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ENGL203: Cultural and Literary Expression in the 18th and 19th Centuries

Unit 2: The Rise of the Modern Novel   While clearly not a literary period, the rise of the novel, as we know it, took place over the course of the 18th century. Though prose fiction had existed since ancient times, the modern novel - a serious form with mass, popular appeal - was born at some point in the early 1700s. In this unit, we will trace the emergence and maturation of the novel, seeking to understand the reasons for its popularity while exploring and defining a number of its features and sub-genres.

Unit 2 Time Advisory
This unit should take you approximately 24 hours to complete.

☐    Subunit 2.1: 8.25 hours

      ☐    Subunit 2.1.1: 0.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 2.1.2: 3.75 hours

      ☐    Subunit 2.1.3: 4 hours

☐    Subunit 2.2: 6 hours

      ☐    Subunit 2.2.1: 1.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 2.2.2: 4.5 hours

☐    Subunit 2.3: 9.75 hours

      ☐    Subunit 2.3.1: 0.25 hours

      ☐    Subunit 2.3.2: 4.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 2.3.3: 1 hour

      ☐    Subunit 2.3.4: 4 hours

Unit2 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - explain how earlier literary forms contributed to the rise of the modern novel;
  - identify and describe different novelistic sub-genres of the 18th century, in particular the picaresque, the sentimental, and the gothic;
  - describe the relationship between moral philosophy and the development of the sentimental novel as exemplified by Richardson’s Pamela;
  - trace the changes in the literary market that led to the rise of the modern novel;
  - define and apply the termsterror, horror, and sublime;
  - identify examples of the sublime in Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho;
  - describe the ways in which the Gothic novel is a type of imitation medievalism; and
  - describe the relationship between the sentimental novel and the Gothic.

2.1 Early Versions of and Contexts for the Modern Novel   2.1.1 Social, Cultural, and Literary Background to the Emergence of the Novel   - Reading: CUNY-Brooklyn: Dr. Lilia Melani’s “The Novel” Link: CUNY-Brooklyn: Dr. Lilia Melani’s “The Novel” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Read Dr. Melani’s article, “The Novel,” which speaks about the development of the modern novel out of the earlier genres.

 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: “The Novel” has been reposted by the kind permission
of Dr. Lilia Melani from CUNY Brooklyn, and it can be viewed in its
original
form [here](http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/novel.html). Please
note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced
in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright
holder.
  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Emergence of the Novel” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “The Emergence of the Novel” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this essay for a more in-depth discussion of the early development of the novel.

    Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.

2.1.2 Romance and Empire in the Earliest English Novels   - Reading: Great Writers Inspire: Dr. Abigail Williams’s “Who Is Aphra Behn?” and “Aphra Behn and Political Culture” Link: Great Writers Inspire: Dr. Abigail Williams’s “Who Is Aphra Behn?” (HTML) and “Aphra Behn and Political Culture” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the two essays by Dr. Williams: “Who Is Aphra
Behn?” and “Aphra Behn and Political Culture.” These pieces will
give you cultural and biographical context for the reading,
*Oroonoko.*  

 Reading these essays should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: These resources are licensed under a [Creative
Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic
License](http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/). These
resources are attributed to Dr. Abigail Williams, and the original
versions can be found
[here](http://writersinspire.podcasts.ox.ac.uk/content/who-aphra-behn)
and
[here](http://writersinspire.org/content/aphra-behn-and-political-culture),
respectively.
  • Reading: Aphra Behn’s *Oroonoko* Link: Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko (PDF)

    Also available in:
    Google Books
    iBooks ($0.99)
    Kindle ($7.77)

    Instructions: Read Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko, which blends fact and fiction, presenting readers with a hybrid narrative style that combines memoir, travel writing, and biography.

    Reading this hybrid narrative should take approximately 3 hours.
     
    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko and the English Novel” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Aphra Behn’s Oroonoko and the English Novel” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read “Aphra Behn's Oroonoko and the English Novel” for a discussion of Behn’s text within the history of the development of the English novel.

    Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.

2.1.3 Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe: Religion, Economics, and Genre   - Reading: Daniel Defoe’s *Robinson Crusoe* Link: Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe

 Instructions: Read Chapters 1 - 3, 6, 11, and 14 of Defoe’s
*Robinson Crusoe.*  

 *Robinson Crusoe* has frequently been seen as the first fully
realized English novel due to its combination of realistic
description of the physical world and dialogue with close attention
to the psychological turmoil and development of a character taken
from everyday life. In doing so, it combines elements of the
Protestant spiritual autobiography with the adventurous elements of
the prose romance and the episodic travels of the picaresque. Like
*Oroonoko*, it takes its setting from the expansion of the British
empire and British economic interests during the period, but unlike
*Oroonoko*, it focuses on an Englishman as he attempts to maintain
and reformulate his national, religious, and economic identity on a
deserted island off the coast of South America.   

 Reading these chapters should take approximately 3 hours.  

 Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain. 
  • Reading: CUNY-Brooklyn: Dr. Lilia Melani’s “Daniel Defoe,” “Robinson Crusoe,” “Religion in Robinson Crusoe,” and “Robinson Crusoe as Economic Man” Link: CUNY-Brooklyn: Dr. Lilia Melani’s “Daniel Defoe” (HTML), Robinson Crusoe (HTML), “Religion in Robinson Crusoe (HTML), and “Robinson Crusoe as Economic Man” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read these four articles by Dr. Melani for a brief biography of Defoe, an overview of Robinson Crusoe, and a discussion of religion and economics in the novel.

    Reading these articles should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Short Essay on Robinson Crusoe and Oroonoko Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Short Essay on Robinson Crusoe and Oroonoko (PDF)
     
    Instructions: Complete this assessment in which you will write a short essay of approximately 500–800 words that compares and contrasts Robinson Crusoe and Oroonoko as examples of the early novel. After you complete your short essay, or if you need guidance while answering the questions, check The Saylor Foundation’s “Guide to Responding” (PDF).
     
    Tips and Suggestions: If you have an ePortfolio account, then it may be beneficial to upload or link to your essay from the Work Samples section of your profile. In combination with the Study Groups function or the ENGL201 discussion forum, using your ePortfolio profile may be a good way to receive peer feedback on your written work. If you do not yet have an ePortfolio account, you can create one here, free of charge.
     
    Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

2.2 Sentimental Fiction: The Middle Class and the Novel   2.2.1 Theories and Cultural Contexts of Sentiment   - Reading: Adam Smith’s Excerpts from *Theory of Moral Sentiments* Link: Adam Smith’s Excerpts from Theory of Moral Sentiments (HTML)

 Instructions: Read Chapters 1 - 5 from part I of Adam Smith’s
*Theory of Moral Sentiments.* While best known for his economic
treatise, *The Wealth of Nations*, the Scottish philosopher Adam  

 Smith provided one of the most important and influential accounts
of moral sense philosophy of the 18<sup>th</sup> century. Moral
sense philosophy argued that humans are endowed with an innate moral
sense. Smith built on this work in considering how and why we
sympathize with others. Many literary and intellectual historians
have seen this philosophical emphasis on sympathy and moral feelings
as deeply connected to the contemporaneous rise of the sentimental
novel, as epitomized by the work of Samuel Richardson; see Subunit
2.2.2.  

 Reading these chapters should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.
  • Reading: The Open University: “The Enlightenment” Link: The Open University: “The Enlightenment” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read “Section 8.2: The Increased Status of Feelings” from the Open University’s course on the Enlightenment to help contextualize Smiths’ reading.

    Reading this section should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: The Victorian Web: George P. Landow’s “Emotionalist Moral Philosophy: Sympathy and the Moral Theory that Overthrew Kings” Link: The Victorian Web: George P. Landow’s “Emotionalist Moral Philosophy: Sympathy and the Moral Theory that Overthrew Kings” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read George P. Landow’s discussion of the philosophy of sympathy and sensibility during this era.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The Victorian Web article above has been reposted by the kind permission of George P. Landow from Brown University and can be viewed in its original form here.

2.2.2 Samuel Richardson’s *Pamela*   - Reading: Samuel Richardson’s Excerpts from *Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded* Link: Samuel Richardson’s Excerpts from Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (PDF)

 Also available in:  
 [Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=qV9FQIJogmYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=samuel+richardson+pamela&hl=en&ei=5mozTNfgNIH7lwe5ncW-Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false)  

[Kindle](http://www.amazon.com/PAMELA-UPDATED-LINKED-TOC-ebook/dp/B00295R13S/ref=tmm_kin_title_0?ie=UTF8&m=AG56TWVU5XWC2) ($1.05)  
 iBooks (free)  

 Instructions: Read the following sections of Richardson’s *Pamela,
or Virtue Rewarded:* Letters I - III, XXXI, and XXXII, and the
concluding journal entries for Tuesday and Friday. ** Epistolary in
form, Samuel Richardson’s *Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded* is the story
of a maid who maintains her virtue by repulsing the sexual advances
of an upper-class gentleman. Along with Defoe’s *Robinson Crusoe*,
it is often considered one of the first modern novels. Richardson’s
close attention to the feelings and motives of his characters
contributed significantly to the emergence of a new sub-genre, the
sensibility novel, later in the century.  

 Reading these sections should take approximately 3 hours  

 Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.
  • Reading: CUNY-Brooklyn: Dr. Lilia Melani’s "Samuel Richardson; Reputation of Clarissa Link: CUNY-Brooklyn: Dr. Lilia Melani’s “Samuel Richardson; Reputation of Clarissa (PDF)

    Instructions: Read Dr. Melani’s article, which provides commentary on Richardson and his most famous novel, the voluminous Clarissa.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The article above has been reposted by the kind permission of Dr. Lilia Melani from CUNY Brooklyn, and it can be viewed in its original form here. Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: L. Cazamian’s “Chapter I: Richardson” Link: The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: L. Cazamian’s “Chapter I: Richardson” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Sections 1 - 5, 9, and 10 of Chapter 1 from the classic Cambridge History, published at the beginning of the 20th century. While our critical perspectives have changed significantly since the Cambridge History’s publication, it still remains an important resource for basic information on literary history. 

    Reading these sections should take approximately 45 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain. 

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “Elements of Sentimentality in Richardson’s Pamela” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Elements of Sentimentality in Richardson’s Pamela” (PDF)

    Instructions: Complete the discussion questions relating to this subunit, and post your responses to the ENGL203 discussion forum. Review and respond to at least one or two other students’ posts. After you answer the discussion questions, or if you need guidance while answering the questions, check The Saylor Foundation’s “Guide to Responding” (PDF).

    Completing this activity should take approximately 30 minutes.

2.3 The Gothic Novel   2.3.1 What Is the Gothic? Issues of Genre, Trope, and Form   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “What Is the Gothic? Issues of Genre, Trope, and Form” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “What Is the Gothic? Issues of Genre, Trope, and Form” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this essay for an overview of the Gothic.  

 Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.

2.3.2 Antiquarianism and the Gothic Novel   - Reading: Horace Walpole’s *Castle of Otranto* Link: Horace Walpole’s Castle of Otranto (PDF)

 Instructions: Read Walpole’s *Castle of Otranto*, which is
considered the first of the Gothic novels. Its antiquarianism and
supernatural happenings would become hallmarks of the genre.  

 Reading this novel should take approximately 4 hours.     

 Terms of Use: This work is available in the public domain.
  • Reading: The Literary Gothic: Clifford J. Kurkowski’s “The Gothic Phenomenon in The Castle of Otranto: A Critical Essay” Link: The Literary Gothic: Clifford J. Kurkowski’s “The Gothic Phenomenon in The Castle of Otranto: A Critical Essay” (HTML)
     
    Instructions: Read Clifford Kurkowski’s brief essay on Gothic conventions in Walpole’s novel.
     
    Reading this essay should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use of the webpage above.

2.3.3 Theorizing the Pleasure of Terror and the Sublime   - Reading: Anna Aikin and John Aikin’s “On Pleasure Derived from Objects of Terror” Link: Anna Aikin and John Aikin’s “On Pleasure Derived from Objects of Terror” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this essay for an 18<sup>th</sup>-century
opinion of why Gothic literature appealed to readers.  

 Reading this essay should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.
  • Reading: Edmund Burke’s *A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful* Link: Edmund Burke’s A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this excerpt from Edmund Burke’s famous description of the sublime, an experience that combines the terrifying with the pleasurable.

    Reading this excerpt should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Theorizing Terror: The Aikins on Terror and Burke on the Sublime” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Theorizing Terror: The Aikins on Terror and Burke on the Sublime” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this essay for a brief overview of terror and the sublime, based on works by Burke and the Aikins, focusing on their significance.

    Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.

2.3.4 The Female Gothic: Ann Radcliffe   - Reading: Ann Radcliffe’s Excerpt from *The Mysteries of Udolpho* Link: Ann Radcliffe’s Excerpt from The Mysteries of Udolpho (PDF)

 Also available in:  
 [Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=CXvUWr9RDU4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=mysteries+of+udolpho&hl=en&ei=8mwzTL3SMsP7lwf6j_m-Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false)  
 iBooks (free)  

[Kindle](http://www.amazon.com/The-Mysteries-of-Udolpho-ebook/dp/B002RKRS06/ref=pd_sim_kinc_1?ie=UTF8&m=AG56TWVU5XWC2) (free)  

 Instructions: Read Chapter 5 and Chapter 6 from Volume II of *The
Mysteries of Udolpho*. Pay particular attention to the creation of a
Gothic architectural place in the descriptions of the castle.  
 *The Mysteries of Udolpho, an* archetypical Gothic novel, has a
complex plot that features the misfortunes of a damsel-in-distress
heroine, a number of supernatural and mysterious occurrences, and
the classic Gothic space: an old castle.  

 Reading these chapters should take approximately 2 hours.  

 Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain. 
  • Reading: CUNY-Brooklyn: Dr. Lilia Melani’s “The Gothic Experience” and “Ann Radcliffe” Link: CUNY-Brooklyn: Dr. Lilia Melani’s “The Gothic Experience” (PDF) and “Ann Radcliffe” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read Dr. Lilia Melani’s brief articles, “The Gothic Experience” and “Ann Radcliffe” for context on the author and her novel.

    Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: “Gothic Experience” and “Ann Radcliffe” have been reposted by the kind permission of Dr. Lilia Melani from CUNY Brooklyn, and they can be viewed in their original forms here and here, respectively. Please note that this material is under copyright and cannot be reproduced in any capacity without explicit permission from the copyright holder.

  • Reading: University of Virginia: “The Female Gothic: An Introduction” Link: University of Virginia: “The Female Gothic: An Introduction” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this introduction, which provides an overview of the gender politics found in Gothic novels. Then, click on each of the numbered sections from “Virgins in Distress and Demons in Disguise” through “Frankenstein: Birthing the New Female Gothic,” and read the various materials: an overview, some selections from gothic novels, and critical perspectives.

    Reading these sections should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 2: Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Short Answer Quiz on the Sentimental and the Gothic” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Short Answer Quiz on the Sentimental and the Gothic” (PDF)
 
Instructions: Complete this assessment in which you will respond to questions about the differences and similarities of the gothic and sentimental in short answers of approximately three to four sentences. After you complete this assessment, or if you need guidance while answering the questions, check The Saylor Foundation’s “Guide to Responding” (PDF).
 
Tips and Suggestions: If you have an ePortfolio account, then it may be beneficial to upload or link to your essay from the Work Samples section of your profile. In combination with the Study Groups function or the ENGL201 discussion forum, using your ePortfolio profile may be a good way to receive peer feedback on your written work. If you do not yet have an ePortfolio account, you can create one here, free of charge.
 
Completing this assessment should take approximately 30 minutes.