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ENGL203: Cultural and Literary Expression in the 18th and 19th Centuries

Unit 1: The Enlightenment and Restoration Literature   With the Restoration of the crown in 1660, a new era in English literature and politics began. While the Glorious Revolution of 1688 - 1689 firmly established Parliament’s superiority over the monarchy, writers responded to the end of Puritan rule by addressing previously proscribed materials - especially sexuality - often in increasingly secular terms. At the same time, the philosophical and scientific foundation of the Enlightenment­ - most notably the chartering of the Royal Society in 1662 and the writings of John Locke at the end of the century - appeared. During the century that followed, Enlightenment thinkers like Voltaire believed that one could use reason and rational thought to combat the forces of ignorance, tyranny, and repression that had come to be associated with the church and the absolutist monarchic government.

In this unit, you will study the development of neoclassical aesthetics and the renewal of the theater in the Restoration period before exploring the development of Enlightenment philosophy and its relationship to key literary developments of the first half of the 18th century from political satire to Alexander Pope’s famous mock-epic, The Rape of the Lock.

Unit 1 Time Advisory
Completing this unit should take you approximately 32 hours.

☐    Subunit 1.1: 12.75 hours

      ☐    Subunit 1.1.1: 2.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 1.1.2: 3.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 1.1.3: 6.75 hours

☐    Subunit 1.2: 5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 1.2.1: 2.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 1.2.2: 2 hours

      ☐    Subunit 1.2.3: 0.5 hours

☐    Subunit 1.3: 14.25 hours

      ☐    Subunit 1.3.1: 2.75 hours

      ☐    Subunit 1.3.2: 4.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 1.3.3: 1.5 hours

      ☐    Subunit 1.3.4: 5.5 hours

Unit1 Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: - trace the historical origins of the Enlightenment;
  - outline the major trends of philosophical thought in the Enlightenment period;
  - define and apply the terms mock epic, satire, and heroic couplet;
  - identify the key components of neoclassicism with reference to exemplary poetic works;
  - describe how the elevated language functions in Pope’s The Rape of the Lock;
  - explain the treatment of the upper classes in Congreve’s The Way of the World; and
  - explain the importance of reappearing classical motifs in Restoration literature.

1.1 Restoration Literature   1.1.1 The Restoration, the Glorious Revolution, and the Emergence of Parliamentary Democracy   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s: “The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s: “The Restoration and the Eighteenth Century” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this text as a short introduction to the
Restoration literary period.  

 Reading this section should take approximately 30 minutes.

1.1.2 John Dryden and the Emergence of English Neoclassicism   - Reading: The Victorian Web: “Neoclassicism: An Introduction” Link: The Victorian Web: “Neoclassicism: An Introduction” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this article for an introduction to
Neoclassicism. Pay particular attention to the account of
Neoclassicism’s main historical divisions and its leading tenets.   

 Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: A.W. Ward’s “Chapter I: Dryden” Link: The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: A.W. Ward’s “Chapter I: Dryden” (HTML)

    Instructions: As a further introduction to Dryden, read the following sections of A.W. Ward’s chapter on Dryden from the classic Cambridge History, published at the beginning of the 20th century: 1, 2, 5, 19, 23, and 34 - 37. While our critical perspectives have changed significantly since the Cambridge History’s publication, it still remains an important resource for basic information on literary history.

    Reading these sections should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

  • Reading: John Dryden’s Excerpts from *Annus Mirabilis* Link: John Dryden’s Excerpts from Annus Mirabilis (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the excerpts from Dryden’s Annus Mirabilis. Dryden was named poet laureate in 1668, and by post accounts, he was seen as the most important English poet and critic of the late 17th century. His various critical writingshelped to establish an English version of neoclassical poetics, a poetics on display in his poetry, as the leading theory of the age.

    In the selection from Annus Mirabilis, Dryden celebrates the rebuilding of London after the great fire of 1666, forecasting its renewal and future greatness. Pay attention to the poem’s thematic content - e.g., its references to trade and empire in its vision of London’s future; its form; its highly regular rhythm and rhyme; its controlled and classical allusions; and its figurative language.

    Reading these excerpts should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain. 

  • Reading: John Dryden’s “Mac Flecknoe” and “Alexander’s Feast” Link: John Dryden’s “Mac Flecknoe” (HTML) and “Alexander’s Feast” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Dryden’s poems, “Mac Flecknoe” and “Alexander’s Feast.” In “Mac Flecknoe,” Dryden produces one of the most famous mock-heroic satires of the era. As with other mock-heroic pieces, Dryden uses the heightened language of an epic to satirize his target, the poet Thomas Shadwell. “Alexander’s Feast” takes an episode from Alexander the Great’s history to meditate upon the power of music to move people’s emotions.    

    Studying these poems should take approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: These works are in the public domain.

  • Reading: LibriVox: Algy Pug’s “Dryden vs. Shadwell - A Poetic Duel” Link: LibriVox: Algy Pug’s “Dryden vs. Shadwell - A Poetic Duel” (HTML)

    Instructions: For more on “Mac Flecknoe” and the conflict, read this article, which provides an overview of Dryden and Shadwell’s poetic duel.

    Reading this article should take approximately 15 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Close Readings of John Dryden’s ‘Mac Flecknoe’ and ‘Alexander’s Feast’” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Close Readings of John Dryden’s ‘Mac Flecknoe’ and ‘Alexander’s Feast’” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this essay, which contains explications of “Mac Flecknoe” and “Alexander's Feast.” As you read, refer back to the poems as you work through the analyses.

    Reading this essay and referring back to the poems should take approximately 30 minutes.

1.1.3 Comedies of Manners   - Reading: William Congreve’s *The Way of the World* Link: William Congreve’s The Way of the World (PDF)

 *A*lso available in:  
 [Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=8g2PfBd210sC&printsec=frontcover&dq=william+congreve+way+of+the+world&hl=en&ei=ZWIzTIrYNMGblgeejL2_Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false)  
 iBooks (free)  
 [Kindle](http://www.amazon.com/Way-World-ebook/dp/B000FC1FL6) ($2.79)  

 Instructions: Read *The Way of the World* for an example of
18<sup>th</sup> century Restoration comedy. William Congreve’s witty
comedy-of-manners play features a startlingly complex plot and
memorable, epigrammatic dialogue as it explores the related issues
of love, power, and money. Pay attention to its frank depiction of
sexuality and its emphasis on the power dynamics of social life.   

 Reading this play should take approximately 4 hours.  

 Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.
  • Reading: The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: Felix E. Schelling’s “Chapter V: The Restoration Drama I” and Charles Whibley’s “Chapter VI: Restoration Drama II” Link: The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: Felix E. Schelling’s “Chapter V: The Restoration Drama I” (HTML) and Charles Whibley’s “Chapter VI: Restoration Drama II” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read “Chapter V: The Restoration Drama I” and “Chapter VI: Restoration Drama II.” These two chapters provide information about the development of 18th-century theater, which emerged out of the Restoration political context, as well as a thorough background on Restoration comedy.    

    Reading these chapters should take approximately 2 hours.
     
    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

  • Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “William Congreve’s The Way of the World and Restoration Drama” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “William Congreve’s The Way of the World and Restoration Drama” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read this essay for further discussion of Congreve’s play within its literary-historical context.

    Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “Comedies of Manners” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Comedies of Manners” (PDF)

    Instructions: Complete the discussion questions relating to this subunit, and post your responses to the ENGL203 discussion forum. Review and respond to one or two other students’ posts. After you answer the discussion questions, or if you need guidance while answering the questions, check The Saylor Foundation’s “Guide to Responding” (PDF).

    Completing this activity should take approximately 30 minutes. 

1.2 The Age of Enlightenment   1.2.1 What Is Enlightenment?   - Reading: The Open University: “The Enlightenment” Link: The Open University: “The Enlightenment” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the brief introduction on the Enlightenment.
Then, read the following three chapters: “Chapter 1: The
Enlightenment,” “Chapter 2: The Enlightenment and Its Mission,” and
“Chapter 3: Enlightenment, Science, and Empiricism.” As you read
these chapters, complete the four exercises interspersed within
them.  

 Reading these chapters and completing the exercises should take
approximately 1 hour and 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Immanuel Kant’s “What Is Enlightenment?” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Immanuel Kant’s “What Is Enlightenment?” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read Kant’s “What Is Enlightenment?” This piece comes from the end of the 18th century. Kant provides one of the most famous definitions of Enlightenment.

    Kant’s essay offers a counter-intuitive account of individual reason and its public use in terms of religious beliefs, defining public use in terms we might more readily see as private - the “use which a person makes of it as a scholar” - as opposed to its private use - “in a particular civil post or office” - which, according to Kant, may be restricted.

    Public reason, on the other hand, should be allowed full freedom, especially the realm of religion. This faith in reason culminates in Kant’s answer that the present is not an enlightened age, but it is an age of enlightenment, as many of the restrictions and limitations on the use of reason have been removed so that humankind may move beyond its “self-imposed tutelage.” 

    Reading this essay should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The material above was provided by the Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Permission has been granted for electronic copying and distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use but not commercial use. You can find the original version here.

  • Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet’s *The Future Progress of the Human Mind* Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de Condorcet’s The Future Progress of the Human Mind (PDF)

    Instructions: Read these excerpts from Condorcet’s The Future Progress of the Human Mind. This piece comes from the end of the 18th century. Condorcet offers a model of Enlightenment optimism’s faith in the human capacity to continue to approach perfection through the use of reason. Condorcet carries this faith in reason even further, prophesying the ever-increasing capacity of humankind to understand and dominate the world around him, epitomizing the Enlightenment as a whole.

    Reading these excerpts should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: The material above was provided by the Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Permission has been granted for electronic copying and distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use but not commercial use. You can find the original version here.

1.2.2 John Locke’s Empiricism, Political Liberalism, and the Roots of the Enlightenment in 17th-Century Thought   - Reading: Washington State University: Paul Brians’s “The Enlightenment” Link: Washington State University: Paul Brians’s “The Enlightenment” (HTML)

 Instructions: Read this study guide for an overview of the
Enlightenment.  

 Reading this study guide should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: “John Locke” Link: Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: “John Locke” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read this article for biographical information on the life and writings of John Locke.

    Reading this article should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: John Locke’s Excerpts from *An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Second Treatise of Government* Link: John Locke’s Excerpts from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (HTML) and Second Treatiseof Government (HTML); 

    Also available in:
    PDF (in a version by Jonathan Bennett via www.earlymoderntexts.com)
    Google Books
     
    Instructions: Read the selections from Locke’s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding,and then read Chapters 1 - 3 of Locke’s Second Treatise of Government. When reading these excerpts from Locke, keep in mind Brians’s overview as well as the information on the Enlightenment from Subunit 1.2.1.

    In Locke’s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, he offers one of the most famous accounts of his empiricist epistemology: the idea that all knowledge derives from experience, the starting position for much Enlightenment thought. In particular, he describes the mind as a tabula rasa, as a blank slate, upon which experience inscribes itself, creating knowledge. This emphasis on the experiential nature of knowledge served to reinforce developing defenses of scientific knowledge and to provide a foundation for the Enlightenment’s project of questioning all pre-established claims to knowledge. At the same time, this emphasis on the individual’s sensual experience of the world as the basis of knowledge came to frame critiques of the Enlightenment project from within and without, including Romanticism’s subjectivism.

    In Second Treatise (1689), John Locke articulates his theories of natural law and natural right, arguing that government is natural and necessary, as long as it maintains popular consent. Locke’s ideas have been seen as defending the Glorious Revolution and as providing the theoretical groundwork for the revolutions of the late 18th century with their emphasis on individual liberty and on government deriving its powers from the people.  

    Reading these selections should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: Locke’s An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Second Treatise of Government are both in the public domain. 

1.2.3 The Scientific Revolution and the Concept of a Rational Universe   - Reading: The Saylor Foundation’s “Philosophy of Science and the Scientific Method” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Philosophy of Science and the Scientific Method” (PDF)

 Instructions: Read this essay for an overview of the development of
science in the 17<sup>th</sup> and 18<sup>th</sup> centuries, which
discusses the origins of the Enlightenment and the emergence of
philosophers like Francis Bacon and Descartes.  
  

 Reading this essay should take approximately 15 minutes.

1.3 18th-Century Literature and the Development of the Public Sphere   - Lecture: YouTube: Yale University: John Merriman’s “The Enlightenment and the Public Sphere” Link: YouTube: Yale University: John Merriman’s “The Enlightenment and the Public Sphere” (YouTube)
 
Instructions: Watch this video lecture to learn about the Enlightenment and the public sphere.

 Watching this video lecture and taking notes should take
approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.

1.3.1 Coffee House Culture and *Spectator*   - Reading: Excerpt from Spectator, Volume 1 (1711) Link: Excerpt from Spectator, Volume 1 (1711) (PDF)

 Also available in:  
 [Google
Books](http://books.google.com/books?id=5YM6AAAAMAAJ&pg=PR9&dq=addison+spectator+vol+1&hl=en&ei=G1gzTJHZBYXGlQejj_W9Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false)  

 Instructions: Read entry “No. 1” from *Spectator*, an
18<sup>th</sup>-century periodical intended to promote Enlightenment
thought by circulating ideas that could be read by the masses.  

 Reading this entry should take approximately 30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.
  • Reading: The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: Harold Routh’s “Chapter II: Steele and Addison” Link: The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: Harold Routh’s “Chapter II: Steele and Addison” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the following sections to learn about the background and significance of Addison and Steele’s Spectator: 1, 4 - 6, 8, 16 - 21, and 24.

    Reading these sections should take approximately 1 hour.

    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

  • Reading: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: “The First English Coffee Houses” Link: Fordham University’s Internet Modern History Sourcebook: “The First English Coffee-Houses” (PDF)

    Instructions: Read the selection on coffee-house culture and the development of a modern public sphere in early 18th-century London. This text provides a background on the social atmosphere of the time. 

    Reading this selection should take approximately 15 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: The reading above is available for viewing in the public domain.

1.3.2 Alexander Pope and the Intersection of Neoclassicism and the Enlightenment   - Reading: The Victorian Web: David Cody’s “Alexander Pope: A Brief Biography”, “The Mock Epic as Genre”, and “Heroic Couplet: A Brief Introduction”: David Cody and George Landow’s “Satire”; and George Landow’s “Wit”, “Narrators, Masks, and Speakers in Satire”, and “The Rhetorical Organization of the Heroic Couplet” Link: The Victorian Web: David Cody’s “Alexander Pope: A Brief Biography” (HTML), “The Mock Epic as Genre (HTML), and “Heroic Couplet: A Brief Introduction (HTML); David Cody and George Landow’s “Satire (HTML); and George Landow’s “Wit (HTML); “Narrators, Masks, and Speakers in Satire (HTML); and “The Rhetorical Organization of the Heroic Couplet (HTML)

 Instructions: Read the brief biography on Alexander Pope and the
related essays on the mock epic, satire, and the heroic couplet*.*
These essays help to supply the literary context for understanding
Pope’s contributions to these forms.  

 Reading these texts should take approximately 1 hour.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpages above.
  • Reading: The Victorian Web: David Cody’s “Pope’s Sources and Influences,” “Alexander Pope’s ‘Essay on Criticism:’ An Introduction,” and “Alexander Pope’s ‘Essay on Man:’ An Introduction” Link: The Victorian Web: David Cody’s “Pope’s Sources and Influences” (HTML), “Alexander Pope’s ‘Essay on Criticism:’ An Introduction” (HTML), and “Alexander Pope’s ‘Essay on Man:’ An Introduction” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read these three articles for an overview of Pope’s influences and explications of “Essay on Criticism” and “Essay on Man.”

    Reading these articles should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Alexander Pope’s Rape of the Lock, “Essay on Man,” and “Essay on Criticism” Link: Alexander Pope’s Rape of the Lock  (HTML), “Essay on Man” (HTML), and “Essay on Criticism” (HTML)

    Also available in:
    Google Books - Rape of the Lock
    ePub and Kindle - Rape of the Lock
    ePub and Kindle - Essay on Man

    Instructions: Read the Rape of the Lock. Read the first two epistles of Pope’s “Essay on Man” and Part 1 of his “Essay on Criticism.”  

    Alexander Pope was generally considered the greatest English poet of the 18th century, and he achieved great fame and influence (and was the target of much criticism) during his lifetime. He was best known for his neoclassical verse, his extensive use of the heroic couplet - two rhymed lines of iambic pentameter - his satiric wit, and his poetic essays, which espouse both neoclassical theory and Enlightenment ideals.

    In his famous mock-epic, The Rape of the Lock, Alexander Pope satirizes a frivolous quarrel between two wealthy families, poking fun but also astounding readers with his metrical finesse and creativity. In his “Essay on Criticism,” for example, he puts forward the neoclassical idea that the rules of art discovered by classical writers are true, for they are true to nature: “Those rules of old discover’d, not devis’d,/ Are Nature still, but Nature methodis’d; / Nature, like liberty, is but restrain’d / By the same laws which first herself ordain’d.” Poetry should be true to nature, of course, but the great poets of the past have already “discover’d, not devis’d” laws in keeping with nature, laws they have “methodis’d” so that we can better follow nature. At the beginning of the second epistle of his “Essay on Man,” Pope offers one of the quintessential statements of the Enlightenment’s focus on this world and on discovering and manipulating the way it works: “Know, then, thyself, presume God not to scan;/ The proper study of mankind is man.” Instead of focusing on metaphysical questions or emphasizing humankind’s relationship to God, Pope contends that it is mankind’s place to study oneself and the world we inhabit. The 18th century would come to be characterized as the Enlightenment for this very emphasis of the use of reason to dispel previously accepted ideas and problems based in religion and tradition.

    Reading these excerpts from Pope’s works should take approximately 2 hours.

    Terms of Use: These works are in the public domain.

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Montgomery County Community College: Dr. Catherine Carsley’s “Understanding Pope’s Heroic Couplet” Link: iTunes U: Montgomery County Community College: Dr. Catherine Carsley’s “Understanding Pope’s Heroic Couplet” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Locate the lecture titled “Week 13 Understanding Pope’s Heroic Couplet,” and select “View in iTunes” to access the lecture. Listen to Dr. Carsley’s lecture and study the lecture slides to gain a greater understanding of Pope’s use of the heroic couplet.

    Listening, taking notes, and studying the lecture slides should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Activity: The Saylor Foundation’s “Satire: Horation Roots and Enlightenment Applications” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Satire: Horation Roots and Enlightenment Applications” (PDF)

    Instructions: Complete the discussion questions relating to this subunit, and post your responses to the ENGL203 discussion forum. Review and respond to at least one or two other students’ posts. After you answer the discussion questions, or if you need guidance while answering the questions, check The Saylor Foundation’s “Guide to Responding” (PDF).

    Completing this activity should take approximately 30 minutes.

1.3.3 Wit and Satire in Political Writing and Print Culture   - Reading: The Victorian Web: David Cody’s “Jonathan Swift: A Brief Biography” and “‘A Modest Proposal’: An Introduction” Links: The Victorian Web: David Cody’s “Jonathan Swift: A Brief Biography (HTML) and “‘A Modest Proposal’: An Introduction (HTML)
 
Instructions: Read Professor Cody’s short biography of Swift and his introduction to Swift’s famous satirical essay. In reading these materials, you may want to review the essays on satire from the previous unit.
 
Reading these essays will take approximately 30 minutes.

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Jonathan Swift’s “A Modest Proposal” Link: Jonathan Swift’s “A Modest Proposal” (PDF) 

    Also available in:
    Google Books
     
    Instructions: Read Swift’s short essay “A Modest Proposal,” an example of political satire directed at the British upper class and British imperial activity in Ireland. 

    Reading this essay should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain. 

  • Lecture: iTunes U: Montgomery County Community College: Dr. Catherine Carsley’s “Swift, Satire, and the Enlightenment” Link: iTunes U: Montgomery County Community College: Dr. Catherine Carsley’s “Swift, Satire, and the Enlightenment” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Locate the lecture titled “Week 12 Swift, Satire, and the Enlightenment,” and select “View in iTunes” to access the lecture. Listen to Dr. Carsley’s lecture and study the lecture slides to learn about satire in the Enlightenment with a focus on Swift’s work.

    Listening, taking notes, and studying the lecture slides should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

1.3.4 Samuel Johnson and Late 18th-Century Neoclassicism   - Reading: The Victorian Web: David Cody’s “Samuel Johnson: An Introduction” and “Samuel Johnson: A Brief Biography,” “Introduction to ‘The Vanity of Human Wishes’” and “An Introduction to Rasselas Link: The Victorian Web: David Cody’s “Samuel Johnson: An Introduction” (HTML), “Samuel Johnson: A Brief Biography” (HTML), “Introduction to ‘The Vanity of Human Wishes’” (HTML), and “An Introduction to Rasselas (HTML)

 Instructions: Samuel Johnson was one of the most prominent literary
figures of late 18<sup>th</sup>-century England. Best known now for
his *Dictionary of the English Language*, Johnson continued the
neoclassicism of the earlier part of the century. Read the
introduction to Johnson and the brief biography. Then, read the
introductions to “The Vanity of Human Wishes” and *The History of
Rasselas.*  

 Reading the biography and introductions should take approximately
30 minutes.  

 Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use
displayed on the webpage above.
  • Reading: Samuel Johnson’s “The Vanity of Human Wishes” Link: Samuel Johnson’s “The Vanity of Human Wishes” (HTML)

    Instructions: Read Johnson’s poem, “The Vanity of Human Wishes.”

    Studying and reading this poem should take approximately 30 minutes.

    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

  • Reading: Rutgers University: Jack Lynch (ed.)’s Preface to Samuel Johnson’s *A Dictionary of the English Language and The History of Rasselas* Link: Rutgers University: Jack Lynch (ed.)’s Preface to Samuel Johnson’s A Dictionary of the English Language (HTML) and The History of Rasselas (HTML)

    Instructions: Read the preface to A Dictionary of the English Language, edited by Jack Lynch. Then, read Johnson’s prose fable. When reading these materials, please make use of the introductions to these resources in this subunit to inform your reading.

    Reading the preface and fable should take approximately 4 hours.

    Terms of Use: This work is in the public domain.

  • Reading: iTunes U: Montgomery County Community College: Dr. Catherine Carsley’s “Dr. Johnson, Professional Critic” Link: iTunes U: Montgomery County Community College: Dr. Catherine Carsley’s “Dr. Johnson, Professional Critic” (iTunes U)
     
    Instructions: Locate the lecture titled “Week 14 Dr. Johnson, Professional Critic,” and select “View in iTunes” to access the lecture via iTunes. Listen to Dr. Carsley’s lecture and view the lecture slides to learn about Samuel Johnson’s role in professionalizing literary criticism.

    Listening and taking notes on this lecture should take approximately 30 minutes.
     
    Terms of Use: Please respect the copyright and terms of use displayed on the webpage above.

Unit 1: Assessment   - Assessment: The Saylor Foundation’s “Short Essay on Eighteenth-Century Literature” Link: The Saylor Foundation’s “Short Essay on Eighteenth-Century Literature” (PDF)

 Instructions: Complete this assessment in which you will write a
short essay of approximately 500 - 800 words, after selecting one of
the offered prompts. After you complete your short essay, or if you
need guidance while answering the questions, check The Saylor
Foundation’s [“Guide to
Responding”](http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/ENGL203-Guide-to-Responding-to-Assessments.pdf)
(PDF).  
    
 Tips and Suggestions: If you have an ePortfolio account, then it
may be beneficial to upload or link to your essay from the Work
Samples section of your profile. In combination with the Study
Groups function or the ENGL201 discussion forum, using your
ePortfolio profile may be a good way to receive peer feedback on
your written work. If you do not yet have an ePortfolio account, you
can create one [here](http://eportfolio.saylor.org/), free of
charge.  

 Completing this assessment should take approximately 1 hour and 30
minutes.