartleby: Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Mont Blanc (HTML).
     
    Instructions: Please peruse Professor Everett’s reading questions for “Mont Blanc” before reading Shelley’s famous poem about the tallest mountain in Europe. Refer to Professor Everett’s short overview of Shelley’s religious views to give yourself more background on the philosophical questions Shelley ponders in the poem.
     
    Reading these materials will take approximately one hour.
     
    Terms of Use: “Mont Blanc” is in the public domain. Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpages above.

  • Reading: Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Ozymandias,” “England in 1819,” and “Ode to the West Wind” Link: Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Ozymandias” (HTML), “England in 1819” (HTML), and “Ode to the West Wind” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Shelley’s poems: “Ozymandias,” “England in 1819,” and “Ode to the West Wind.” “Ozymandias” reflects on the power of art in contrast to the arrogance of political power, “England in 1819” comments on the country - from afar - at a time when it seemed on the brink of revolution, a revolution Shelley both yearned for and feared. In “Mont Blanc” and “Ode to the West Wind,” Shelley further expounds on the poet’s relationship to nature and its inspiration and his or her ability to forward what he sees as changes borne by natural processes.

    Studying these poems should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The poems above “Ozymandias,” “England in 1819,” and “Ode to the West Wind” are in the public domain.

  • Reading: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lectures Notes on the Poetry of Percy Bysshe Shelley” and “Percy Bysshe Shelley ‘A Defence of Poetry’” Link: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lectures Notes on the Poetry of Percy Bysshe Shelley” (HTML) and “Percy Bysshe Shelley ‘A Defence of Poetry’” (HTML)

    Instructions: Study Clarke’s lecture notes as a guide for thinking through both Shelley’s poetry.

    Studying these lecture notes should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Richard L.W. Clarke, and the original versions can be found here and here, respectively.

  • Lecture: Internet Archive: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “Shelley” Link: Internet Archive: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “Shelley” (Mp3) (Flash) 
     
    Instructions: Listen to Dr. Morton’s lecture on Shelley.

    Listening to this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour.
     
    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Dr. Timothy Morton, and the archived version can be found here

3.2.4 Poet as a Chosen Son or Bard   - Reading: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lecture Notes on the Poetry of William Wordsworth” and “The Poetry of John Keats” Link: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lecture Notes on the Poetry of William Wordsworth” (HTML) and “The Poetry of John Keats” (HTML)

 Instructions: Study Clarke’s lecture notes on Wordsworth’s and
Keats’s poetry and poetic theory.  

 Studying these lecture notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: These resources are licensed under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). These
resources are attributed to Richard L.W. Clarke, and the original
versions can be found
[here](http://www.rlwclarke.net/Courses/LITS2002/2001-2002/LN04Wordsworth.htm)
and
[here](http://www.rlwclarke.net/Courses/LITS2002/2001-2002/LN07AKeats.htm),
respectively.
  • Reading: William Wordsworth’s Excerpts from *The Prelude* Link: William Wordsworth’s Excerpts from The Prelude (PDF)

    Also available in:
    Google Books 

    Instructions: Read the following excerpts from The Prelude for a reflection on Wordsworth’s concept of himself as a chosen son: Book I, lines 47 - 59 and Book III, lines 278 - 323.

    Studying these excerpts should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The Prelude is in the public domain.

  • Reading: John Keats’s “Selections from Letters” Link: John Keats’s “Selections from Letters” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read these selections from Keats’s letters.

    Reading these selections should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Keats’s letters are in the public domain.

3.3 Romantic Poetic Conventions and Tropes   3.3.1 Relationship between Man and Nature   - Reading: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “Reading Questions for ‘Tintern Abbey’”; William Wordsworth’s “Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey, On Revisiting the Banks of the Wye during a Tour” Link: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “Reading Questions for ‘Tintern Abbey’ (HTML); William Wordsworth’s “Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey, On Revisiting the Banks of the Wye during a Tour” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Please look over Professor Everett’s reading questions on “Tintern Abbey,” before reading Wordsworth’s poem “Tintern Abbey.” When reading this poem, refer back to Professor Clarke’s lectures notes on Wordsworth.
 
Studying this poem should take approximately 30 minutes.
 
Terms of Use: “Tintern Abbey” is in the public domain. Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s “Frost at Midnight” and “Dejection” Link: Samuel Taylor Coleridge’s “Frost at Midnight” (PDF) and “Dejection” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read Coleridge’s poems, “Frost at Midnight” and “Dejection.” When reading these poems, refer back to the discussion of Coleridge’s poetry and poetics in Subunit 3.2.2.

    Studying these poems should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: “Frost at Midnight” and “Dejection” are in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “Reading Questions for ‘Ode to a Nightingale’”; John Keats’s “Ode to a Nightingale” Link: The Victorian Web: Glenn Everett’s “Reading Questions for ‘Ode to a Nightingale’ (HTML); John Keats’s “Ode to a Nightingale” (PDF)

    Instructions: Please read through Professor Everett’s introduction and reading questions for Keats’s poem before then reading Keats’ poem “Ode to a Nightingale.”When reading this poem, refer back to Professor Clarke’s lectures notes on Keats.

    Studying this poem should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: “Ode to a Nightingale” is in the public domain. Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Romanticism and Nature” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Romanticism and Nature” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this brief essay for a summary on the topic of Romanticism and nature. This essay offers more detailed attention to some of the poems covered in this subunit.

    Reading this essay should take approximately 30 minutes.

3.3.2 Innocence and Experience: Blake   - Reading: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lecture Notes on the Poetry of William Blake” Link: University of West Indies: Richard L.W. Clarke’s “Lecture Notes on the Poetry of William Blake” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read Clarke’s lecture notes on Blake’s poetry and
poetics.  

 Studying these lecture notes should take approximately 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a [Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). It is
attributed to Richard L.W. Clarke, and the original version can be
found
[here](http://www.rlwclarke.net/Courses/LITS2002/2001-2002/LN02Blake.htm).
  • Reading: William Blake’s *Songs of Innocence and Experience* Link: William Blake’s Songs of Innocence and Experience (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the following poems from Songs of Innocence and Experience: “The Lamb,” “The Little Black Boy,” “The Chimney-Sweeper” (from both sections), “The Sick Rose,” “The Tiger,” and “London.” 

    Blake’s poems contrast innocence and experience, both celebrating a romantic notion of purity and commenting on the essential, yet paradoxical nature of experience.

    Studying these poems should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Songs of Innocence and Experience is in the public domain.

  • Lecture: OER Commons: Great Writers Inspire: David Fallon’s “William Blake” and David Higgins’s “Studying William Blake in Context, parts 1 and 2” Links: OER Commons: Great Writers Inspire: David Fallon’s “William Blake and David Higgins’s “Studying William Blake in Context, parts 1 and 2
     
    Instructions: Scroll down to the bottom of the page to locate the link for Dr. Fallon’s audio lecture.  Then click on the tab for video for the links to Dr. Higgins’s two part lectures.  Listen and view these lectures for an extended introduction to Blake and his context.
     
    Listening to these lectures and pausing to take notes should take approximately 40 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “William Blake: The Politics of Innocence and William Blake: Are You Experienced?” Link: iTunes U: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “William Blake: The Politics of Innocence and William Blake: Are You Experienced?” (iTunes U)

    Instructions: Locate the lectures titled “William Blake: The Politics of Innocence” and “William Blake: Are You Experienced?” and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lectures. Listen to both lectures on Blake.

    Listening to these lectures and taking notes should take approximately 2 hours.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.3.3 The Figure of the Outcast in Romantic Poetry: Byron   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Lord Byron, George Gordon (1788 - 1823)” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Lord Byron, George Gordon (1788 - 1823)” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this brief essay for a biography on George
Gordon, or Lord Byron, one of the most famous and controversial of
the Romantic poets.  

 Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.
  • Reading: Gutenberg.org: Lord Byron’s “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Canto The Third” Link: Gutenberg.org: Lord Byron’s “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Canto The Third (HTML)
 

     
    Instructions: Read stanzas 92 through 98 of the third canto in Byron’s Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage. How is nature presented here? What statement does presenting nature in a rather harsh light make? More importantly, what statement is made by the speaker in implying that the setting of nature reflects his own interiority?
 


    Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage is an epic-length account of its titular character’s growth and development, a character closely based on Byron himself. This and other poems made Byron famous as a romantic outcast, a man at war with society and himself, giving rise to the notion of the Byronic hero.
     
    Reading this section of this poem should take approximately 15 minutes.
 


    
Terms of Use: Please respect the terms of use displayed on the document above. This reading is in the public domain.

  • Reading: Lord Byron’s “I Would I Were a Careless Child” Link: Lord Byron’s “I Would I Were a Careless Child” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Lord Byron’s poem, “I Would I Were a Careless Child.”

    Studying this poem should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: “I Would I Were a Careless Child” is in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Byronic Heroism” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Byronic Heroism” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this essay, which describes the Byronic hero and his prominence in literature of the period and since.

    Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.

3.4 Other Romantic-Era Literature   3.4.1 The Familiar Essay: Review and the Rise of the Modern Periodical   - Reading: De Quincey’s *Confessions of an Opium Eater* Link: De Quincey’s Confessions of an Opium Eater (PDF)

 Instructions: Read “To the Reader” and “Preliminary Confessions”
from De Quincey’s memoir *Confessions of an Opium Eater* on pages
1 - 25*.* De Quincey’s autobiographical account of his addiction to
laudanum, a mixture of alcohol and opium, became one of the best
known accounts of 19<sup>th</sup>-century addiction, mixing a
sophisticated literary style with intriguing depictions of the
pleasures that lure him into addiction and harrowing descriptions of
the addiction that followed. First appearing anonymously in the
London *Magazine*, *Confessions* exemplifies the popularization
through the literary monthlies and quarterlies of romantic tropes
such as the costs of rebelling against staid limitations of
bourgeois society.  

 Reading these sections should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.  

 Terms of Use: *Confessions of An Opium Eater* is in the public
domain. 
  • Reading: Internet Archive: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “Thomas de Quincey” Link: Internet Archive: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “Thomas de Quincey” (Mp3) (Flash)           

    Instructions: Listen to Dr. Morton’s lecture on Thomas de Quincey.

    Listening to this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1 hour and 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Dr. Timothy Morton, and the archived version can be found here.

3.4.2 Other Selected Poets: Hemans, Barbauld, and Smith   - Reading: Anna Letitia Barbauld’s “Life,” “The Rights of Women,” “To a Little Invisible Being Who Is Expected Soon to Become Visible,” “To Mr. [S.T.] C[oleridge]” and “Washing Day” Link: Anna Letitia Barbauld’s “Life” (HTML), “The Rights of Women” (HTML), “To a Little Invisible Being Who Is Expected Soon to Become Visible” (HTML), “To Mr. [S.T.] C[oleridge]” (HTML), and “Washing Day” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read Barbauld’s five poems: “Life,” “The Rights of
Women,” “To a Little Invisible Being Who Is Expected Soon to Become
Visible,” “To Mr. [S.T.] C[oleridge],” and “Washing Day.  

 Studying these poems should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Felicia Hemans’s “To Wordsworth” Link: Felicia Hemans’s “To Wordsworth” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Hemans’s poem, “To Wordsworth.”

    Studying this poem should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Charlotte Turner Smith” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Charlotte Turner Smith” (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Please read this short introduction to the life and works of Charlotte Turner Smith.
     
    Completing this reading should take approximately 10 minutes.

  • Reading: Charlotte Smith’s “Sonnet: On Being Cautioned . . .,” “High Vapours Brood above the Clifted Shore,” “On the Departure of the Nightingale” and “Beachy Head” Link: Charlotte Smith’s “Sonnet: On Being Cautioned . . .” (HTML), “Huge Vapours Brood above the Clifted Shore” (HTML), “On the Departure of the Nightingale” (HTML), and “Beachy Head” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read these four poems by Charlotte Turner Smith: “Sonnet: On Being Cautioned…,” “Huge Vapours Brood above the Clifted Shore,” “On the Departure of the Nightingale,” and “Beachy Head.”

    Studying these poems should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Lecture: Internet Archive: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “Charlotte Smith” Link: Internet Archive: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “Charlotte Smith” (Mp3) (Flash)           

    Instructions: Listen to Dr. Morton’s lecture on Charlotte Smith.

    Listening to this lecture and pausing to take notes should take approximately 1.25 hours.

    Terms of Use: This resource is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. It is attributed to Dr. Timothy Morton, and the archived version can be found here.

3.4.3 Mary Shelley’s *Frankenstein*   - Reading: Mary Shelley’s *Frankenstein* Link: Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (HTML)

 Instructions: Read Mary Shelley’s famous novel. Written when
Shelley was only 18 years old, *Frankenstein* has become one of the
most famous texts to emerge from British Romanticism. Shelley
composed the work as part of a story-telling contest with Percy
Shelley (her lover and future husband), Lord Byron, and John
Polidori. The novel has been read as a covert statement on women’s
position in early 19<sup>th</sup>-century society, as a critique of
romantic naturalism and romantic overreaching, as a reflection on
the failed promises of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution,
among many other things. *Frankenstein* is best known for its
engagement with the radical science of the era.  

 Reading this novel should take approximately 9 hours.  

 Terms of Use: *Frankenstein* is in the public domain.
  • Lecture: iTunes U: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s “Frankenstein: Monsters Are Us” Link: iTunes U: University of California, Davis: Dr. Timothy Morton’s Frankenstein: Monsters Are Us” (iTunes U)

    Instructions: Locate Part 1 and Part 2 of the lecture titled “Frankenstein: Monsters Are Us,” and select “View in iTunes” to launch the lectures. Listen to Parts 1 and 2 of the lecture on Frankenstein.

    Listening to both lectures and taking notes should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

3.4.4 Defining Romanticism, Part 2   - Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “Defining Romanticism, Part 2” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Defining Romanticism, Part 2” (PDF)

 Instructions: Now that you have completed your exploration of
romanticism, you should return to the definition you crafted in
response to the first activity in Subunit 3.1.1, “Defining
Romanticism, Part 1.” Using that definition as your starting point,
construct a two to three paragraph expansion of your definition, now
supplying specific examples to illustrate each of your main points /
characteristics. You could also supply possible complicating
examples, showing how some of the works we have read trouble or
contradict the definition you originally produced. For instance, if
you originally defined romanticism as embracing nature as innocent
and as a source of comfort and truth, then you might now allude to
Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey” as exemplifying such a view or point to
Blake’s “The Tiger” as revealing nature as terrifying as much as
comforting.   
    
 Once you have completed this activity, or if you need assistance,
check The Saylor Foundation’s [“Guide to Responding to Defining
Romanticism, Part
2.”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/ENGL203-Unit-3-Guide-to-Responding-to-Defining-Romanticism-Part-2-FINAL1.pdf)  
    
 Completing this activity should take approximately 1 hour.